Esopus Creek is a 65.4-mile-long tributary of the Hudson River that drains the east-central Catskill Mountains of the U. S. state of New York. From its source at Winnisook Lake on the slopes of Slide Mountain, the Catskills' highest peak, it flows across Ulster County to the Hudson at Saugerties. Many tributaries extend its watershed into neighboring Greene County and a small portion of Delaware County. Midway along its length, it is impounded at Olive Bridge to create Ashokan Reservoir, the first of several built in the Catskills as part of New York City's water supply system, its own flow is supplemented 13 miles above the reservoir by the Shandaken Tunnel, which carries water from the city's Schoharie Reservoir into the creek. The creek known as the "Esopus Kill", takes its name from the Esopus tribe of the Lenape, who were the Native American residents of the lower Esopus when the Dutch first explored and settled the Hudson Valley in the early 17th century; the creek's wide valley made it an ideal trading route for the Esopus and other Lenape who harvested the beaver pelts the European traders desired.
Under the English, it became the beginning point for contentious land claims in the mountains. After independence, the Esopus corridor became the main route into the Catskills, first by road later by the Ulster and Delaware Railroad, for forest-product industries like logging and charcoal-making; those industries declined in the late 19th century, shortly before the creation of the Forest Preserve and the Catskill Park made the region more attractive for resorts and recreation trout fishing. The renewed Esopus attracted the attention of fast-growing New York City, able to acquire land and build the reservoir and tunnel after overcoming local political opposition, it divided the creek into an upper stretch a wild mountain stream, a lower stretch closer to the Hudson that becomes more estuarine. Above the reservoir, its water quality is monitored, not only for its role in the city's water supply but to preserve its local economic importance as a recreational resource; as the upper Esopus is one of the most productive trout streams in the Northeast, fly fishermen still come in great numbers to take trout from its accessible banks.
Canoeists and kayakers have been drawn to its whitewater, which has spawned a busy local tubing industry in the summer months. The lower Esopus is an aesthetic and ecological resource, although the estuary at Saugerties is a popular bass fishery; the Esopus's role in the state and regional economy has led to a concentrated effort to protect and manage it on the upper stretch. The interests of the various stakeholders have not always converged where it concerns the city's management of its water needs. Turbidity created by discharges from the Shandaken Tunnel after a 1996 flood led to a successful lawsuit against the city and a state regulation. Boaters and anglers have clashed, invasive species are beginning to enter the upper creek as well; the Esopus is discussed as an upper and lower stream divided by the reservoir. The upper portion, where most recreational use takes place, has the characteristics of a mountain stream — shallow and swift and is where most trout fishing takes place. Below the reservoir's spillway the stream begins again, becoming flatter and slower to its short estuary.
The Esopus flows out of Winnisook Lake on the northwest slopes of Slide Mountain, the Catskills' highest peak, within 300 feet of the West Branch of the Neversink River on the other side of the divide between the Hudson and Delaware watersheds. It descends from there northward into Big Indian Hollow, dropping a thousand feet in its first mile, a narrow and rocky stream through this section, its curving course marks the walls of the buried meteor impact crater that created Panther Mountain to the east. Several tributaries flow down from the slopes of Fir, Big Indian and Belleayre mountains to the west. At the hamlet of Big Indian, it receives Birch Creek, which drains from the small former village of Pine Hill to the west, turns eastward paralleling state highway NY 28. Bushnellsville Creek flows in from the north, where it drains Deep Notch and the slopes of Halcott Mountain and Mount Sherrill. Through this section it widens to 15–40 feet. Five miles further west, near the small former hamlet of Shandaken, the 18-mile Shandaken Tunnel brings water from Schoharie Reservoir into the Esopus, a junction known by fishermen as the Portal, increasing its flow.
