Plymouth Voyager is a nameplate for a range of vans that were marketed by the Plymouth division of Chrysler. From 1974 to 1983, the Voyager was a full-size van, sold as the counterpart of Dodge Sportsman. For 1984, the Voyager became. Following the closure of the Plymouth division in 2000, the Voyager was marketed under the Chrysler brand, where it was sold through 2003. From 1988 to 2016, Chrysler used the Chrysler Voyager name for export-market minivans; when including the Plymouth Voyager and Dodge Caravan with their rebadged Chrysler and Volkswagen variants, the Chrysler minivans collectively rank as the 13th best-selling automotive model line worldwide. The Plymouth Voyager minivan was assembled by Chrysler at its Windsor Assembly facility; the full-size Plymouth Voyager van was assembled at the now-closed Pillette Road Truck Assembly facility. From 1974 to 1983, the Plymouth Voyager was the Plymouth counterpart of the Dodge Sportsman; the first truck marketed by Plymouth since 1942, the Voyager was introduced alongside the 1975 Plymouth Trail Duster.
As with the Sportsman, the Voyager was produced with 12-15 passenger seating. Similar to Canadian Fargo vans, Plymouth badged the Voyager with "Plymouth" lettering centered in the grille instead of Dodge lettering on the hood. In 1978, the lettering was moved to the hood. Located on the driver side, the Plymouth lettering was centered for 1979, as the grille was enlarged and restyled. For 1979 and 1980, the Plymouth Voyager and Dodge Royal Sportsman were indistinguishable. In contrast to its Dodge counterpart, the Plymouth Voyager was equipped with a V8 engine as standard equipment. However, the Voyager was only offered with the 360 V8s. Lee Iacocca and Hal Sperlich had conceived their idea for a modern minivan during their earlier tenure at Ford Motor Company. Henry Ford II had rejected Iaccoca's and Sperlich's idea of a minivan in 1974 rumored to carry the name "Maxivan". Iaccoca followed Sperlich to Chrysler Corporation, together they created the T115 minivan — a prototype, to become the Caravan and Voyager, known colloquially as the "Magic-wagons".
The Chrysler minivans launched a few months ahead of the Renault Espace, making them the first of their kind — creating the modern minivan segment in the US. In 1984, Chrysler marketed the rebadged Plymouth variant of its new minivan as the Voyager, using the Chrysler's S platform, derived from the K-platform; the Voyager shared components with the K-cars including portions of the interior, e.g. the Reliant's instrument cluster and dashboard controls, along with the K-platform front-wheel drive layout and low floor, giving the Voyager a car-like ease of entry. The Voyager was on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1985. For 1987, the Voyager received minor cosmetic updates as well as the May 1987 introduction of the Grand Voyager, built on a longer wheelbase adding more cargo room, it was available only with LE trim. First-generation Voyager minivans were offered in three trim levels: an unnamed base model, mid-grade SE, high-end LE, the latter bearing simulated woodgrain paneling. A sportier LX model was added in 1989, sharing much of its components with the Caravan ES.
Safety features included 3-point seat belts for the front two passengers and lap belts for rear passengers. Standard on all Voyagers were mandated side-impact reinforcements for all seating front and rear outboard positions. Safety features such as airbags or ABS were not available. Notably, the Voyager, along with the Dodge Caravan, are considered to be the first mass produced vehicles to have dedicated built in cup holders. Original commercials for the 1984 Voyager featured magician Doug Henning as a spokesperson to promote the Voyager "Magic Wagon's" versatility, cargo space, low step-in height, passenger volume, maneuverability. Commercials in 1989 featured rock singer Tina Turner. Canadian commercials in 1990 featured pop singer Celine Dion. 1984-1986 Voyagers could be equipped for five, seven passengers, with an eight-passenger variant available only in 1985. Five-passenger seating, standard on all trim levels, consisted of two front bucket seats and an intermediate three-passenger bench seat.
