The Menominee are a federally recognized nation of Native Americans, with a 353.894 sq mi reservation in Wisconsin. Their historic territory included an estimated 10 million acres in present-day Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan; the tribe has about 8,700 members. The tribe was terminated in the 1960s under policy of the time. During that period, they brought what has become a landmark case in Indian law to the United States Supreme Court, in Menominee Tribe v. United States, to protect their treaty hunting and fishing rights; the Wisconsin Supreme Court and the United States Court of Claims had drawn opposing conclusions about the effect of the termination on Menominee hunting and fishing rights on their former reservation land. The U. S. Supreme Court determined that the tribe had not lost traditional hunting and fishing rights as a result of termination, as Congress had not ended these in its legislation; the tribe regained federal recognition in 1973 in an act of Congress, re-established its reservation in 1975.
They operate under a written constitution establishing an elected government. Their first government under it took over tribal government and administration from the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1979; the Menominee are part of the Algonquian language family of North America, made up several tribes now located around the Great Lakes and many other tribes based along the Atlantic coast. They are one of the historical tribes of Wisconsin, they are believed to have been well-settled in that territory for more than 1,000 years. By some accounts, they are descended from the Old Copper Culture people and other indigenous peoples, in this area for 10,000 years. Menominee oral history states, their reservation is located 60 miles west of the site of their Creation, according to their tradition. They arose where the Menominee River enters Green Bay of Lake Michigan, where the city of Marinette, Wisconsin has since developed, their name for themselves is Mamaceqtaw, meaning "the people". The name "Menominee" is not their autonym.
It was adopted by Europeans from the Ojibwe people, another Algonquian tribe whom they encountered first as they moved west and who told them of the Menominee. The Ojibwe name for the tribe was manoominii, meaning "wild rice people", as they cultivated wild rice as one of their most important food staples; the Menominee were known to be a peaceful and welcoming nation, who had a reputation for getting along with other tribes. When the Oneota culture arose in southern Wisconsin between AD 800 and 900, the Menominee shared the forests and waters with them; the Menominee are a Northeastern Woodlands tribe. They were encountered by European explorers in Wisconsin in the mid-17th century during the colonial era, had extended interaction with them during periods in North America. During this period they lived in numerous villages; the anthropologist James Mooney in 1928 estimated. The early French explorers and traders referred to the people as "folles avoines", referring to the wild rice which they cultivated and gathered as one of their staple foods.
The Menominee have traditionally subsisted on a wide variety of plants and animals, with wild rice and sturgeon being two of the most important. Wild rice has a special importance to the tribe as their staple grain, while the sturgeon has a mythological importance and is referred to as the "father" of the Menominee. Feasts are still held annually at. Menominee customs are quite similar to those of the Chippewa, another Algonquian people, their language has a closer affinity to those of the Kickapoo tribes. All four spoke part of the Algonquian family; the five principal Menominee clans are the Bear, the Eagle, the Wolf, the Crane, the Moose. Each has traditional responsibilities within the tribe. With a patrilineal kinship system, traditional Menominee believe that children derive their social status from their fathers, are born "into" their father's clan. Members of the same clan are considered relatives, so must choose marriage partners from outside their clan. Ethnologist James Mooney wrote an article on the Menominee which appeared in Catholic Encyclopedia, incorrectly reporting that their descent and inheritance proceeds through the female line.
Such as a matrilineal kinship system is common among many other Native American peoples, including other Algonquian tribes. Menominee mythology is rich with ethical meaning, it has many elements in common with the sacred literature and cultures of other Native American peoples. Traditional Menominee believe that the Earth forms a partition between lower worlds; the upper world represents good and the lower world represents evil. These two worlds are divided into the furthest being the most powerful; the Sun is at the highest level in the upper world, followed by the Thunderbird and the Morning Star, the Golden Eagles and other birds, led by the Bald Eagle. The first level below the earth in the lower world is occupied by the Horned Serpent; the succeeding lower levels are the home of the White Deer. The next level is that of the Underwater Panther; the lowest level is ruled by the Great White Bear. Traditional Menominee use dr
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
In archaeology, earthworks are artificial changes in land level made from piles of artificially placed or sculpted rocks and soil. Earthworks can themselves be archaeological features. Earthworks of interest to archaeologists include hill forts, mounds, platform mounds, effigy mounds, long barrows, tumuli and furrow, round barrows, other tombs. Hill forts, a type of fort made out of earth and other natural materials including sand and water, were built as early as the late Stone Age and were built more during the Bronze Age and Iron Age as a means of protection. See Oppidum. Henge earthworks are those that consist of a flat area of earth in a circular shape that are encircled by a ditch, or several circular ditches, with a bank on the outside of the ditch built with the earth from inside the ditch, they are believed to have been used as monuments for spiritual ritual ceremonies. A mound is a substantial manmade pile of earth or rocks, created to mark burial sites Platform mounds are pyramid or rectangular-shaped mounds that are used to hold a building or temple on top.