The creek continues eastward, now 40–80 feet wide, along the circular route around Panther. At Phoenicia, four miles east of the Portal, the first major settlement along its course, Woodland Creek flows in from the south along the other side of the circle from its headwaters on Wittenberg Mountain. At the NY 214 junction, the Esopus receives Stony Clove Creek from the north, where it drains southern Greene County; the creek is now 60–100 feet wide but shallow here, remaining on the north side of Route 28 as the Catskill Mountain Railroad parallels its banks. It recrosses the highway after Mount Tremper. Just west of Route 28's intersection with NY 212 at Mount Pleasant, the Esopus crosses Route 28 again in an area with flood control measures along its banks, it stays south of the road all the way to where NY 28A crosses it above the west end of Ashokan Reservoir. This is the end of the creek's 26-mile upper section; the reservoir continues for 6.5 miles to its
The Casperkill is a creek in both the town and city of Poughkeepsie, Dutchess County, New York. It flows 11.6 miles from Peach Hill Park to the Hudson River. Combined with its only major tributary, the Fonteyn Kill, it forms, it lies within the British royal grant of 1685 known as the Rombout Patent. Since the spring of 2006, the Casperkill Assessment Project —a partnership between the Vassar College Environmental Research Institute and local organizations and individuals – has been conducting research on the Casperkill creek and its watershed. Students and faculty at Vassar have studied the biology and chemistry of the creek, as well as the land use and policy decisions that affect it; the results of this research have been made available to the public through the Casperkill Assessment Document, which can be accessed below. Shortly after the Casperkill Assessment Project began, a citizens group - The Casperkill Watershed Alliance - was formed to promote awareness, foster appreciation, work towards improving the ecological health of Casperkill watershed.
The alliance is a partnership between the Vassar Environmental Research Institute, Cornell Cooperative Extension Dutchess County, Casperkill Watershed residents, civic officials, other interested parties. The group meets monthly and organizes various community watershed events such as streamside plantings, storm drain marking projects, creek cleanups, natural lawn care workshops, rain barrel workshops, bike rides, more. More information about the Casperkill Watershed Alliance can be found on the dutchesswatersheds.org website below. The Casperkill Oral History Project was initiated in the summer of 2010. Several Vassar students have been interviewing professors and local residents about the Casperkill creek and about the changes that have taken place within the surrounding watershed. Among the topics that the Casperkill Oral History team covers are: sites of historical interest; the information and memories collected by the team are made available to the public on a blog, which can be accessed below.
List of rivers of New York The Casperkill Oral History Project blog The Casperkill Assessment Document Casperkill Watershed on dutchesswatersheds.org Management plan
The Hoosic River known as the Hoosac, the Hoosick and the Hoosuck, is a 76.3-mile-long tributary of the Hudson River in the northeastern United States. The different spellings are the result of varying transliterations of the river's original Algonquian name, it can be translated either as "the beyond place" or as "the stony place". The Hoosic River Watershed is formed from tributaries originating in the Berkshire Hills of Massachusetts, the Green Mountains of Vermont, the Taconic Mountains; the main Branch of the river begins on the west slope of North Mountain and immediately fills the man-made Cheshire Reservoir in Berkshire County, Massachusetts. From there, the river flows north and northwest, through the towns of Cheshire and Adams, the city of North Adams, the town of Williamstown, it travels through Pownal in the southwest corner of Vermont, after which it enters Rensselaer County, New York. There, it flows through the towns of Petersburgh and Hoosick, where it passes over a hydroelectric power dam in the village of Hoosick Falls.
