The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 99% of human technological prehistory. It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools by hominins c. 3.3 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene c. 11,650 cal BP. The Paleolithic is followed in Europe by the Mesolithic, although the date of the transition varies geographically by several thousand years. During the Paleolithic, hominins grouped together in small societies such as bands, subsisted by gathering plants and fishing, hunting or scavenging wild animals; the Paleolithic is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans used wood and bone tools. Other organic commodities were adapted for use including leather and vegetable fibers. About 50,000 years ago, there was a marked increase in the diversity of artifacts. In Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archaeological record; the first evidence of human fishing is noted, from artifacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa.
Archaeologists classify artifacts of the last 50,000 years into many different categories, such as projectile points, engraving tools, knife blades, drilling and piercing tools. Humankind evolved from early members of the genus Homo—such as Homo habilis, who used simple stone tools—into anatomically modern humans as well as behaviorally modern humans by the Upper Paleolithic. During the end of the Paleolithic the Middle or Upper Paleolithic, humans began to produce the earliest works of art and began to engage in religious and spiritual behavior such as burial and ritual; the climate during the Paleolithic consisted of a set of glacial and interglacial periods in which the climate periodically fluctuated between warm and cool temperatures. Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic humans survived in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed through areas of high primary productivity while avoiding dense forest cover. By c. 50,000 – c. 40,000 BP, the first humans set foot in Australia.
By c. 45,000 BP, humans lived at 61°N latitude in Europe. By c. 30,000 BP, Japan was reached, by c. 27,000 BP humans were present in Siberia, above the Arctic Circle. At the end of the Upper Paleolithic, a group of humans crossed Beringia and expanded throughout the Americas; the term "Palaeolithic" was coined by archaeologist John Lubbock in 1865. It derives from Greek: παλαιός, palaios, "old"; the Paleolithic coincides exactly with the Pleistocene epoch of geologic time, which lasted from 2.6 million years ago to about 12,000 years ago. This epoch experienced important climatic changes that affected human societies. During the preceding Pliocene, continents had continued to drift from as far as 250 km from their present locations to positions only 70 km from their current location. South America became linked to North America through the Isthmus of Panama, bringing a nearly complete end to South America's distinctive marsupial fauna; the formation of the isthmus had major consequences on global temperatures, because warm equatorial ocean currents were cut off, the cold Arctic and Antarctic waters lowered temperatures in the now-isolated Atlantic Ocean.
Most of Central America formed during the Pliocene to connect the continents of North and South America, allowing fauna from these continents to leave their native habitats and colonize new areas. Africa's collision with Asia created the Mediterranean, cutting off the remnants of the Tethys Ocean. During the Pleistocene, the modern continents were at their present positions. Climates during the Pliocene became cooler and drier, seasonal, similar to modern climates. Ice sheets grew on Antarctica; the formation of an Arctic ice cap around 3 million years ago is signaled by an abrupt shift in oxygen isotope ratios and ice-rafted cobbles in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean beds. Mid-latitude glaciation began before the end of the epoch; the global cooling that occurred during the Pliocene may have spurred on the disappearance of forests and the spread of grasslands and savannas. The Pleistocene climate was characterized by repeated glacial cycles during which continental glaciers pushed to the 40th parallel in some places.
Four major glacial events have been identified, as well as many minor intervening events. A major event is a general glacial excursion, termed a "glacial". Glacials are separated by "interglacials". During a glacial, the glacier experiences minor retreats; the minor excursion is a "stadial". Each glacial advance tied up huge volumes of water in continental ice sheets 1,500–3,000 m deep, resulting in temporary sea level drops of 100 m or more over the entire surface of the Earth. During interglacial times, such as at present, drowned coastlines were common, mitigated by isostatic or other emergent motion of some regions; the effects of glaciation were global. Antarctica was ice-bound throughout the preceding Pliocene; the Andes were covered in the south by the Patagonian ice cap. There were glaciers in New Tasmania; the now decaying glaciers of Mount Kenya, Mount Kilimanjaro, the Ruwenzori Range in east and central Africa were larger. Glaciers existed to the west in the Atlas mountains. In the northern hemisphere, many glaciers fused into one.
