The volt is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference, electromotive force. It is named after the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta. One volt is defined as the difference in electric potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points, it is equal to the potential difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced 1 meter apart that create an electric field of 1 newton per coulomb. Additionally, it is the potential difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it, it can be expressed in terms of SI base units as V = potential energy charge = J C = kg ⋅ m 2 A ⋅ s 3. It can be expressed as amperes times ohms, watts per ampere, or joules per coulomb, equivalent to electronvolts per elementary charge: V = A ⋅ Ω = W A = J C = eV e; the "conventional" volt, V90, defined in 1987 by the 18th General Conference on Weights and Measures and in use from 1990, is implemented using the Josephson effect for exact frequency-to-voltage conversion, combined with the caesium frequency standard.
For the Josephson constant, KJ = 2e/h, the "conventional" value KJ-90 is used: K J-90 = 0.4835979 GHz μ V. This standard is realized using a series-connected array of several thousand or tens of thousands of junctions, excited by microwave signals between 10 and 80 GHz. Empirically, several experiments have shown that the method is independent of device design, measurement setup, etc. and no correction terms are required in a practical implementation. In the water-flow analogy, sometimes used to explain electric circuits by comparing them with water-filled pipes, voltage is likened to difference in water pressure. Current is proportional to the amount of water flowing at that pressure. A resistor would be a reduced diameter somewhere in the piping and a capacitor/inductor could be likened to a "U" shaped pipe where a higher water level on one side could store energy temporarily; the relationship between voltage and current is defined by Ohm's law. Ohm's Law is analogous to the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, as both are linear models relating flux and potential in their respective systems.
The voltage produced by each electrochemical cell in a battery is determined by the chemistry of that cell. See Galvanic cell § Cell voltage. Cells can be combined in series for multiples of that voltage, or additional circuitry added to adjust the voltage to a different level. Mechanical generators can be constructed to any voltage in a range of feasibility. Nominal voltages of familiar sources: Nerve cell resting potential: ~75 mV Single-cell, rechargeable NiMH or NiCd battery: 1.2 V Single-cell, non-rechargeable: alkaline battery: 1.5 V. Some antique vehicles use 6.3 volts. Electric vehicle battery: 400 V when charged Household mains electricity AC: 100 V in Japan 120 V in North America, 230 V in Europe, Asia and Australia Rapid transit third rail: 600–750 V High-speed train overhead power lines: 25 kV at 50 Hz, but see the List of railway electrification systems and 25 kV at 60 Hz for exceptions. High-voltage electric power transmission lines: 110 kV and up Lightning: Varies often around 100 MV.
In 1800, as the result of a professional disagreement over the galvanic response advocated by Luigi Galvani, Alessandro Volta developed the so-called voltaic pile, a forerunner of the battery, which produced a steady electric current. Volta had determined that the most effective pair of dissimilar metals to produce electricity was zinc and silver. In 1861, Latimer Clark and Sir Charles Bright coined the name "volt" for the unit of resistance. By 1873, the British Association for the Advancement of Science had defined the volt and farad. In 1881, the International Electrical Congress, now the International Electrotechnical Commission, approved the volt as the unit for electromotive force, they made the volt equal to 108 cgs units of voltage
Michael David Rann, is an Australian former politician, the 44th Premier of South Australia from 2002 to 2011. He accepted a professorship at Flinders University and a visiting fellowship at University of Auckland in 2012, was Australian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom from 2013 to 2014, was Australia's Ambassador to Italy, Albania and San Marino and as Australia's Permanent Representative to the United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization and World Food Programme from 2014 to 2016. Among several other honours, Rann was appointed a Companion of the Order of Australia in the 2016 Australia Day Honours. Rann succeeded Lynn Arnold as leader of the South Australian Branch of the Australian Labor Party and South Australian Leader of the Opposition in 1994. Rann led Labor to minority government at the 2002 election, before attaining a landslide win at the 2006 election; the Rann Government was elected to a third four-year term at the 2010 election, retaining majority government despite a swing − giving Labor a record 12 years in government.
