Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Martin County, Minnesota
Martin County is a county located in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,840, its county seat is Fairmont. Martin County was named for a pioneer settler. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 730 square miles, of which 712 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water. Amber Lake: in Fairmont Township Big Twin Lake: in Elm Creek Township Bright Lake: in Tenhassen Township Budd Lake: in Fairmont Township Buffalo Lake: Cedar Township Buffalo Lake: there is another Buffalo lake in Rutland Township Canright Lake: in Rutland Township Cedar Lake: western part of the northern lake is in Cedar Township; the population density was 31 people per square mile. There were 9,800 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.22% White, 0.25% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.26% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races. 1.93% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
51.6 % were of 11.9 % Norwegian, 5.9 % Swedish and 5.0 % English ancestry. There were 9,067 households out of which 29.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.60% were married couples living together, 7.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.30% were non-families. 30.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.80% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 24.90% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 19.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 95.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,810, the median income for a family was $44,541. Males had a median income of $30,467 versus $21,780 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,529.
About 7.10% of families and 10.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.10% of those under age 18 and 9.00% of those age 65 or over. East Chain Fox Lake Imogene Nashville Center Wilbert National Register of Historic Places listings in Martin County, Minnesota William H. Budd, History of Martin County: A True and Complete History of the County from its Earliest Settlement Down to 1880. Fairmont, MN: The Independent, 1897. Roscoe C. Hunt, "Pioneer Physicians of Martin County Prior to 1900," Minnesota Medicine, vol. 25, no. 10 and vol. 25, no. 11. Ray F. Kesler, Service Record Book of Men and Women of World War II, Martin County. Fairmont, MN: n.p. n.d.. Martin County Historical Society, Martin County, 1857-1932: Diamond Jubilee Celebration and Homecoming, Minnesota, June 26 to July 4, 1932. Fairmont, MN: Martin County Historical Society, 1932. Martin County Home Council, Martin County's Heritage. Fairmont, MN.: Martin County Extension Home Council, 1972-1976. Allen L Moore, Historical Narrative of Martin County, Before 1850.
Fairmont, MN: Martin County Historical Society, 1932. Arthur M. Nelson, Know Your Own County: A History of Martin County, Minnesota. Fairmont, MN: Martin County Historical Society, 1947. Arthur M. Nelson, Martin County Men in the Great War, 1917-1919. Fairmont, MN: Sentinel Publishing Co. 1920. Sentinel, A Pictorial History of M
Minnesota's 1st congressional district
Minnesota's 1st congressional district extends across southern Minnesota from the border with South Dakota to the border with Wisconsin. The First District is a rural district built on a strong history of agriculture, although this is changing due to strong population growth in Rochester and surrounding communities; the First District is home to several of Minnesota's major mid-sized cities, including Rochester, Winona, Owatonna, Albert Lea, New Ulm, Worthington. This district is represented by Republican Jim Hagedorn of Blue Earth. From early statehood until the latest redistricting after the 2000 census, the first district covered only southeast Minnesota. During the 20th century it was considered solidly Republican, though in recent years this is changing. In 2004, John Kerry received 48% of the vote in this Congressional district. Two years in 2006, Republican Representative Gil Gutknecht was defeated by Democrat Tim Walz. In March 2017, Walz announced that he would not run for reelection to Congress, instead would run for governor of Minnesota.
The district leans Republican with a CPVI of R + 5. Minnesota's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Dakota County, Minnesota
Dakota County is the third-most populous county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 398,552; the county seat is Hastings. Dakota County is named for the Dakota Sioux tribal bands; the name is recorded as "Dahkotah" in the United States Census records until 1851. Dakota County is included in the Minneapolis–St. Paul–Bloomington, MN–WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the United States with about 3.3 million residents. The county is bordered by the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers on the north, the state of Wisconsin on the east; the county was the site of historical events at Mendota that defined the state's future, including providing materials for the construction of Fort Snelling across the river and the signing of the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux which ceded land from the native Dakota nation for the Minnesota Territory. The county's history was tied to the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers, both strategically important for United States expansion and as the convergence of the Dakota and Ojibwe nations who regarded the site as sacred.
Influence shifted westward during the post-World War II settlement boom when Interstate 35 connected the western half of the county to Minneapolis and Saint Paul and bedroom communities grew. Most work outside the county but like many metro counties, Dakota continues to absorb industry and jobs from the core cities. In the 1600s, Mdewakanton Dakota fled their ancestral home of Mille Lacs Lake in northern Minnesota in response to westward expansion of the Ojibway nation. According to Dakota tradition, their ancestors pushed out the Iowa who were found settled at the mouth of the Minnesota River. In 1680, the Mdewakanton Dakota were contacted by French explorer Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, the Mendota band of the Mdewakanton south of the Minnesota River were contacted by Joseph Nicollet in the 18th century. While Taoyateduta led the Mendota in northern Dakota County, upstream to the southwest, Chief Black Dog established his village of 600 people around 1750 at the isthmus between Black Dog Lake and the Minnesota River, near the present site of the Black Dog Power Plant.