Greifensee–Storen–Wildsberg is one of the 111 serial sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, of which are 56 located in Switzerland. The site is located on Greifensee lakeshore in Wildsberg, a locality of the municipality of Greifensee in the Canton of Zürich in Switzerland; because the lake has grown in size over time, the original piles are now around 4 metres to 7 metres under the water level of 435 metres. The settlement comprises 9.59 hectares, the buffer zone including the lake area comprises 11.70 hectares in all. Settlements in Greifensee date back to 4000 BC. In 1975, the Neolithic stilt house village located on the northern lakeshore area called Böschen was discovered by recreational divers, they found ceramics, lavishly decorated pots and bowls, simple, large food tanks. In scientific dives, the remains of a village with 24 huts have been revealed; the excellent condition of the timber relicts allows dendrochronological dating to the year 1051 BC.
Weaving spindles made of clay, tools and fishing hooks from bronze, charred wild apples and cereals have been conserved. Ten years after its construction, the settlement was not rebuilt. Characterized is the settlement Storen–Wildsberg, around 1.1 kilometres in the east of Böschen by a large settlement area on a steep slope on Greifensee lakeshore. From a scientific point of view and besides the location, a interesting aspect is a phase of occupation dating from the Late Horgen culture. Furthermore, a copper spiral coil and a copper dagger from the Pfyn culture bear early witness to the processing of metal in this region; the settlement is undisturbed and thus holds great scientific potential for future research. As well as being part of the 56 Swiss sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, the settlement is listed in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance as a Class A object of national importance. Hence, the area is provided as a historical site under federal protection, within the meaning of the Swiss Federal Act on the nature and cultural heritage of 1 July 1966.
Unauthorised researching and purposeful gathering of findings represent a criminal offense according to Art. 24. Prehistoric pile dwellings around Zürichsee Peter J. Suter, Helmut Schlichtherle et al.: Pfahlbauten – Palafittes – Palafitte. Palafittes, Biel 2009. ISBN 978-3-906140-84-1. Official website
University of Zurich
The University of Zurich, located in the city of Zürich, is the largest university in Switzerland, with over 25,000 students. It was founded in 1833 from the existing colleges of theology, medicine and a new faculty of philosophy; the university has seven faculties: Philosophy, Human Medicine, Economic Sciences, Law and Natural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine. The university offers the widest range of subjects and courses of any Swiss higher education institution; as of October 2018, 23 Nobel laureates and 1 Turing Award winner have been affiliated with University of Zurich as alumni, faculty or researchers. The University of Zurich was founded on April 29, 1833, when the existing colleges of theology, the Carolinum founded by Huldrych Zwingli in 1525, law and medicine were merged with a new faculty of Philosophy, it was the first university in Europe to be founded by the state rather than a church. In the University's early years, the 1839 appointment of the German theologian David Friedrich Strauss to its Chair of Theology caused a major controversy, since Strauss argued that the miracles in the Christian New Testament were mythical retellings of normal events as supernatural happenings.
The authorities offered Strauss a pension before he had a chance to start his duties. The university allowed women to attend philosophy lectures from 1847, admitted the first female doctoral student in 1866; the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine was added in the second-oldest such faculty in the world. In 1914, the university moved to new premises designed by the architect Karl Moser on Rämistrasse 71; the university is scattered all over the city of Zurich. Members of the university can use several libraries, including the ETH-library, the Zurich Central Library, with over 5 million volumes. In 1962, the faculty of science proposed to establish the Irchelpark campus on the Strickhofareal; the first stage the construction of the university buildings was begun in 1973, the campus was inaugurated in 1979. The construction of the second stage lasted from 1978 to 1983; the campus houses the anthropological museum Anthropologisches Museum, the cantonal Staatsarchiv Zürich. The Institute and Museum for the History of Medicine is part of the university.
