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Wave function collapse

In quantum mechanics, wave function collapse occurs when a wave function—initially in a superposition of several eigenstates—reduces to a single eigenstate due to interaction with the external world. This interaction is called an "observation", it is the essence of a measurement in quantum mechanics which connects the wave function with classical observables like position and momentum. Collapse is one of two processes. Collapse is a black box for a thermodynamically irreversible interaction with a classical environment. Calculations of quantum decoherence show that when a quantum system interacts with the environment, the superpositions reduce to mixtures of classical alternatives; the combined wave function of the system and environment continue to obey the Schrödinger equation. More this is not enough to explain wave function collapse, as decoherence does not reduce it to a single eigenstate. In 1927, Werner Heisenberg used the idea of wave function reduction to explain quantum measurement. However, if collapse were a fundamental physical phenomenon, rather than just the epiphenomenon of some other process, it would mean nature was fundamentally stochastic, i.e. nondeterministic, an undesirable property for a theory.

Before collapse, the wave function may be any square-integrable function. This function is expressible as a linear combination of the eigenstates of any observable. Observables represent classical dynamical variables, when one is measured by a classical observer, the wave function is projected onto a random eigenstate of that observable; the observer measures the classical value of that observable to be the eigenvalue of the final state. The quantum state of a physical system is described by a wave function; this can be expressed as a vector using Dirac or bra–ket notation: | ψ ⟩ = ∑ i c i | ϕ i ⟩. The kets | ϕ 1 ⟩, | ϕ 2 ⟩, | ϕ 3 ⟩ ⋯, specify the different quantum "alternatives" available—a particular quantum state, they form an orthonormal eigenvector basis, formally ⟨ ϕ i | ϕ j ⟩ = δ i j. Where δ i j represents the Kronecker delta. An observable is associated with each eigenbasis, with each quantum alternative having a specific value or eigenvalue, ei, of the observable. A "measurable parameter of the system" could be the usual position r and the momentum p of a particle, but its energy E, z components of spin and total angular momenta etc.

In the basis representation these are | r, t ⟩ = | x, t ⟩ + | y, t ⟩ + | z, t ⟩, | p, t ⟩ = | p x, t ⟩ + | p y, t ⟩ + | p z, t ⟩, | E ⟩, | s z ⟩, | L z ⟩, | J z ⟩, ⋯. The coefficients c1, c2, c3... are the probability amplitudes corresponding to each basis | ϕ 1 ⟩, | ϕ 2 ⟩, | ϕ 3 ⟩ ⋯. These are complex numbers; the moduli square of ci, |ci|2 = ci*ci, is the probability of measuring the system to be in the state | ϕ i ⟩. For simplicity in the following, all wave functions are assumed to be normalized. With these definitions it is easy to describe the process of collapse. For any observable, the wave function is some linear combination of the eigenbasis of that observable; when an external agency measures the observable associated with the eigenbasis, the wave function collapses fr