The river provides the northwest border of the town of Pittstown flows through the town of Schaghticoke with its villages of Valley Falls and Schaghticoke before it terminates at its confluence with the Hudson 14 miles above the city of Troy. North Branch Hoosic River Green River Little Hoosick River Walloomsac River - Native American name Wal-loom-sac Owl Kill Wampecack Creek - Native American name Po-quam-pa-cak Tomhannock - Native American name Tom-he-nackSunkouissa Creek - Native American name Sank-an-is-sick List of rivers of Massachusetts List of rivers of New York List of rivers of Vermont Hudson–Hoosic Watershed Hoosic River Watershed Association Hoosuck Chapter of Trout Unlimited Hoosic River Nature Trail in Williamstown
The Maritje Kill is a tributary of the Hudson River in Hyde Park, New York. Its source is three miles northeast of the village of Hyde Park, it enters the Hudson at the Hyde Park campus of the Culinary Institute of America; the river's name uses an old Dutch version of the given name Marietje, meaning "little Mary". It is one of two major waterways in Hyde Park, flows north to south through the town; the river was used by natives since around 1700 BCE, farms and mills existed around the river from the 18th to mid-20th centuries. The Culinary Institute of America purchased part of the surrounding area in 1970; the source of the Maritje Kill is two miles east of the Hudson River, just east of New York State Route 9G. The river runs southeast, through land and two trails of the FDR Home's Roosevelt Farm & Forest, until it reaches the Hudson River at a cove at an undeveloped plot of the Hyde Park campus of the Culinary Institute of America, crossing under Amtrak's Empire Corridor railway in the process.
The river uses an old Dutch version of the name Marietje, meaning "little Mary". It is a kill, a word taken from the Dutch word for "creek"; the river had kept that name around the United States' Colonial Era. Other names in use include Maricha Kill. In 1936, Franklin D. Roosevelt wrote in a letter to Helen W. Reynolds that "Maritje Kill runs, as you know, right through our place. We have always called it by that name, but I do not know who the little Mary was." Reynolds was a longtime collaborator with FDR, on local history. The Culinary Institute of America owns forested land around the river toward the north end of its developed campus; the site's earliest inhabitance started near the Maritje Kill due to the river's abundance in fish, edible plants, clean water. A one-year archaeological survey found evidence of human activity in the wooded property dating at least 3,600 years, with elements dating from around 1700 BCE and up until the mid-20th century. Prehistoric objects included stone tools, byproducts of tool production, projectile points, fire hearths found in the site's portion used for crop cultivation.
In The US's Colonial Era, several mills were built on the river. The earliest settlements in the area date to the 1600s, however the earliest recorded land transfer was in 1719. A saw mill was located on the property since at least 1786, owned by a Revolutionary War militia officer and his family; the family burial ground is a short distance across the kill. According to a 1789 map, a grist mill was located on the northern bank of the kill a short distance west of US Route 9. An 1893 county atlas shows large ponds or lakes behind the dam, indicating that the stream level had once been higher; the property changed ownership multiple times in the 1800s. James Roosevelt owned the land as part of his estate in the 1820s, by the 1860s a farmhouse and stone terraces were constructed along the stream by Moses Beach. In the 1890s the Webendorfer family of Long Island built additional farm buildings. Artifacts and ruins from the Colonial Era dwellings exist, including a site with two house structures, a dam, a mill, retaining walls, outbuildings and barns.
The site was found to be eligible as a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places. Excavations unearthed foundation walls, a well and post molds, artifacts from the mid-to-late 1700s, including ceramics, tobacco pipes, buttons, military objects, domesticated animal remains, an inscribed piece of slate. There are no documents of mills existing on the river east of Route 9, though a large stone dam lies a short way east of the highway, which has a long wooden trough built into it. In February 1976, a collision of two freight trains caused a wreck at the mouth of the river. One of the cars fell into the Maritje Kill's cove, the cars spilled hydrochloric acid. A large development, Bellefield at Historic Hyde Park, is planned to be constructed in the forestland across the highway from the CIA; the development will include shops, spas, 559 units of housing, a 45-acre farm. It will include the Parkside Residences at Maritje Place, a group of houses, apartment-style townhouses, other residential buildings along the Maritje Kill.