The University of Zurich as a whole ranks in the top ten of Europe and in the top fifty worldwide. Notably in the fields of bioscience and finance, there is a close-knit collaboration between the University of Zurich and the ETH, their faculty of chiropractic medicine is six years. Shanghai Jiao Tong University Ranking 54th 15th in Europe. THES – QS World University Rankings 61st globally and 14th in Europe. QS World University Rankings 201457th globally. Professional Ranking of World Universities 10th in Europe. University Ranking by Academic Performance 201052nd globally and 1st in Switzerland; the university’s Department of Economics is strong and was ranked first in the German-speaking area by the Handelsblatt in 2017. In 2009 the faculty of Business Administration was ranked third in the German-speaking area. Bachelor courses are taught in Swiss Standard German, but use of English is increasing in many faculties; the only bachelors program taught in English is the "English Language and Literature" program.
All Master courses at the Faculty of Science are held in English. Master courses in Economics and Finance are held in English, while the Master of Science in Quantitative Finance is held in English. Rolf Pfeifer – Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, IFI Albert Hofmann - Medicinal Chemistry Albert Einstein - Physics and Philosophy The university's Academic Sports Association offers a wide range of sports facilities to students of the university. Associated with the university are 12 Nobel Prize recipients in Physics and Chemistry. Corpus Córporum, digital library created and maintained by the University's Institute for Greek and Latin Philology. Swiss National Supercomputing Centre List of largest universities by enrollment in Switzerland List of modern universities in Europe Union of students' associations of the University of Zurich The Ranking Forum of Swiss Universities
Wauwilermoos internment camp
Wauwilermoos was an internment camp and prisoner-of-war penal camp in Switzerland during World War II. It was situated in the municipalities of Egolzwil in the Canton of Lucerne. Established in 1940, Wauwilermoos was a penal camp for internees, including Allied soldiers, among them members of the United States Army Air Forces, who were sentenced for attempting to escape from other Swiss camps for interned soldiers, or other offences. Together with Hünenberg and Les Diablerets, Wauwilermoos was one of three Swiss penal camps for internees that were established in Switzerland during World War II; the intolerable conditions were described by numerous former inmates and by various contemporary reports and studies. During World War II more than 100,000 belligerent troops Allied soldiers, were interned in Switzerland – service personnel from England, Poland, Russia and Germany who had fled combat. Unlike civilians, for instance Jewish refugees, who were sent back to the territories occupied by the Nazi regime, the Swiss government was required by the Geneva Convention of 1929 to keep these soldiers interned until the end of hostilities.
The soldiers were held in barracks, they were used as workers for agriculture and industry, except for officers who were not compelled to work and stayed in unoccupied mountain hotels in Davos. Starting in 1943 Switzerland attempted to shoot down American and British aircraft bombers, overflying Switzerland. Six aircraft were downed by nine by anti-aircraft cannons. In addition there were 137 emergency landings during the war. Officers were interned in Davos, enlisted men in Adelboden; the representative of the US military in Bern, US military attaché Barnwell R. Legge, instructed the soldiers not to flee so as to allow the US Legation to co-ordinate their escape attempts, but the majority of the soldiers thought it was a diplomatic ruse or did not receive the instruction directly. Soldiers who were caught after their escape from the internment camps were detained in the Wauwilermoos prison camp near Luzern. On 1 October 1944 Switzerland housed 39,670 internees in all: 20,650 from Italy, 10,082 from Poland, 2,643 from the United States, 1,121 from the United Kingdom, 822 from the Soviet Union and 245 from France.