Gopal may refer to: Gopal, the infant/child form of Lord Krishna Gopal Bansa, ancient Kingdom in Nepal Gandhian Organisation for Peace and Liberty, an organization founded by Jayatirtha Dasa Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Indian social reformer Gopal Balakrishnan, American philosopher Gopal Baratham, Singaporean author and neurosurgeon Gopal Chandra Bhattacharya, Indian entomologist and naturalist Gopal Bose, Indian cricketer Gopal Gurunath Bewoor, Indian military officer and diplomat Gopal Bhar, Medieval Bengali jester Gopal Bhargava, Indian politician Gopal Bhatnagar, Canadian surgeon Gopal Chakraborty, Indian cricketer Gopal Singh Chauhan, Indian politician Gopal Chhotray, Indian playwright Gopal Singha Dev, king of the Mallabhum Gopal Singha Dev II, king of the Mallabhum Gopal Prasad Dubey, Indian dancer Gopal Nilkanth Dandekar, Indian Marathi writer Gopal Hari Deshmukh, Indian activist and social reformer Gopal Dutt, Indian actor Gopal Ghose, Indian painter Gopal Godse, Indian assassination conspirator Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Indian politician Gopal Krishna Goswami, Indian religious leader Gopal Gupta, Indian computer scientist Gopal Gurung, Nepalese journalist, author and futurist Gopal Goyal Kanda, Indian businessman and politician Gopal Khanna, Indian-American civil servant Gopal Swami Khetanchi, Indian painter Gopal Kirati, Nepalese politician Gopal Krishna, Indian radio astronomer Gopal Krishan, Indian musician Gopal Kundu, Indian biologist Gopal Chandra Lamichhane, Nepali film director Gopal Mayekar, Indian politician and Marathi writer Gopal Meena, Indian politician Gopal Menon, Indian film director Gopal Mishra, Indian journalist and columnist Gopal Shankar Misra, Indian musician and music teacher Gopal Mittal, Indian Urdu poet, writer and journalist Gopal Krishna Muhuri, Bangladeshi academic administrator Gopal Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Indian businessman Gopal Krishna Nahak, Indian social entrepreneur Gopal Krishna Nayak, Indian academic Gopal Singh Nepali, Indian Hindi poet Gopal Parajuli, Nepalese writer Gopal Parmar, Indian politician Gopal Prasad Parajuli, Nepali judge Gopal Krishna Pillai, Indian civil servant Gopal Purushottam Phadke, Indian sports coach Gopal Poddar, Indian businessman Gopal Prasad, Indian-American mathematician Gopal R, Indian military officer Gopal Rai, Indian politician Gopal Rai, Nepalese politician Gopal Rajwani Indian politician and criminal Gopal Raju, Indian-American publisher, journalist and philanthropist Gopal Rath, Indian Odia poet Gopal Singh Rawat, Indian politician Gopal Prasad Rimal, Nepalese poet Gopal Saini, Indian runner Gopal Krishna Sarangi, Indian economist Gopal Sharma, Indian cricketer Gopal Prasad Sharma, Indian artist Gopal Sharman, Indian playwright and writer Gopal Shetty, Indian politician Gopal Singh, Indian politician Gopal Narayan Singh, Indian politician Gopal Prasad Sinha, Indian neurologist and politician Gopal K Singh, Indian Hindi actor Gopal Das Shrestha, Nepali journalist Gopal Subramanium, Indian lawyer Gopal Kalan Tandel, Indian politician Gopal Jee Thakur, Indian politician Gopal Vittal, Indian business executive Gopal Prasad Vyas, Indian poet Gopal Baba Walangkar, Indian social reformer Gopal Yonzon, Nepalese singer Anand Gopal, American journalist Antonio Gopal, Seychellois hurdler B.

Gopal, Indian director Balasubramanian Gopal, Indian biologist Dheerendra Gopal, Indian Kannada actor E. S. Raja Gopal, Indian physicist Geetha Narayanan Gopal, Indian chess player K. Gopal, Indian politician K. Gopal, Indian politician Nakkeeran Gopal, Indian journalist Narayan Gopal, Nepalese singer and composer P. K. Gopal, Indian social worker Priyamvada Gopal, Indian-British English language academic Sarvepalli Gopal, Indian historian Ram Gopal, Indian writer and historian Ram Gopal, Indian-British dancer Tilakam Gopal, Indian volleyball player Vin Gopal, American politician Rajagopal Gopal Das Gopal Krishna All pages with titles containing Gopal

The Hollow Men (Dollhouse)

"The Hollow Men" is the 12th episode of the second season of the American science fiction television series Dollhouse and the show's 25th episode overall. The episode was written by Michele Fazekas, Tara Butters, Tracy Bellomo, directed by Terrence O'Hara, it aired in the United States on Fox on January 15, 2010. This episode follows "Getting Closer"; as such the group head to Tucson. The episode starts in a flashback set two years ago. Caroline is in the Rossum office, as Boyd explains to her that he knows she is special because they have tested her blood, he coerces her to join the Dollhouse, under the pretense that if she doesn't comply she will go to prison or be given the death sentence. Boyd assures her he will keep her safe. In the present and Priya arrive back at the Dollhouse. Neither of them can live with themselves for not helping fight this war. However, as they enter the Dollhouse, they see that the war has begun and move on to investigate. At an unknown location, Ballard destroys his phone and tells DeWitt they should be safe, at least for now, that they have to move and cannot wait any longer.