He resigned as Premier in October 2011 after a year of poor opinion polling saw him lose party support and was succeeded by Jay Weatherill. Rann is the third-longest serving Premier of South Australia behind Thomas Playford IV and John Bannon − the third-longest serving Leader of the Opposition from 1994 to 2002 behind Mick O'Halloran and Robert Richards − and served a record 17 years as South Australian Labor parliamentary leader from 1994 to 2011, he was a South Australian MP in the House of Assembly from the 1985 election and Father of the House from the 2010 election until his parliamentary resignation on 13 January 2012. The Labor government Rann led, through Weatherill, became the longest-serving South Australian Labor government and the second longest-serving South Australian government behind the Playmander-assisted Thomas Playford IV. Aside from Playford, the 2014 election was the second time that any party has won four consecutive state elections in South Australia, the first occurred when Don Dunstan led Labor to four consecutive victories between the 1970 election and the 1977 election.
Following the 2014 election, Labor went from minority to majority government when Nat Cook won the 2014 Fisher by-election by five votes from a 7.3 percent two-party swing. Achievements of the Rann Government include job numbers raised and unemployment lowered, funding increased for health and education, the expansion of mining and defence industries, investment in wind power in South Australia making it the leader of wind power in Australia, funding increased for new projects including: the Adelaide tram extension and new vehicle purchase, commencement of the rail electrification of Adelaide's train lines, construction commencement of the new Royal Adelaide Hospital, redevelopment of the Adelaide Oval, expansion of the Adelaide Convention Centre, upgrade of the River Torrens Riverbank precinct, construction of the Port Stanvac Desalination Plant, the undertaking of various major road works including major upgrades to the North–South Corridor and South Road, aiming to be stop-free by 2030 for over 100 km from Old Noarlunga in the outer southern metropolitan Adelaide suburbs through to Nuriootpa in the inner northern rural area around the Barossa Valley, such as construction of the Anzac Highway underpass and construction commencement of the elevated North-South Motorway/South Road Superway, construction of the Port River Expressway and Northern Expressway, the upgrade of the Sturt Highway, the duplication and expansion of the Southern Expressway and plans for the construction of the Northern Connector to join up the Superway and Expressway.
His government introduced Adelaide's Thinker in Residence program. South Australia achieved a AAA credit rating under the Rann Labor government, prompting Business SA chief executive Peter Vaughan to praise Labor's economic management. Rann was the most popular Premier in the country, with his approach to government moderate and crisis-free. Following the 2006 election landslide where Labor was re-elected with a historic 56.8 percent two-party-preferred vote, Newspoll early in 2007 saw Rann peak at a historic 64 percent Preferred Premier rating with a historic 61 percent Labor two-party-preferred vote. University of Adelaide Professor of Politics Clem Macintyre said that after John Bannon and the State Bank collapse, Rann had to re-establish Labor's credentials as an economic manager as a matter of urgency, "in that sense Rann had a whole lot of priorities to concentrate on that Don Dunstan didn't think about", with a legacy built on economic achievements, achieving the triple-A credit rating, as well as its capacity to deliver infrastructure projects.
Rann was born in Kent. His father was an electrician who had served at El Alamein in World War II, his mother was employed in an armaments factory. Most of Rann's childhood was spent in the care of his father in South London. In 1962, when he was nine, his family emigrated from Blackfen to Mangakino, a small town north of Taupo on the Waikato River in New Zealand, his family moved to Matamata to Birkenhead on Auckland's North Shore where he attended Northcote College. He completed a Master of Arts in political science at the University of Auckland, he was Vice President of the New Zealand Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and editor of the student newspaper Craccum. As a member of Princes Street Labour, he spent considerable time working on New Zealand Labour Party campaigns including that of Mike Moore. After university, Rann was a political journalist for the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation. Haydon Manning has stated that "it was reported that" Rann "struggled with being an objective reporter".