The developer T-Rex Capital has owned it for several years, after acquiring it from the developer Baker-Gagne, which planned a similar project and abandoned it during the Financial crisis of 2007–2008. The kill crosses through two trails of the FDR Home's Roosevelt Farm & Forest; the National Park Service has desired a connection through to south of the CIA campus, which would require a crossing of the kill. The school plans to make a road crossing the kill, however a concern is over the unstable riverbanks there and a historic site just south of the river; the Maritje Kill Critical Environmental Area surrounds part of the kill in Hyde Park. It includes areas designated as containing rare animals and plants. List of rivers of New York Media related to Maritje Kill at Wikimedia Commons
The Hudson River is a 315-mile river that flows from north to south through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the Upper New York Bay between New York City and Jersey City, it drains into the Atlantic Ocean at New York Harbor. The river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York at its southern end. Further north, it marks local boundaries between several New York counties; the lower half of the river is a tidal estuary, deeper than the body of water into which it flows, occupying the Hudson Fjord, an inlet which formed during the most recent period of North American glaciation, estimated at 26,000 to 13,300 years ago. Tidal waters influence the Hudson's flow from as far north as the city of Troy; the river is named after Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, who explored it in 1609, after whom Hudson Bay in Canada is named.
It had been observed by Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano sailing for King Francis I of France in 1524, as he became the first European known to have entered the Upper New York Bay, but he considered the river to be an estuary. The Dutch called the river the North River – with the Delaware River called the South River – and it formed the spine of the Dutch colony of New Netherland. Settlements of the colony clustered around the Hudson, its strategic importance as the gateway to the American interior led to years of competition between the English and the Dutch over control of the river and colony. During the eighteenth century, the river valley and its inhabitants were the subject and inspiration of Washington Irving, the first internationally acclaimed American author. In the nineteenth century, the area inspired the Hudson River School of landscape painting, an American pastoral style, as well as the concepts of environmentalism and wilderness; the Hudson was the eastern outlet for the Erie Canal, when completed in 1825, became an important transportation artery for the early-19th-century United States.
The source of the Hudson River is Lake Tear of the Clouds in the Adirondack Park at an altitude of 4,322 feet. However, the river is not cartographically called the Hudson River until miles downstream; the river is named Feldspar Brook until its confluence with Calamity Brook, is named Calamity Brook until the river reaches Indian Pass Brook, flowing south from the outlet of Henderson Lake. From that point on, the stream is cartographically known as the Hudson River; the U. S. Geological Survey uses this cartographical definition; the longest source of the Hudson River as shown on the most detailed USGS maps is the "Opalescent River" on the west slopes of Little Marcy Mountain, originating two miles north of Lake Tear of the Clouds, several miles, past the Flowed Lands, to the Hudson River. And a mile longer than "Feldspar Brook", which flows out of that lake in the Adirondack Mountains. Popular culture and convention, more cite the photogenic Lake Tear of the Clouds as the source. Using river names as seen on maps, Indian Pass Brook flows into Henderson Lake, the outlet from Henderson Lake flows east and meets the southwest flowing Calamity Brook.
The confluence of the two rivers is. South of the outlet of Sanford Lake, the Opalescent River flows into the Hudson; the Hudson flows south, taking in Beaver Brook and the outlet of Lake Harris. After its confluence with the Indian River, the Hudson forms the boundary between Essex and Hamilton counties. In the hamlet of North River, the Hudson flows in Warren County and takes in the Schroon River. Further south, the river forms the boundary between Saratoga Counties; the river takes in the Sacandaga River from the Great Sacandaga Lake. Shortly thereafter, the river leaves the Adirondack Park, flows under Interstate 87, through Glens Falls, just south of Lake George although receiving no streamflow from the lake, it next goes through Hudson Falls. At this point the river forms the boundary between Saratoga Counties. Here the river has an elevation of 200 feet. Just south in Fort Edward, the river reaches its confluence with the Champlain Canal, which provided boat traffic between New York City and Montreal and the rest of Eastern Canada via the Hudson, Lake Champlain and the Saint Lawrence Seaway.