In 1985, on base and SE models, the front buckets could be replaced by a 40/60 split three-passenger bench seat, bringing the total number of occupants to six. Seven-passenger seating was an option on SEs and LEs, with dual front buckets, an intermediate two-passenger bench, a rear three-passenger bench. Eight-passenger seating was available on SE models only, with both the additional middle two-passenger bench and three-passenger front bench. Depending on configuration, the base model could seat up to six, the SE could seat up to eight, the LE could seat up to seven; the two bench seats in the rear were independently remova
Budget Rent a Car
Budget Rent a Car System, Inc. is an American car rental company, founded in 1958 in Los Angeles, California by Morris Mirkin. Budget's operations are headquartered in New Jersey. With its original fleet of 10 cars, the company lived up to the'Budget' name by undercutting the daily and per mile rental rates of the established airport based car rental companies. Mirkin was joined in 1959 by Julius Lederer and together they built the company internationally. In 1960, the headquarters moved to Chicago and the rental fleet expanded with franchised and wholly owned rental outlets; the company was acquired by Transamerica Corporation, sold in 1986 in a leveraged buyout by Gibbons and van Amerongen Ltd. along with management and selected investors. The company made its first public stock offering in 1987. Team Rental Group took the name Budget Group. In 2002, it sold the company's assets to Cendant Corporation, which owned Avis. In September 2006, Cendant Corporation separated into four independent companies.
The real estate division became Realogy, Inc. its hospitality services division became Wyndham Worldwide, the travel distribution services division became Travelport, Inc. an affiliate of The Blackstone Group. In 2006, following the Travelport sale, now composed of its vehicle rental services businesses, renamed itself Avis Budget Group. Of the 800 Budget Rental Car locations in the U. S. 600 are company-operated locations and 200 are licensee locations. Internationally, there are 1,800 licensees. Beginning in April 2011, television actress Wendie Malick of Hot in Cleveland is the spokesperson in a series of television and online ads that offer special, limited-time, discount offers. Budget Rent a Car Official Website
Dodge Ram van
The Dodge B series was a range of full-size vans that were produced by Chrysler Corporation from 1971 to 2003. Through their production, the full-size vans were sold under several different nameplates. Most examples were sold by the Dodge division, although rebadged versions were sold by the now-defunct Fargo and Plymouth divisions. Despite many customer requests, the Dodge Ram van was not available in the desired 360 V8 model until 1972. Although Chrysler would make two redesigns of the B-platform van, much of the exterior sheetmetal would remain nearly unchanged over 33 years of production, making it one of the longest-used automotive platforms in American automotive history. For 2003, DaimlerChrysler introduced the Dodge Sprinter, making the B-platform van the last full-size van designed by Chrysler. For its entire production run, Chrysler produced the B-platform vans at the now-demolished Pillette Road Truck Assembly plant in Windsor, Canada. Built on the B platform, the full-size vans entered production for the 1971 model year.
Due to a one-welded-piece "Uniframe" design, the Dodge platform was lighter and stronger and featured a lower cargo floor than the competition, at the expense of noise and harshness. The resulting lower center of gravity improved handling versus the competing products; the B-series van was popular for cab-over motorhome conversion until Chrysler Corporation's egress from that market during their financial difficulties in the late 1970s. All generations of the B-series van feature similar construction, with only small variation from era to era; the most pronounced changes were to the front fenders, hood and bumpers, which tended to follow their full-size truck counterparts in each era. Much of this was a result of the need to meet Federal "crashworthiness" standards. Additionally, the first generation's side door was mounted back several inches, using a fixed panel between the passenger's side front door and the side door, allowing for more access to the side door without interfering with the front passenger's seat.
This panel was eliminated in 1978, a transitional year for the B-series van. Similar construction for the entire 32 years of production made the Dodge Van popular with upbuilders, service companies, other fleets due to the compatibility of installable options from year to year without necessitating a redesign. Dodge first pioneered the extended-rear 15-passenger van favored by school and church groups and dominated this market until overtaken by Ford in the 1990s, it offered a sliding side door as well as a unique side-swinging tail door with a full-width window. It was popular in class-C RV and ambulance conversions; the minivan took over the passenger wagon market. With the Sprinter, Chrysler shifted from American-style full-sized vans in favor of more fuel-efficient European-style models; the B-series van was available with nearly every engine used in a rear-wheel-drive Chrysler product during its production. Six-cylinder engines included the 225-cubic-inch Slant Six I6, the 3.9-liter LA V6, the 3.9 L Magnum V6.