In September the Office of Strategic Services was commissioned by the US supreme command to organise the escapes of 1,000 American internees, but this did not happen until late in the winter of 1944-45. Established in 1940, Wauwilermoos was a penal camp for internees for Allied soldiers during World War II. Among them were members of the United States Army Air Forces, who were sentenced for attempting to escape from other Swiss camps for interned soldiers, or other offences; the internment prison camp was one of three Swiss penal camps for internees that were established in Switzerland during World War II. In Wauwilermoos prison camp both military internees and male civilian internees, convicted under the Swiss Military Criminal Code were detained. Wauwilermoos housed military internees of various nations, including England, Germany, Italy, Russia and the USA. Swiss military-run prisons like Wauwilermoos were established earlier in the war, after cantonal prisons became "overcrowded with prisoners convicted in military court."
According to a decree of the Swiss Federal Council in 1941, military prisoners would be confined according to whether their offences qualified them for "custodia honesta," or honourable confinement. Special military-run prisons would offer confinement for "certain offenses of purely military character" since honourable crimes such as "escape and escape attempts... not the crimes of common criminals". Regardless of the intent of the Federal Council, for most of 1944 the Swiss authorities did not follow the custodia honesta model, but rather "grouped American internees with common criminals in Wauwilermoos". From July 1941 to September 1945 Wauwilermoos was under the command of Swiss Army captain Andre Béguin; the harsh detention conditions were described by numerous former inmates and by various contemporary reports and studies. For instance, the American airman Sergeant Daniel L. Culler was one of the first USAAF airmen sent to Wauwilermoos, in June 1944. On 12 May of that year Culler, the B-24's tail gunner, Howard Melson and the British soldier Matthew Thirlaway had slipped away from Adelboden, where they were interned.
They hoped rejoin the Allies near Rome. After three days in the Ticino mountains Culler became ill, he decided to go back to the Adelboden camp. Culler was condemned, still ill, placed on rations of bread and water for ten days in Frutigen; when he returned to Adelboden he was sent to Wauwilermoos without any explanation. Culler's good clothes were confiscated by Béguin in return for "old dirty rags." Sent to barracks 9, Culler was raped by internees from Eastern Europe. He reported this to the camp commandant André Béguin and some of the guards who laughed and sent him back; the next days they closed Culler's barrack at night. The torture did not end until new internees became Culler's roommates: "I was bleeding everywhere," Culler said later. Culler fell ill and was transferred to hospital. Béguin, labelled "a disgrace to Switzerland," was appointed at his own request as the commander of the camp; the sanitary facilities were dysfunctional, Béguin stole the food packages and harassed the Allied internees.
"He was a Nazi, not only a Nazi sympathizer" Robert Cardenas told CBS 8 News in a 2013 inte
Slovenia the Republic of Slovenia, is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, it has a population of 2.07 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, of NATO; the capital and largest city is Ljubljana. Slovenia has a mountainous terrain with a continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, of the northwest, which has an Alpine climate. Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia; the country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, significant karst underground watercourses.
Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is uneven. Slovenia has been the crossroads of Slavic and Romance languages and cultures. Although the population is not homogeneous, Slovenes comprise the majority; the South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a secularized country, but Catholicism and Lutheranism have influenced its culture and identity; the economy of Slovenia is small and export-oriented and has been influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis which started in 2009; the main economic field is services, followed by construction. The current territory of Slovenia has formed part of many different states, including the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Republic of Venice, the French-administered Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. In October 1918 the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes and Serbs.
In December 1918 they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During World War II Germany and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state. In 1945 Slovenia became a founding member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed in 1963 as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In the first years after World War II this state was allied with the Eastern Bloc, but it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact and in 1961 became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement. In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia became the first republic that split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. In 2004, it entered the European Union. Slovenia's name means the "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene and other South Slavic languages; the etymology of Slav itself remains uncertain. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is derived from the word slovo denoting "people who speak," i. e. people who understand each other.
This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people". The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος, as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo, English loud; the modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee held on 19 February 1944. They named the state as Federal Slovenia, a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia, it retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia. On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia. Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. There is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ± 700 BP, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno, is considered a kind of flute, the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world.