Edithburgh is a small town on the south-east corner of Yorke Peninsula in the Australian state of South Australia. Edithburgh is about 50 km west of Adelaide across Gulf St Vincent. At the 2016 census, the locality had a population of 516. Edithburgh is in the Yorke Peninsula Council, the South Australian House of Assembly electoral district of Narungga and the Australian House of Representatives Division of Grey. In the Narangga language of the indigenous Narungga people, Edithburgh was known by the place name Pararmarati; some sources give the pronunciation'Barram-marrat-tee'. The first European pioneers were sheep graziers and pastoralists. With closer settlement, in 1869 the Marine Board fixed a site for a jetty to service the developing farming district. An adjacent town was surveyed, the layout emulating that of Adelaide, with a belt of parklands. Edithburgh was named by Governor Sir James Fergusson after his wife Edith; the new jetty opened in 1873. Edithburgh developed as a port for servicing the pastoralist pioneers.
In the 1870s grain farming became a mainstay of the local economy, which it still is. At the turn of the 20th Century additional industries were established in the form of gypsum mining and salt refining. There are vast salt lakes in the area, from which salt was exported as far as Russia. Among those refineries was the Standard Salt Company, operated by C. T. McGlew; the jetty became a busy hub for exporting these commodities, as well as unloading supplies. Nowadays the jetty is used for recreational fishing and is a popular scuba diving site. There is a small fishing and prawning fleet based there; the town is now overshadowed by the 55 wind turbines of the Wattle Point Wind Farm, located southwest of the town and opened in April 2005. Occupying a commanding position on the coastline at semi-circular Salt Creek Bay, Edithburgh is noted for its magnificent seascapes which include steep rocky cliffs and sandy beaches. Troubridge Island can be seen offshore; as a result, tourism is now a growth industry.
It is a popular holiday destination with a variety of accommodation types available including a caravan park. The Troubridge Hotel and the Edithburgh Hotel sit diagonally opposite each other at the intersection of Blanche and Edith Streets, both named after Governor Fergusson's daughters. For those who prefer not to swim in the open sea, the town has a unique seawater swimming pool constructed at the shoreline, its sheltered waters are refreshed with each rising tide. Many divers and marine conservationists list Edithburgh jetty as one of South Australia's premier shore-dive locations. Access is easy thanks to steps on southern sides of the structure; the jetty is 170 m in length. The jetty is supported by pylons in groups of four. Divers and snorkellers can safely and observe dense, multi-coloured colonies of temperate corals and sponges on the jetty pylons; the pylons provide refuges for various fish, crustacea and other marine invertebrates. Several of the state's iconic marine species can be seen beneath or near the jetty, including the Leafy sea dragon and the Striped pyjama squid.
The maximum dive depth is 10–12 m and site is rewarding for visitors of all experience levels. In December 2013, maintenance works were conducted at the Edithburgh jetty by a contractor working for the local council. An estimated 50 jetty pylons were removed from the periphery of the jetty, they pulled up from the substrate. This resulted in an immediate loss of habitat and marine life, upsetting many members of the scuba diving and marine conservation community. Jetty pylons had been assessed some years prior by the State Government's Department of Transport and Infrastructure and identified as a public liability risk. Impacts to the marine environment or the site's iconic status as a dive tourism hotspot do not appear to have been considered by DPTI or the local council. Recreational divers from M. E. Dive Club witnessed the early works and arranged a group of divers to informally assess the damage the following weekend; the pylon removal works were not publicly advertised nor was the dive or tourism community consulted on the works.
The Scuba Divers Federation of South Australia and the Marine Life Society of South Australia both responded to the issue by drafting letters to responsible Government bodies. List of cities and towns in South Australia Notes Citations Edithburgh travel guide from Wikivoyage Edithburgh Jetty travel guide from Wikivoyage Yorke Peninsula: Edithburgh
Hornsdale Wind Farm
The Hornsdale Wind Farm is an electricity generator in the locality of Hornsdale in the south-west of the Narien Range, north of Jamestown, South Australia. It consists of 99 wind turbines with a generation capacity of 315 megawatts; the plant is operated by Neoen, a French renewable energy company. The infobox includes storage capacity from adjoining Hornsdale Power Reserve; the electricity generated by Hornsdale Wind Farm is contracted to be supplied to the Australian Capital Territory. The "Balance of Plant" civil engineering and site works for the wind farm was performed by Catcon for all three stages of construction; the wind turbine generators were imported from Denmark, the towers from Vietnam. They were commissioned by Siemens Australia. Before the whole wind farm was commissioned, Hornsdale was generating 86 MW prior to the 2016 South Australian blackout in September 2016. Two of the towers feature paintings by people from the indigenous peoples of the region. Jessica Turner is a Nukunu woman whose artwork represents the story of the serpent's role in forming aspects of the landscape waterholes.