Further south the Hudson takes in water from the Batten Kill River and Fish Creek near Schuylerville. The river forms the boundary between Saratoga and Rensselaer counties; the river enters the heart of the Capital District. It takes in water from the Hoosic River. Shortly thereafter the river has its confluence with the Mohawk River, the largest tributary of the Hudson River, in Waterford; the river reaches the Federal Dam in Troy, marking an impoundment of the river. At an elevation of 2 feet, the bottom of the dam marks the beginning of the tidal influence in the Hudson as well as the beginning of the lower Hudson River. South of the Federal Dam, the Hudson River begins to widen considerably; the river enters the Hudson Valley, flowing along the west bank of Albany and the east bank of Rensselaer. Interstate 90 crosses the Hudson into Albany at this point in the river; the Hudson leaves the Capital District, forming the boundary between Greene and Columbia Counties. It meets its confluence with Schodack Creek, widening at this point.
After flowing by Hudson, the river forms the boundary between Ulster and Columbia Counties and Ulster and Dutchess Counties, passing Germantown and Kingston. The Delaware and Hudson Canal meets the river at t
Fishkill Creek is a tributary of the Hudson River in Dutchess County, New York, United States. At 33.5 miles it is the second longest stream in the county, after Wappinger Creek. It rises in the town of Union Vale and flows southwest to a small estuary on the Hudson just south of Beacon. Part of its 193-square-mile watershed is in Putnam County to the south. Sprout Creek, the county's third-longest creek, is its most significant tributary. Whaley and Sylvan lakes and Beacon Reservoir, its largest and highest lakes, are among the bodies of water within the watershed. While the creek is not impounded for use in any local water supply, it remains a focus of regional conservation efforts as a recreational and aesthetic resource since the lower Fishkill watershed has been extensively developed in the last two decades, it is a popular trout stream. Industries and mills along it helped spur the settlement of the region. Clove and Sweezy brooks, themselves fed by tributaries named and unnamed draining the steep slopes on either side of the narrow upper Clove Valley in the town of Union Vale, drain the swamps of the valley into Pray Pond just north of the hamlet of Clove.
Fishkill Creek is the pond's outflow. It follows Clove Valley Road at first, flowing due south alongside it swings westward into woods after receiving Christie Pond's outlet brook opposite Clove Cemetery. At a short loop in a swampy area where Bruzgul Road crosses twice, it receives another tributary, doubles back to the north around a hill to receive another one and returns to its southward course to widen into McKinney Pond. Once it crosses Bruzgul Road again, it is in Union Vale's major community center. At the park's south end it flows into Furnace Pond, named for an iron mine, once nearby, into the town of Beekman, it returns to the side of County Route 9, now Clove Valley Road, crosses under the NY 55 state highway just west of its intersection with Route 9. As that road climbs the side of a hill, Fishkill Creek crosses to its east side, it continues past Beekman's main park to the hamlet of Beekman is impounded into a new, unnamed lake near Green Haven Correctional Facility. Shortly afterwards it crosses into the town of East Fishkill.
At the town line, south of the hamlet of Stormville, it receives the Whaley Lake outlet brook. It flows westerly through more woods and swamps to where it receives the Sylvan Lake outlet brook just east of the Taconic State Parkway. After crossing underneath, it parallels the parkway south on its west side turns west again and makes a northward bend around another hill to once again parallel County Route 9, now Beekman Road, for a short distance follows the hill's base to the south. From here it meanders under the Metro-North Beacon Line south of Hopewell Junction where it receives Whortlekill Creek, it passes the Hopewell Recreation Center and flows under NY 376. It parallels another state road, NY 82, through a wooded, undeveloped area for several miles to where it receives its longest tributary, Sprout Creek, at the Fishkill town line, it widens into a series of large pools south of Brinckerhoff, at the foot of Honness Mountain where NY 52 crosses. From here it flows more to the west-southwest, a wide stream paralleling Route 52 and the Beacon Line.