Following the published expeditions of explorers, in 1805, Zebulon Pike negotiated for military territory with the Mendota band which included land in Dakota County at the Mississippi River confluences with the Minnesota and St. Croix Rivers. In 1819, on what is now Picnic Island on the south bank of the Minnesota River, Colonel Henry Leavenworth built a stockade fort called "St. Peter's Cantonment" or "New Hope," where materials were assembled for the construction of Fort Snelling to be built on the bluff on the north bank. Permanent settlement on the island was impossible due to annual flooding. Alexis Bailey built some log buildings nearby to trade in furs in 1826. Henry Hastings Sibley built the first stone house in Minnesota in 1836, overlooking Fort Snelling. Sibley was a partner in the American Fur Company, considerable fur trade occurred at Mendota due to the accessibility of the confluence. Ongoing United States expansion into the "Northwest Territory" led to government purchase of land from the Dakota people via the Treaty of St. Peters and the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux in 1851. and the Treaty of Mendota.
After the Minnesota Territory was established in 1849, Dakotah County spanned from the Mississippi River to the Missouri River. By the time Minnesota achieved statehood in 1858, power and influence had shifted from Mendota, across the rivers to Saint Paul and Minneapolis. By 1900, the hub of activity in the county was in Hastings, the county seat, a focal point of transportation and commerce. St. Peter's, now Mendota, had lost out to Fort Snelling. Hastings is located on the Mississippi River at the confluence of the St. Croix River and on the Vermillion River, which provided ample water power. Lumber and railroads provided good incomes. During this time, the stockyards and meat-packing plants in South Saint Paul became the world's largest stockyards. Ranchers in the west shipped their livestock to St. Louis and New Orleans; these plants were worked by immigrants from Romania and other Eastern European countries. The rest of the county remained agricultural during the boom of milling activity north of the Minnesota River due to lack of bridge connections.
Rail access came in 1866 via the Chicago, St. Paul and Omaha Railroad which shipped grain to millers; the Minneapolis St. Paul Rochester and Dubuque Electric Traction Company line in 1905, was primary for passengers going to resorts in Burnsville and Lakeville. By the 1950s, population growth shifted to western Dakota county, predominantly Irish and Scottish extending southward toward the Scandinavians of Southern Minnesota; as population pressures expanded south from Minneapolis and Bloomington, the completion of Interstate 35W and 35E brought about major construction in the post-World War II period, turning villages into cities within 20 years. Burnsville, Apple Valley and Lakeville brought over 200,000 people into the county by the end of the century; the Western and Northern Service Centers were constructed in the early 1990s each with an additional courthouse location. License centers were subsequently set up in Lakeville. Though pressure remained since the postwar boom to move the county seat to a larger community, the Dakota County Board maintained the seat in Hastings, while providing government services across the county.
The history of the county is well-illustrated by the Registered Hi
Watonwan County Courthouse
The Watonwan County Courthouse in St. James, United States, is the seat of government for Watonwan County, in continual use since it was completed in 1896, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1987 for having state-level significance in the themes of architecture and politics/government. It was nominated for its exemplary Romanesque Revival architecture, its status as one of Minnesota's remaining monumental Victorian courthouses and as a local landmark, its longstanding service as county seat; when Watonwan County was created in 1860, the city of Madelia was designated the county seat and a courthouse was built there around 1861. As St. James—a more centrally located community and a division headquarters for the Chicago, St. Paul and Omaha Railway—grew, a heated battle for county seat status erupted between the two cities; when the original wood-frame courthouse burned down in 1872, Madelia officials hastily leased space in a completed commercial building—Flanders' Block—to avoid losing county seat status.
However St. James interests petitioned for a vote on the matter and in 1874 voters approved the move; the first courthouse in St. James was a wood-frame structure built on land donated by the railroad. A new courthouse, the present building, was designed by Mankato architect H. C. Gerlach and built by Mankato contractor Otto Kleinschmidt from 1895 to 1896; the building served as a show of government strength and traditional values in a city, only 25 years old. It is monumental in size and design, a county-wide survey of historic properties identified it as one of the most architecturally significant Victorian buildings in the county. List of county courthouses in Minnesota National Register of Historic Places listings in Watonwan County, Minnesota Watonwan County District Court