Small-block V8 engines included the LA-series 318 in3, 360 in3, the Magnum 5.2 L, the Magnum 5.9 L. Big-block V8 engines were the 400 in3 and 440 in3. Certain model years came with an optional 5.2-liter engine utilizing compressed natural gas, with a range of up to 300 miles on a full tank, CNG-powered Ram vans were classified as super ultra-low emission vehicles in 1999. Dodge was the last of the four major full-size van makers to market a short-wheelbase van and passenger wagon; the rest of the Big Three took their shortest full-size vans off the market early in the 1990s. All American vans are now produced with wheelbases proportional to the body length, rather than a fixed length that does not change with body or roof size extensions. DaimlerChrysler discontinued production of the Ram van and Ram wagon after the 2003 model year, replacing them with the M-B-based Dodge Sprinter. For the first eight model years, the different configurations of B vans were given names. Sportsman passenger vans had side windows and passenger seating not present in the otherwise identical Tradesman models.
The same range of gasoline-powered slant-6 and V8 engines was offered in these vans as was offered in the Dodge D Series pickup truck. Dodge pioneered the American 15-passenger van genre with the introduction of the Maxiwagon along with the other front engine B series vans that were new for 1971. Ford didn't produce a 15-passenger van until 1978, GM did not introduce theirs until 1990. Little changed on Dodge vans produced between 1971 and 1977, with only a grille change from metal to plastic for the 1974 model year. 1978 was a transition year for B series vans, consisting of the nose from 1977 and earlier vans but with a new dashboard and rear end cap. On the standard length vans, the rear end cap just contained new larger tail lamps, but the extended length Maxivan and Maxiwagon had a redesigned rear extension, longer and had large windows that wrapped around the corners for better visibility; this was unique to the B vans, this same extension was used until the B vans were discontinued in 2003.
On the 1971–77 models, the rear side doors were set back about two feet towards the rear wheelwells, with a filler panel between them and the front doors. Passenger models had a small window between rear doors. Early 1971 vans had black pla
Richmond is a city in east central Indiana, United States, bordering on Ohio. It is the county seat of Wayne County, in the 2010 census had a population of 36,812. Situated within Wayne Township, its area includes a non-contiguous portion in nearby Boston Township, where the Richmond Municipal Airport is located. Richmond is sometimes called the "cradle of recorded jazz" because the earliest jazz recordings, records were made at the studio of Gennett Records, a division of the Starr Piano Company. Gennett Records was the first to record such artists as Bix Beiderbecke. Jelly Roll Morton, Hoagy Carmichael, Lawrence Welk, Gene Autry, among others; the city has twice received the All-America City Award, most in 2009. Richmond is located at 39°49′49″N 84°53′26″W. According to the 2010 census, Richmond has a total area of 24.067 square miles, of which 23.91 square miles is land and 0.157 square miles is water. Richmond is located about 12 miles S of the highest point in Indiana; as of the census of 2010, there were 36,812 people, 15,098 households, 8,909 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,539.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 17,649 housing units at an average density of 737.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83.9% White, 8.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.9% from other races, 4.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population. There were 15,098 households of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.0% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age in the city was 38.4 years. 22.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.9% male and 52.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 39,124 people, 16,287 households, 9,918 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,685.3 people per square mile. There were 17,647 housing units at an average density of 760.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.78% White, 8.87% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.80% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.09% from other races, 2.14% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.03% of the population. There were 16,287 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.1% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.7 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,210, the median income for a family was $38,346. Males had a median income of $30,849 versus $21,164 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,096. About 12.1% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.8% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. In 1806 the first European Americans in the area, Quaker families from North Carolina, settled along the East Fork of the Whitewater River; this was part of a general westward migration in the early decades after the American Revolution. John Smith was one of the earliest settlers. Richmond is still home to several Quaker institutions, including Friends United Meeting, Earlham College and the Earlham School of Religion; the first post office in Richmond was established in 1818 with Robert Morrison as the first postmaster. The town was not incorporated until 1840 with John Sailor being elected as the first mayor.