However, DeWitt disagrees and they continue to wait for the others to arrive. Ballard checks to see. Mellie attempts to kiss Ballard. A vehicle arrives and it turns out it is Boyd and Echo; however Echo is incoherent. Boyd manages to sedate her. Ballard suggests re-evaluating the plan. Ballard says Echo was the only one who could recognise the head of Rossum and in her current state she cannot help, he wonders how they will get inside, but DeWitt says they will walk in through the front door as they have something Rossum wants. Inside the Dollhouse and Priya make their way to the security office to try to get the surveillance footage; however all the hard drives have been taken, so they decide to leave. However, as they pass the imprinting chair, Priya notices a note on top of an inserted wedge saying "Press Enter." After a brief debate, Anthony gets into the chair and is imprinted with Topher 2.0. Priya asks Topher 2.0 what has transpired. The group walk straight through the front door as planned. Clyde 2.0 is there to greet them.

Clyde 2.0 says. DeWitt wonders if it includes the group. Back inside the Dollhouse, Topher 2.0 begins to rant about. Priya is able to calm Topher 2.0 by saying that his original is most alive since otherwise there wouldn't be another person to leave the wedge and the note behind. Topher 2.0 wonders. When Priya mentions the security footage was taken, Topher 2.0 realizes his purpose. He reveals he installed his own camera in the office and plays back the footage, exposing the detail that Boyd had injected Echo with something as she was being imprinted, they realise. In Clyde 2.0's office, Clyde 2.0 praises DeWitt on. Clyde 2.0 says that DeWitt is considered one of them. DeWitt explains that Echo is no use to Rossum given her current condition, but Clyde 2.0 rebuffs by explaining they only want the body. Locked in a room, Mellie and Boyd try to figure out what is going on. Boyd feigns trying to break the lock, when Topher looks away, he uses a key card. Boyd takes Topher with him explaining that they are going after Echo and that Ballard and Mellie would be responsible for taking down the mainframe.

Inside the Dollhouse, Topher 2.0 rants about Boyd's betrayal. Priya attempts to track down Mellie through her tracking device. Priya says they need to go and help but Topher 2.0 isn't sure what they can do. Topher 2.0 says he will sacrifice himself and give Anthony back his body give him additional abilities, including combat and computer skills. As Boyd and Topher make their way around Rossum Headquarters, Topher explains that somebody inside the Dollhouse must have betrayed them, he has recognised. Boyd moves on to take out a guard. Inside the Dollhouse, Anthony's persona has been restored. With his upgrades, he takes out Rossum agents. In Rossum Headquarters, Echo comes to her senses and realises it is Boyd who has betrayed them. Topher and Boyd continue to walk around before stumbling upon a lab. Topher recognises his tech. Boyd tries to use one of them. Topher sees that Rossum attempts to destroy it; however Boyd convinces Topher that if he fixes one unit, they can use it and not have to kill anyone else.

Topher gets to work. Meanwhile and Mellie have made their way to a weapons cache. Mellie tries to understand why Ballard cares given she is only a program; however Ballard says that it doesn't matter to him anymore. Topher realizes. No sooner has he explained it to Boyd. Echo jumps in and beats Boyd to the floor. However, she is stopped by Clyde 2.0. Topher can not believe. Boyd explains that he cares about the

Bernese Jura

Bernese Jura is the name for the French-speaking area of the Swiss canton of Bern, from 2010 one of ten administrative divisions of the canton. Comprising the three French-speaking districts in the northern part of the canton, it contains 40 municipalities with an area of 541.71 km2 and a population of 53,721. More than 90% of the population of the three districts speak French; the Bernese Jura of today comprises only three out of a total of seven districts which were known as the Bernese Jura during the period of 1815–1979. Of the remaining four, three seceded as the canton of Jura in 1979, while the fourth, the Laufen district, joined the canton of Basel-Landschaft in 1994. Most of the territory of the Bernese Jura was passed from the County of Burgundy to the Bishopric of Basel in AD 999, it was annexed by France during the Napoleonic period, 1798-1814. In 1814, the Congress of Vienna accorded it to the canton of Bern to compensate for the loss of the new canton of Vaud. From 1815 to 1979, the term Bernese Jura included the territory now forming the canton of Jura, which seceded following a national popular vote on 24 September 1978.