An effigy mound is a pile of earth very large in scale, shaped into the image of a person or animal for symbolic or spiritual reasons An enclosure is a space, surrounded by an earthwork. Long barrows are oblong-shaped mounds. A tumulus or barrow is a mound of earth created over a tomb. A cross dyke or cross-ridge dyke is a bank and ditch, or sometimes a ditch between two banks, that crosses a ridge or spur of high ground. Found in Europe and belonging to the Bronze Age or Iron Age. Marked on Ordnance Survey maps in the UK. Ridge and furrows are sets of parallel depressions and ridges in the ground formed through historic farming techniques. Mottes are mound structures made of stone that once held castles, they are an important part of the motte-and-bailey castle, a castle design during early Norman times in which the castle is built on the motte, surrounded by a ditch and a bailey, an enclosure with a stone wall. A round barrow is a mound, in a rounded shape, used during Neolithic times as a burial mound.
Geoglyph, a large design or motif Earthworks can vary in height from a few centimetres to the size of Silbury Hill at 40 metres. They can date from the Neolithic to the present; the structures can stretch for many tens of kilometres. In area, they can cover many hectares. Shallow earthworks are more visible as cropmarks or in aerial photographs if taken when the sun is low in the sky and shadows are more pronounced. Earthworks may be more visible after a frost or a light dusting of snow. Earthworks plotted using Light Detection and Ranging; this technique is useful for mapping small variations in land height that would be difficult to detect by eye. It can be used for features hidden by other vegetation. LIDAR results can be input into a geographic information system to produce three-dimensional representations of the earthworks. An accurate survey of the earthworks can enable them to be interpreted without the need for excavation. For example, earthworks from deserted medieval villages can be used to determine the location and layout of lost settlements.
These earthworks can point to the purpose of such a settlement, as well the context in which it existed. Earthworks in North America include mounds built by Native Americans known as the Mound Builders. Ancient people who lived in the American Midwest built effigy mounds, which are mounds shaped like animals or people; the most famous of these effigy mounds is Serpent Mound. Located in the Ohio, this 411-meterlong earthen work is thought to memorialize alignments of the planets and stars that were of special significance to the Native Americans that constructed it. Cone-shaped or conical mounds are numerous, with thousands of them scattered across the American Midwest, some over 80 feet tall; these conical mounds appear to be marking the graves of one person or dozens of people. An example of a conical mound is the Miamisburg Mound in central Ohio, estimated to have been built by people of the Adena culture in the time range of 800 B. C. to 100 AD. The American Plains hold temple mounds, or platform mounds, which are giant pyramid-shaped mounds with flat tops that once held temples made of wood.
Examples of temple mounds include Monks Mound located at the Cahokia site in Collinsville and Mound H at the Crystal River site in Citrus County, Florida. The earthworks at Poverty Point occupy one of the largest-area sites in North America, as they cover some 920 acres of land in Louisiana. Military earthworks can result in subsequent archaeological earthworks. Examples include Roman marching forts. During the American Civil War, earthwork fortifications were built throughout the country, by both Confederate and Union sides; the largest earthwork fort built during the war was Fortress Rosecrans, which encompassed 255 acres. In northeastern Somalia, near the city of Bosaso at the end of the Baladi valley, lies an earthwork 2 km to 3 km long. Local tradition recounts, it is the largest such structure in the wider Horn region. Bigo is an extensive earthworks site located in the interlacustrine region of southwestern Uganda, Africa. Situated on the south shore of the Katonga river, the Big
Marathon County, Wisconsin
Marathon County is a county located in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 134,063, its county seat is Wausau. It was founded in 1850, created from a portion of Portage County. At that time the county stretched to the northern border with the upper Michigan peninsula, it is named after the battlefield at Greece. Marathon County comprises the Wausau, WI Metropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Wausau-Stevens Point-Wisconsin Rapids, WI Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,576 square miles, of which 1,545 square miles is land and 31 square miles is water, it is the largest county in fourth-largest by total area. It is notable for containing the 45°N, 90°W point. Interstate 39 U. S. Route 51 Highway 13 Highway 29 Highway 34 KAUW - Wausau Downtown Airport KCWA - Central Wisconsin Airport Mead Wildlife Area As of the census of 2000, there were 125,834 people, 47,702 households, 33,868 families residing in the county.