Early cinema and television pioneer Charles Francis Jenkins grew up on a farm north of Richmond, where he began inventing useful gadgets. As the Richmond Telegram reported, on June 6, 1894, Jenkins gathered his family and newsmen at Jenkins' cousin's jewelry store in downtown Richmond and projected a filmed motion picture for the first time in front of an audience; the motion picture was of a vaudeville entertainer performing a butterfly dance, which Jenkins had filmed himself. Jenkins filed for a patent for the Phantoscope projector in November 1894 and it was issued in March 1895. A modified version of the Phantoscope was sold to Thomas Edison who named it Edison's Vitascope and began projecting motion pictures in New York City vaudeville theaters, raising the curtain on American cinema. Richmond is believed to have been the smallest community in the United States to have supported a professional opera company and symphony orchestra; the Whitewater Opera has since closed but the Richmond Symphony Orchestra has continued.
In 1899 Will Earhart formed the first complete high school orchestra in the nation. A high school orchestra director, Joseph E. Maddy, went on to found what is now known as the Interlochen Center for the Arts in Michigan. In the 1920s during the national revival of the Ku K
International Harvester Travelall
The International Harvester Travelall is a model of full-size, truck-based vehicles that were manufactured by International Harvester in four generations from 1953 to 1975. With a layout similar to the Chevrolet Suburban, optional factory four-wheel drive from 1956, it is both a precursor to modern people movers and full-size sport utility vehicles. International Harvester introduced a new line of trucks, the R Series, in 1953. Included was the 115-inch-wheelbase Travelall, a panel truck equipped with side windows and either two or three rows of passenger seats. Side-opening "barn" style rear cargo doors were standard, with a tailgate available as an option. A Travelall name badge was mounted on the front cowl directly below the International name badge. A few L-Series trucks were produced with windows and seats in 1952, but whether the Travelall name was used that year is unknown. Prior to 1952, International station wagon type vehicles were woodies – third-party company conversions with wooden bodies, that were called "station wagon".
A few K-Series panels in the latter 1940s were built with windows and seats and used by airlines to move people at airports. The Travelall name continued to be used for station wagon versions of the succeeding S-line, A-line, B-line pickup trucks; the 1953 through 1957 Travelalls had two passenger doors. Access to the rear seats in these two-door Travelalls was gained by flipping up the passenger side of the front seat; the R-Series Travelall was powered by the SD 220 inline-six engine, rated at 100 HP gross. The S-Series BD 220 engine was similar; the S-Series Travelall was offered as the S-110 or heavier duty S-120, available with optional four-wheel drive beginning in 1956, for that reason has been called one of the earliest full-sized, all-terrain people movers, now known as SUVs. Introduced in 1957 for the 1958 model year, the A-series offered a 2nd passenger side door for improved access to the rear seats. Models A-100, A-110, A-120 all came with 113 to 154 hp six-cylinder engines, with four-wheel drive optional on the A-120.
The design changes paralleled those of the A-series pickups. Although only modified, the B-Line trucks that appeared in 1959 offered upgraded options for the Travelall. Power steering, power brakes, V-8 engines, other comfort and visual appeal features were introduced to make the Travelall more mainstream and less commercial; the Travelall was offered in the B-100/B-110/B-112 ½-ton range only in 4x2 form. The B-120 was a ¾-ton rated model and, the only Travelall to come in four-wheel drive in this era. A B-122 model featured uprated springs for a higher GVW; the B-Line trucks carried on into the 1961 model year, when another mild facelift transformed them again into the C-Line. In April 1961 the Travelall underwent the same changes as the pickup range upon; the new C-series Travelall benefitted from a whole new chassis with all new independent front torsion bar suspension. Aside from the lower body, the most obvious visual difference were that the twin headlights were now mounted side-by-side, a new grille of a concave egg-crate design.