Chris Angrave and Louise Brown are Ngadjuri people who depicted how the Mungiura were found in hilly country, peering over the top of windbreaks before a storm, blowing hard which caused a whirly wind. Tesla, Inc. won the contract and built the Hornsdale Power Reserve adjacent to the Hornsdale wind farm, for a cost to Tesla of about US$50 million. It is promoted as the largest lithium-ion battery in the world. Samsung 21700-size cells are used, it is owned and operated by Neoen, with the government having the right to call on the stored power under certain circumstances. It provides a total of 129 megawatt-hours of storage capable of discharge at 100 megawatts into the power grid, contractually divided into two parts.70 MW running for 10 minutes is contracted to the government to provide stability to the grid and prevent load-shedding blackouts while other generators are started in the event of sudden drops in wind or other network issues. This service has reduced the cost of grid services to the Australian Energy Market Operator by 90%.30 MW for 3 hours is used by Neoen for load management to store energy when prices are low and sell it when demand is high.
The battery construction was completed and testing began on 25 November 2017. It was connected to the grid on 1 December 2017; this beat Elon Musk's wager of "100 days from contract signature", which started when a grid connection agreement was signed with ElectraNet on 29 September 2017. Tesla had begun construction, some units were operational by the time the contract was signed. On 14 December 2017, at 1:58:59 am, the HPR reacted; as its generators spun down over the next 30 seconds, the loss of its 560 MW of base power caused a dip in the system frequency. By 1:59:19, the frequency had fallen to 49.8 Hz, triggered HPR's response, injecting 7.3 MW into the grid and helping to stabilise the system before the Gladstone Power Station was able to respond at 1:59:27. This synchronverter reaction is a built-in feature, but had not been demonstratedDuring two days in January 2018 when the wholesale spot price for electricity in South Australia rose due to hot weather, the battery made its owners an estimated A$1,000,000 as they sold power from the battery to the grid for a price of around A$14,000/MWh.
Based on the first six months of operation, the reserve is estimated to earn about A$18 million per year. After six months of operation, the Hornsdale Power Reserve was responsible for 55% of frequency control and ancillary services in South Australia. By the end of 2018, it was estimated that the Power Reserved had saved A$40 million in costs, most in eliminating the need for a 35 MW Frequency Control Ancillary Service. Current wind conditions
Desecration is the act of depriving something of its sacred character, or the disrespectful, contemptuous, or destructive treatment of that, held to be sacred or holy by a group or individual. Many consider acts of desecration to be sacrilegious acts; this can include desecration of sacred places or sacred objects. Desecration may be considered from the perspective of a particular religion or spiritual activity. Desecration may be applied to natural systems or components if those systems are part of naturalistic spiritual religion. To respectfully remove the sacred character of a place or an object is deconsecration, is distinct from desecration; some religions, such as the Roman Catholic Church have specific rules as to what constitutes desecration and what should be done in these circumstances. Examples of the destruction of pagan temples in the late fourth century, as recorded in surviving texts, describe Martin of Tours' attacks on holy sites in Gaul, the destruction of temples in Syria by Marcellus the destruction of temples and images in, surrounding, the Patriarch Theophilus who seized and destroyed pagan temples in Alexandria, the levelling of all the temples in Gaza and the wider destruction of holy sites that spread throughout Egypt.
This is supplemented in abundance by archaeological evidence in the northern provinces exposing broken and burnt out buildings and hastily buried objects of piety. The leader of the Egyptian monks who participated in the sack of temples replied to the victims who demanded back their sacred icons: "I peacefully removed your gods...there is no such thing as robbery for those who possess Christ." At the turn of the century St Augustine would exhort his congregation in Carthage to smash all tangible symbols of paganism: "for that all superstition of pagans and heathens should be annihilated is what God wants, God commands, God proclaims!" In the year 407 a decree was issued to the west from Rome: "If any images stand now in the temples and shrines.... They shall be torn from their foundations... The temples situated in cities or towns shall be taken for public use. Altars shall be destroyed in all places." Sacred sites were now appropriated by Christianity: "Let altars be built and relics be placed there" wrote Pope Gregory I, "so that have to change from the worship of the daemones to that of the true God".