It crosses under US 9 in a developed area just south of the village of Fishkill. It turns to the southwest again and receives Clove Creek, a tributary that rises in Fahnestock State Park to the south and drains the Putnam County portion of the Fishkill watershed, just before it flows under Interstate 84. Beyond the interstate it continues southwest alongside the base of the northern slopes of Fishkill Ridge, the northernmost end of the Hudson Highlands, it detours to the north near Glenham and resumes its southwesterly course as it flows into the city of Beacon, where it passes through the eastern section of the city in a narrow valley with the Beacon Line running along its shore. There are many rapids and waterfalls as it descends more to the Hudson. Here it receives Dry Brook, which drains Beacon Reservoir on the ridgetop. South of the Wolcott Avenue bridge, the shores become wooded again as it flows over Tioronda Dam and under the remains of Tioronda Bridge. Below here the creek's estuary opens up, after being split by a small island it flows under a causeway carrying Metro-North's Hudson Line and empties into the Hudson south of Denning Point.
Fishkill Creek's 193-square-mile watershed is the second largest in Dutchess County after Wappinger Creek to the north. It includes the entire towns of Beekman and Union Vale, large portions of East Fishkill and Fishkill, sections of LaGrange and Wappinger and small areas in Pleasant Valley and Washington; the Whaley Lake basin, which includes Little Whaley and Nuclear lakes, is in Pawling. In Putnam County the largest town represented is Philipstown, whose northwestern section drains into the Fishkill. A small portion is in Kent, with an smaller portion in Putnam Valley marking the watershed's southernmost point. To the north is the Wappinger Creek watershed; the Ten Mile River basin, the only portion of New York that drains into the Housatonic River, is to the east. On the southeast are the headwaters of the Croton River, an important part of New York City's water supply, with smaller tributaries of the Hudson like Melzingah Brook and Surprise Brook rising on the southeast; the creek's valley is low-lying level land, with the exception of the area above its headwaters in Union Vale.
Most of its descent takes place either in it
The Kayaderosseras Creek shortened to Kaydeross, is the largest river that lies within Saratoga County, New York State. It originates in the Kayaderosseras Range in the northern part of the county, passes through the towns of Corinth and Milton, serves as the boundary between the City of Saratoga Springs and the Town of Malta before emptying into Saratoga Lake; the Mohawk tribe of the Iroquois Five Nations used the associated valley as a summer hunting and fishing destination. They named. An 1887 source says that the name was derived from French terms, a Mohawk corruption of either pays arrosé, a watered country, or pays des ruisseaux, a country of streams, adapted by the Mohawk when they pushed out the previous inhabitants, the Mahican, in the 17th century; the creek is best known for providing water power to a host of paper mills and a hard edge-tool factory in the 19th century. "Paper Bag King" George West established his paper bag empire on the banks of the Kayaderosseras Creek in Rock City Falls in 1862.
Of the dozen paper mills situated along the creek in the late 19th century, only the Cottrell Paper Company is still in operation as of 2016. From 1898 to 1929, the 12-mile Kaydeross Railroad, or Ballston Terminal Railroad, a trolley railroad line followed the banks of the creek to serve the paper mills and Isaiah Blood's tool factory. Although this line carried passengers it existed to carry freight. Over-logging caused the flow of the creek to decrease in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Today the creek possesses several popular fishing spots in Rock City Falls, Milton Center, Craneville; the principal fish is the brown trout, stocked. The Ballston Terminal Railroad And Its Successors, 2007 Friends of the Kayaderosseras Ballston Spa History - Industries and Railroads Town of Milton, Saratoga County, NY Taff, Conor. "Geologic History of the Kayaderosseras Watershed" Kayaderosseras Creek Canoe and Kayak Trail