The population density was 81 people per square mile. There were 50,360 housing units at an average density of 33 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.84% White, 0.28% Black or African American, 0.35% Native American, 4.54% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, 0.72% from two or more races. 0.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 52.6% were of German and 13.6% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 92.9 % spoke 3.4 % Hmong, 1.1 % German and 1.1 % Spanish as their first language. There were 47,702 households out of which 34.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.90% were married couples living together, 7.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.00% were non-families. 23.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.11. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.80% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 29.50% from 25 to 44, 22.50% from 45 to 64, 13.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 99.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.40 males. The Marathon County Public Library has its headquarters in downtown Wisconsin. Eight branch libraries have been established in the cities of Athens, Hatley, Marathon City, Rothschild and Stratford. There are over 884 miles of groomed snowmobile trails in Marathon County maintained by 29 area snowmobile clubs. Abbotsford Colby Marshfield Mosinee Schofield Wausau Knowlton Rib Mountain Callon Staadts Stettin Ziegler National Register of Historic Places listings in Marathon County, Wisconsin Marathon County Libraries and Schools in Marathon and Lincoln Counties - Digital collection of historic images and texts on schools and libraries in Marathon and Lincoln Counties
Winnebago County, Wisconsin
Winnebago County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 166,994, its county seat is Oshkosh. It was named for the historic Winnebago people, a federally recognized Native American tribe now known as the Ho-Chunk Nation. Chief Oshkosh was a leader in the area. Winnebago County comprises the Oshkosh-Neenah, WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Appleton-Oshkosh-Neenah, WI Combined Statistical Area; the region was occupied by several Native American tribes in the period of European encounter, including the Sauk, Fox and Ojibwa. French traders from what is now Canada had early interaction with them, as did French Jesuit missionaries, who sought to convert them to Catholicism. European and American settlement encroached on their traditional territories, the United States negotiated treaties in the mid-19th century to keep pushing the Indians to the west. Winnebago County was created in 1840 by European Americans and organized in 1848; the name Winnebago is of Algonquin origin, with variations used by the Fox and Potowatomi to refer to the Fox River below Lake Winnebago, which sometimes got muddy and full of fish.
It means'people dwelling by the fetid or ill-smelling water', which may refer to a sulfur spring. The county seat, was incorporated as a city in 1853, when it had a population of nearly 2,800. Chief Oshkosh was the namesake for the county seat. A leader of the Menominee in the region, he was successful in gaining authorization from the federal government for 2500 of his people to remain in Wisconsin, at a time when the government was pushing for their removal west of the Mississippi River. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 579 square miles, of which 434 square miles is land and 144 square miles is water. Waupaca County - northwest Outagamie County - northeast Calumet County - east Fond du Lac County - south Green Lake County - southwest Waushara County - west Wittman Regional Airport serves the county and surrounding communities. Brennand Airport in the Town of Clayton is a major recreational aircraft hub year-round. Commercial airline service for Winnebago County is provided by Appleton International Airport in the neighboring Outagamie County.
As of the census of 2000, there were 156,763 people, 61,157 households, 39,568 families residing in the county. The population density was 357 per square mile. There were 64,721 housing units at an average density of 148 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.92% White, 1.12% Black or African American, 0.46% Native American, 1.84% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.72% from other races, 0.92% from two or more races. 1.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 52.4% were of German, 6.2% Irish and 5.7% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 94.6% spoke English, 2.5% Spanish and 1.0% Hmong as their first language. There were 61,157 households out of which 31.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.00% were married couples living together, 8.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.30% were non-families. 27.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.99.
By age, 23.80% of the population was under 18, 11.80% from 18 to 24, 30.40% from 25 to 44, 21.50% from 45 to 64, 12.50% were 65 or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 99.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.80 males. Winnebago County is governed by the 36-member Winnebago County Board of Supervisors. Supervisors are elected to the board in a nonpartisan election held the first Tuesday of April in numbered years and serve two-year terms; the board has several committees. It meets on the third Tuesday of each month at the Winnebago County Courthouse in Oshkosh. Winnebago County has become a swing county in recent decades, it has voted for the winning presidential candidate in every election since 1980, except in 1992 when it supported George Bush. Appleton Menasha Neenah Omro Oshkosh Fox Crossing Winneconne Butte des Morts Eureka Waukau Winchester Delhi Menasha Minden National Register of Historic Places listings in Winnebago County, Wisconsin Commemorative Biographical Record of the Fox River Valley Counties of Brown and Winnebago.