The wheelbase for the C-100/C-110 Travelall went up to 119 inches, as the front wheels were mounted further forward. This adjustment increased the front clearance angle in spite of the lower body; this series was available either with two doors. The fold down gate had a window. Development continued in a gradual fashion, becoming the D-series in 1965. A steady stream of new grilles and headlight treatments set the model years apart until a more thorough makeover took place in 1969; until this model change, the Travelall had been considered a version of the related pickup truck. The Travelall was last redesigned in the first half of 1969 with a more modern look which echoed that of the smaller Scout. Available engine options for the 1000, 1100, 1200 D-series Travelalls ranged from the unusual 232 ci AMC inline-six via three IHC V8s and four-wheel drive was optional on the 1100 and 1200s. Power outputs ranged from 145 to 253 hp. In 1973 and 1974, due to a short supply of IHC's own V8s, AMC's 401 cubic inch V8 was available as an option called the V-400.
The slow-selling six-cylinder was dropped for 1972, by 1975 only IHC's own V8s were still available, with outputs down to 141–172 hp. A Bendix anti-lock brake system called Adaptive Braking System, operating only on the rear wheels, was available on Travelalls and pickups. Due to the expense of the novel system, it was a selected option. Despite high owner loyalty and satisfaction, sales declined and production of passenger pickups and Travelalls ended in May 1975; the company exists today as Navistar International, continues to make medium and large trucks. Travelalls were produced with raised roofs and extended wheelbases for applications such as school buses and airport limos. Many of these modifications were performed by the Springfield Equipment Company and were marketed by International. In 1973 and 1974 a modified Travelall was marketed as the International Harvester Wagon Master; the roof over the cargo section was removed to make a short pickup type bed. The target market for the Wagon Master were people.
The exposed cargo area provided the space n
Paratransit is recognized in North America as special transportation services for people with disabilities provided as a supplement to fixed-route bus and rail systems by public transit agencies. Paratransit services may vary on the degree of flexibility they provide their customers. At their simplest they may consist of a taxi or small bus that will run along a more or less defined route and stop to pick up or discharge passengers on request. At the other end of the spectrum—fully demand responsive transport—the most flexible paratransit systems offer on-demand call-up door-to-door service from any origin to any destination in a service area. In addition to public transit agencies, Paratransit services are operated by community groups or not-for-profit organizations, for-profit private companies or operators. Minibuses are used to provide paratransit service. Most paratransit vehicles are equipped with wheelchair ramps to facilitate access. In the United States, private transportation companies provide paratransit service in cities and metropolitan areas under contract to local public transportation agencies.
Transdev, First Transit and MV Transportation are among the largest private contractors of paratransit services in the United States and Canada. "Definition: any type of public transportation, distinct from conventional transit, such as flexibly scheduled and routed services such as airport limousines, etc. Etymology: para-'alongside of' + transit" The use of "paratransit" has evolved and taken on two somewhat separate broad sets of meaning and application; the more general meaning involved projects starting in the early 1970s, documented by the Urban Institute in the 1974 book Para-transit: Neglected options for urban mobility, followed a year by the first international overview, Paratransit: Survey of International Experience and Prospects. Robert Cervero's 1997 book, Paratransit in America: Redefining Mass Transportation, embraced this wider definition of paratransit, arguing that America's mass transit sector should enlarge to include micro-vehicles and shared-taxi services found in many developing cities.
Paratransit, as an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules, are common and offer the only mechanized mobility options for the poor in many parts of the developing world. Since the early 1980s in North America, the term began to be used to describe the second meaning: special transport services for people with disabilities. In this respect, paratransit has become a business in its own right; the term paratransit is used outside of North America. In 2013, the Canadian Urban Transit Association compared the eligibility requirements of paratransit services in Canada and the United States. Annually, the Canadian Urban Transit Association publishes a fact book providing statistics for all of the Ontario specialized public transit services as of 2015 there were 79 in operation. Before passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, paratransit was provided by not-for-profit human service agencies and public transit agencies in response to the requirements in Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
Section 504 prohibited the exclusion of the disabled from "any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance". In Title 49 Part 37 of the Code of Federal Regulations, the Federal Transit Administration defined requirements for making buses accessible or providing complementary paratransit services within public transit service areas. Most transit agencies did not see fixed route accessibility as desirable and opted for a flexible system of small paratransit vehicles operating parallel to a system of larger, fixed-route buses; the expectation was that the paratransit services would not be used, making a flexible system of small vehicles a less expensive alternative for accessibility than options with larger, fixed-route vehicles. This however ended up not being the case. Paratransit services were being filled up to their capacity. In some cases, leaving individuals who were in need of the door to door service provided by paratransit unable to utilize it due to the fact that disabled people who could use fixed-route vehicles found themselves using these paratransit services.