In 1974 a plebiscite voted to remain part of Bern by a margin of only 70 votes. This led to acts of vandalism on 16 March 1974 and on 7 September 1975 an armed standoff at the Hôtel de la Gare in Moutier, broken up by an elite team of Bernese police on the following day. Two other plebiscites came down on the side of remaining in the Canton of Bern, including one in 1998 which passed with a thin majority of 41 votes. In 2013 a third plebiscite ended with the majority of residents choosing to remain in Bern, though a majority of residents of Moutier wanted to join Jura. On 18 June 2017 the municipality of Moutier voted to join the Canton of Jura by a small margin of 51.7%. Its administrative capital was Biel/Bienne from 1815 to 2009. Since 2010, Biel/Bienne has been made the administrative capital of a separate district, the administrative capital of the remaining Bernese Jura is now Courtelary. According to the canton's constitution, one of the seven members of the Executive Council of Bern has to be a French-speaking citizen of this area.

Of the 160 seats in the Grand Council of Bern, 12 seats are reserved for the Bernese Jura and an additional three seats are guaranteed for the French-speaking population of the bilingual district of Biel/Bienne. The region was divided into three districts: District of Courtelary District of La Neuveville District of Moutier In 2010 the three districts were dissolved and merged to form the Arrondissement administratif Jura bernois. On 1 January 2014 the former municipalities of Diesse, Lamboing and Prêles merged into the new municipality of Plateau de Diesse and Plagne and Vauffelin merged into the municipality of Sauge. On 1 January 2015 the former municipalities of Péry and La Heutte merged to form the new municipality of Péry-La Heutte; the former municipalities of Bévilard and Pontenet merged to form Valbirse. Châtelat, Monible and Souboz merged to form Petit-Val. Radio Bernese Jura Italian Graubünden Bernese Jura in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Bernese Jura Tourism Watch Valley

Artigas Airport

Artigas International Airport is an airport serving Artigas, capital of the Artigas Province of Uruguay. The airport is 2 kilometres west of the city, is close to the border with Brazil; the airport was opened in November 1973. The Artigas non-directional beacon is located 0.7 nautical miles off the threshold of Runway 29. The Monte Caseros VOR-DME is located 59.1 nautical miles west of the airport. 10 February 1978: a TAMU Douglas C-47A 75-DL registration CX-BJH/T511 flying from Artigas to Montevideo crashed shortly after take-off from Artigas on a domestic scheduled passenger flight. All 44 people on board, comprising 38 passengers and 6 crew, were killed, making this the second-worst crash involving a DC-3, the worst aviation accident in Uruguay at the time; the airframe in question had first flown in 1943, was damaged beyond repair in the accident. Aviation portal Uruguay portal Transport in Uruguay List of airports in Uruguay OpenStreetMap - Artigas OurAirports - Artigas Airport Current weather for Artigas, Uruguay at NOAA/NWS Accident history for ATI at Aviation Safety Network

Kong Xuanyou

Kong Xuanyou, or Gong Hyeon-U in Korean, is a Chinese diplomat and the current Ambassador to Japan. He is responsible of Asian affairs and law, land and sea boundaries and other affairs related to consulates. Kong was born in 1959 into an ethnic Korean family in China. Between 1979 and 1983, he studied Arabic and Japanese languages at Shanghai International Studies University. Between 1983 and 1985 he studied foreign relations at China Foreign Affairs University, his first diplomatic post was in the Chinese consulate of Osaka as a clerk. In 2006, he was appointed the envoy of the embassy of China in Japan. Between 2011 and 2014, he was the ambassador of China in Vietnam. After working as the deputy of Asian affairs, he was appointed the assistant minister of the ministry of foreign affairs in 2015. In August 2017, Gong succeeded Wu Dawei as the chief representative of China in Six-party talks, he assumed the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs position in Jan 2018 until he was appointed as Ambassador to Japan.

During his years in Japan, Kong worked together with the current Chinese ambassador to the US Cui Tiankai and Minister of Foreign affair Wang Yi. The three are said to be close friends. According to South Korean media JoongAng Ilbo, when meeting with delegations of Korean parliamentarians, Kong expressed his regret on Korea's decision of deploying THAAD, but did not wish the Sino-Korean relationship to worsen because of that. Kong is married and has one daughter