Chicago: J. H. Beers, 1895. Lawson, Publius V. History, Winnebago County, Wisconsin: Its Cities, Resources, People. Chicago: C. F. Cooper, 1908. Winnebago County official website Winnebago County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation
Wisconsin's 8th congressional district
Wisconsin's 8th congressional district is a congressional district of the United States House of Representatives in northeastern Wisconsin. The district includes Appleton, it is represented by Mike Gallagher, a Republican. Gallagher won the open seat vacated by Reid Ribble, it is one of two Congressional Districts to elect a Catholic Priest, Robert John Cornell. The 8th leaned Republican for several years. However, it has become more of a swing seat since the 1990s. In 2004, Republican George W. Bush won 55% of the vote in the district, while in 2008, Democrat Barack Obama received 53.6% of the vote. On January 30, 2016, Reid Ribble announced he would retire at the end of his third term, opening the seat for the 2016 election; as of February 2017, five former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Wisconsin's 8th congressional district are alive; the most recent representative to die was Jay W. Johnson on October 17, 2009. Wisconsin's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Rep. Mike Gallagher's official House of Representatives website
New London, Wisconsin
New London is a city in Outagamie and Waupaca Counties in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. Founded in 1851, the population was 7,295 at the 2010 census. Of this, 5,685 were in Waupaca County, 1,640 were in Outagamie County; the city has a Saint Patrick's Day Parade, Irish Fest, week-long festivities, when the city's name is changed to "New Dublin" for the week. The American Water Spaniel was developed as a registered breed by F. J. Pfeifer of New London, it was named the state dog in 1986. For thousands of years, this area was occupied by successive indigenous cultures; some were known as moundbuilders, constructing a reported 72 earthworks near what is now Taylor Lake in the county, including many effigy mounds. Their descendants included the Menominee. In the Menominee language this place is known as Sakēmāēwataenoh, meaning "mosquito place" due to its riverside location; the Menominee sold this land to the United States in the 1836 Treaty of the Cedars, which saw over four million acres of land in Wisconsin sold after years of negotiation about how to accommodate the Oneida, Stockbridge-Munsee, Brothertown peoples who were being removed from New York to Wisconsin.
Following the treaty which made the land available for purchase, New London was established by European-American settlers in 1852 and was named after New London, Connecticut by Reeder Smith, a founder whose father was from there. Reeder Smith built the plank road between Stevens Point. New London became the terminus of steamboats plying the Wolf River from Oshkosh. New London is located at 44°23′14″N 88°44′25″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.78 square miles, of which, 5.55 square miles is land and 0.23 square miles is water. New London sits on both the Wolf and Embarrass Rivers, making it a destination for boaters and fishermen; as of the census of 2010, there were 7,295 people, 3,038 households, 1,903 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,314.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,310 housing units at an average density of 596.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.2% White, 0.2% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 3.8% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.9% of the population. There were 3,038 households of which 32.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.0% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.4% were non-families. 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.95. The median age in the city was 37.4 years. 25.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.6 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,085 people, 2,894 households, 1,843 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,265.5 people per square mile. There were 3,045 housing units at an average density of 543.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.64% White, 0.20% African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.28% from other races, 0.90% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.46% of the population. There were 2,894 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.3% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.98. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 18.8% from 45 to 64, 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $37,491, the median income for a family was $49,028. Males had a median income of $34,481 versus $21,728 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,153. About 3.8% of families and 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.2% of those under age 18 and 6.5% of those age 65 or over.
The New London Public Museum, founded in 1917, contains exhibits on local and natural history and Native American and world cultures. Five historic buildings can be toured at the Heritage Historical Village, which includes a railroad museum; the Wolf River Theatrical Troupe produces plays and productions throughout various sites in New London including Crystal Falls and the New London High School. A professional western stunt show called "Whips and Guns Wild West Review" performed by movie stunt performers has its home in New London, its performances are held in other cities at fairs, festivals and business places each summer. Each March, Wisconsin's largest St. Patrick's Day parade is held with an Irish Fest and sponsored by the Shamrock Club of New Dublin, as the town is renamed "New Dublin" for the week. Weeknight Irish festivities are scheduled that include Irish entertainment, an Irish Ceili, Finnegan's wake, Irish caroling. Corned beef and cabbage is served in local restaurants that week too.
Early in August the New London Heritage Hist