In the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon, such as pierced bones, bone points, a needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world, it shows that wooden wheels appeared simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe. In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situl
Egolzwil is a municipality in the district of Willisau in the canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. Egolzwil is first mentioned around 1160 as Eigoltiswile. During World War II Allied soldiers who were caught after their escape from the Swiss internment camps, were detained in the prison camp Wauwilermoos. Egolzwil has an area, as of 2006, of 4.2 km2. Of this area, 61.9% is used for agricultural purposes, while 24% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 12.9% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In the 1997 land survey, 23.74% of the total land area was forested. Of the agricultural land, 58.51% is used for farming or pastures, while 3.6% is used for orchards or vine crops. Of the settled areas, 6.95% is covered with buildings, 1.2% is industrial, 0.24% is classed as special developments, 0.24% is parks or greenbelts and 4.32% is transportation infrastructure. Of the unproductive areas, 0.72% is unproductive standing water, 0.48% is unproductive flowing water. The municipality is located on the northern edge of the Wauwilermoos.
It consists of the linear village of Egolzwil. Egolzwil has a population of 1,483; as of 2007, 105 or about 8.2% are not Swiss citizens. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 5.8%. Most of the population speaks German, with Serbo-Croatian being second most common and Albanian being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the CVP which received 45.8% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SVP and the Green Party; the age distribution, as of 2008, in Egolzwil is. 347 people or 27.1% are 20–39 years old, 474 people or 37.1% are 40–64 years old. The senior population distribution is 92 people or 7.2% are 65–79 years old, 31 or 2.4% are 80–89 years old and 4 people or 0.3% of the population are 90+ years old. The entire Swiss population is well educated. In Egolzwil about 72.9% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. As of 2000 there are 442 households, of which 119 households contain only a single individual.
78 or about 17.6% are large households, with at least five members. As of 2000 there were 253 inhabited buildings in the municipality, of which 203 were built only as housing, 50 were mixed use buildings. There were 145 single family homes, 35 double family homes, 23 multi-family homes in the municipality. Most homes were either three story structures. There were only 13 single story buildings and 11 four or more story buildings. Egolzwil has an unemployment rate of 1.6%. As of 2005, there were 48 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 17 businesses involved in this sector. 113 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 12 businesses in this sector. 301 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 25 businesses in this sector. As of 2000 53.6% of the population of the municipality were employed in some capacity. At the same time, females made up 42% of the workforce. In the 2000 census the religious membership of Egolzwil was. There are 28 individuals who are Muslim.
Of the rest. The historical population is given in the following table: The prehistoric lakeside settlement at Wauwilermoos is listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance; the Egolzwil 3 settlement is part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Egolzwil 3 is an example of the Egolzwil culture; the settlement is considered the oldest in Switzerland. The dendrochronological dating of the wooden piles is uncertain, but they are from around 4300 BC; the site was first excavated by H. Reinerth in 1932 and by E. Vogt and R. Wyss between 1950 and 1988; the settlement was occupied for only about 6 years and had several rows of houses with bark covered floors. A number of ceramic, stone and antler tools were found, along with round bottom pots and beakers. Egolzwil in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic. The term Epipaleolithic is used synonymously for outside northern Europe, for the corresponding period in the Levant and Caucasus; the Mesolithic has different time spans in different parts of Eurasia. It refers to the final period of hunter-gatherer cultures in Europe and Western Asia, between the end of the Last Glacial Maximum and the Neolithic Revolution. In Europe it spans 15,000 to 5,000 BP; the term is less used of areas further east, not at all beyond Eurasia and North Africa. The type of culture associated with the Mesolithic varies between areas, but it is associated with a decline in the group hunting of large animals in favour of a broader hunter-gatherer way of life, the development of more sophisticated and smaller lithic tools and weapons than the heavy chipped equivalents typical of the Paleolithic. Depending on the region, some use of pottery and textiles may be found in sites allocated to the Mesolithic, but indications of agriculture are taken as marking transition into the Neolithic.