The Red Terror in Spain during the Spanish Civil War involved massive desecration of churches and other sacred objects and places by leftists. On the night of July 19, 1936 alone, 50 churches were burned. In Barcelona, out of the 58 churches, only the Cathedral was spared, similar events occurred everywhere in Republican Spain. All the Catholic churches in the Republican zone were closed, but the attacks were not limited to Catholic churches, as synagogues were pillaged and closed, but some small Protestant churches were spared; the ethnic cleansing campaign that took place throughout areas controlled by the Army of the Republika Srpska targeted Bosnian Muslims, included the destruction of Muslim places of worship. Numerous Albanian cultural sites in Kosovo were destroyed during the Kosovo conflict which constituted a war crime violating the Hague and Geneva Conventions. In all 225 out of 600 mosques in Kosovo were damaged, vandalised, or destroyed alongside other Islamic architecture during the conflict.
Archives belonging to the Islamic Community of Kosovo with records spanning 500 years were destroyed. During the war, Islamic architectural heritage posed for Yugoslav Serb paramilitary and military forces as Albanian patrimony with destruction of non-Serbian architectural heritage being a methodical and planned component of ethnic cleansing in Kosovo. Revenge attacks against Serbian religious sites commenced following the conflict and the return of hundreds of thousands of Kosovo Albanian refugees to their homes. During violent unrest in 2004, more than 35 Serbian Orthodox church buildings were desecrated, damaged or destroyed. Host desecration Qur'an desecration
Capital Wind Farm
The Capital Wind Farm near Bungendore is the largest wind farm in New South Wales. It is part of the 6,000-hectare Capital Renewable Energy Precinct, along with nearby Woodlawn Wind Farm and the Capital East Solar Demonstration Plant. Capital Wind Farm was built by international contractors Suzlon Energy for owner and operator Infigen Energy. Construction began in early 2008, the wind farm became operational in October 2009, it is a 140.7 megawatt wind farm with 67 turbines. The Capital Wind Farm is around 30 kilometres north east of Canberra, just southeast of Lake George and north of Bungendore, it is located in open farming country, with minimal obstructions in the landscape and smooth topography. The Capital Wind Farm was built for Infigen Energy by Suzlon Energy, it was constructed as part of the Kurnell Desalination Plant project to offset the power usage of the desalination plant. "The wind farm has been designed to produce more than enough energy to operate the desalination plant to cover the days when there is less wind.
It will increase the supply of wind energy in NSW by over 700%. It is a massive boost to the renewable energy sector and an environmentally sensible way to offset the power needs of the desalination plant." The wind farm was completed in October 2009 at a cost estimated between A$220 million and A$370 million. It was opened by the Prime Minister at the time, Kevin Rudd, in November 2009. Since the wind farm was established, the population of nearby Bungendore has increased by 24 per cent, which the Clean Energy Council has claimed is because of its proximity to the wind farm. During construction of the Capital Wind Farm, 120 people were employed on the project. Over the construction period, about A$10 million went into the local economy, with spending up at the local stores and motels. Since construction has finished there are 15 ongoing jobs at the wind farm for service and maintenance; some residents who live nearby to the Capital Wind Farm have complained about the noise from the turbines. Wind power in Australia List of wind farms in New South Wales
Clements Gap Wind Farm
Clements Gap Wind Farm is a wind farm opened in 2010 located in the Barunga Range, South Australia near Clements Gap, some 20 minutes south of Port Pirie. The wind farm consists of 27 wind turbines with a total generating capacity of 57 MW, it provides enough electricity for up to 33,000 homes and is estimated to avoid the emission of 150,000 tonnes of greenhouse gases each year. The Clements Gap site was chosen because of its powerful winds, easy construction access, simple grid connection, strong community support