The more permanent settlements tend to be close to the sea or inland waters offering a good supply of food. Mesolithic societies are not seen as complex, burials are simple; the terms "Paleolithic" and "Neolithic" were introduced by John Lubbock in his work Pre-historic Times in 1865. The additional "Mesolithic" category was added as an intermediate category by Hodder Westropp in 1866. Westropp's suggestion was controversial. A British school led by John Evans denied any need for an intermediate: the ages blended together like the colors of a rainbow, he said. A European school led by Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet asserted that there was a gap between the earlier and later. Edouard Piette claimed to have filled the gap with his naming of the Azilian Culture. Knut Stjerna offered an alternative in the "Epipaleolithic", suggesting a final phase of the Paleolithic rather than an intermediate age in its own right inserted between the Paleolithic and Neolithic. By the time of Vere Gordon Childe's work, The Dawn of Europe, which affirms the Mesolithic, sufficient data had been collected to determine that a transitional period between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic was indeed a useful concept.
However, the terms "Mesolithic" and "Epipalaeolitic" remain in competition, with varying conventions of usage. In the archaeology of Northern Europe, for example for archaeological sites in Great Britain, Scandinavia and Russia, the term "Mesolithic" is always used. In the archaeology of other areas, the term "Epipaleolithic" may be preferred by most authors, or there may be divergences between authors over which term to use or what meaning to assign to each. In the New World, neither term is used. "Epipaleolithic" is sometimes used alongside "Mesolithic" for the final end of the Upper Paleolithic followed by the Mesolithic. As "Mesolithic" suggests an intermediate period, followed by the Neolithic, some authors prefer the term "Epipaleolithic" for hunter-gatherer cultures who are not succeeded by agricultural traditions, reserving "Mesolithic" for cultures who are succeeded by the Neolithic Revolution, such as the Natufian culture. Other authors use "Mesolithic" as a generic term for post-LGM hunter-gatherer cultures, whether they are transitional towards agriculture or not.
In addition, terminology appears to differ between archaeological sub-disciplines, with "Mesolithic" being used in European archaeology, while "Epipalaeolithic" is more common in Near Eastern archaeology. The Balkan Mesolithic begins around 15,000 years ago. In Western Europe, the Early Mesolithic, or Azilian, begins about 14,000 years ago, in the Franco-Cantabrian region of northern Spain and southern France. In other parts of Europe, the Mesolithic begins by 11,500 years ago, it ends with the introduction of farming, depending on the region between c. 8,500 and 5,500 years ago. Regions that experienced greater environmental effects as the last glacial period ended have a much more apparent Mesolithic era, lasting millennia. In northern Europe, for example, societies were able to live well on rich food supplies from the marshlands created by the warmer climate; such conditions produced distinctive human behaviors that are preserved in the material record, such as the Maglemosian and Azilian cultures.
Such conditions delayed the coming of the Neolithic until some 5,500 BP in northern Europe. The type of stone toolkit remains one of the most diagnostic features: the Mesolithic used a microlithic technology – composite devices manufactured with Mode V chipped stone tools, while the Paleolithic had utilized Modes I–IV. In some areas, such as Ireland, parts of Portugal, the Isle of Man and the Tyrrhenian Islands, a macrolithic technology was used in the Mesolithic. In the Neolithic, the microlithic technology was replaced by a macrolithic technology, with an increased use of polished stone tools such as stone axes. There is some evidence for the beginning of construction at sites with a ritual or astronomical significance, including Stonehenge, with a short row of large post holes aligned east-west, a possible "lunar calendar" at Warren Field in Scotland, with pits of post holes of varying sizes, thought to reflect the lunar phases. Both are dated to before c. 9,000 BP. As the "Neolithic package" (including farming, polished stone axes, timber longhouses and pot