With the passage of the ADA, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act was extended to include all activities of state and local government. Its provisions were not limited to programs receiving federal funds and applied to all public transit services, regardless of how the services were funded or managed. Title II of the ADA more defined a disabled person's right to equal participation in transit programs, the provider's responsibility to make that participation possible. In revisions to Title 49 Part 37, the Federal Transit Administration defined the combined requirements of the ADA and the Rehabilitation Act for transit providers; these requirements included "complementary" paratransit to destinations within 3/4 mile of all fixed routes and submission of a plan for complying with complementary paratransit service regulations. Paratransit service is an unfunded mandate. Under the ADA, complementary paratransit service is required for passengers who are 1) Unable to navigate the public bus system, 2) unable to get to a point from which they could access the public bus system, or 3) have a temporary need for these services because of injury or some type of limited duration cause of disability.
Title 49 Part 37 details the eligibility rules along with requirements governing how the service must be provided and managed. In the United States, paratransit service is now
A minibus, microbus, or minicoach is a passenger carrying motor vehicle, designed to carry more people than a multi-purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus. In the United Kingdom, the word "minibus" is used to describe any full-sized passenger carrying van. Minibuses have a seating capacity of between 30 seats. Larger minibuses may be called midibuses. Minibuses are front-engined step-entrance vehicles, although low floor minibuses do exist. Minibuses are used for a variety of reasons. In a public transport role, they can be used as fixed route transit buses, airport buses, flexible demand responsive transport vehicles, share taxis or large taxicabs. Accessible minibuses can be used for paratransit type services, by local authorities, transit operators, hospitals or charities. Private uses of minibuses can include charter buses, tour buses. Schools, sports clubs, community groups and charities may use minibuses for private transport. Individual owners may use reduced seating minibuses as cheap recreational vehicles.
By size, microbuses are minibuses smaller than 8 metres long. Midibuses are minibuses smaller than full-size buses. There are many different types and configurations of minibuses, due to historical and local differences, usage. Minibus designs can be classified in three main groups, with a general increase in seating capacity with each type: Van conversions. Simple, optional extras Body builds Purpose built The most basic source of minibuses is the van conversion, where the minibus is derived by modifying the existing van design. Conversions may be produced by the van manufacturer, sold as part of their standard model line-up, or be produced by specialist conversion companies, who source a suitably prepared base model from the van manufacturer for final completion as a minibus. Van conversions involve adding windows to the bodywork, seating to the cargo area. Van conversion minibuses outwardly look the same shape as the parent van, the driver and front passenger cabin remains unchanged, retaining the driver and passenger doors.
Access to the former cargo area for passengers is through the standard van side sliding door, or the rear doors. These may be fitted with step equipment to make boarding easier. Optional extras to van converted minibuses can include the addition of a rollsign for transit work, and/or a full-height walk-in door, for passenger access to the former cargo area. For public transport use, this door may be an automatic concertina type. For other uses, this may be a simple plug style coach door. Depending on the relevant legislation, conversions may involve wheelchair lifts and tachograph equipment. A van conversion with a passenger area in the front and a storage area in the back, behind a fixed bulkhead, is called a splitter bus. Examples of vans used for these conversion minibuses are: Ford Transit Hyundai H350 LDV Maxus Mercedes-Benz Sprinter Renault Master Toyota Hiace Volkswagen Crafter Another method of building a minibus is for a second stage manufacturer to build a specific body for fitting to a semi-completed van or light truck chassis.
These allow a higher seating capacity than a simple van conversion. The second stage manufacturer is a bus manufacturer. In a body-on-chassis minibus, a cabin body is installed on a van or light truck chassis encompassing the drivers area; these designs may retain some outward signs such as the hood and grill. Other designs are visually a complete bus design, it is the chassis underneath, from the van design; the body-on-chassis approach gives the advantage of higher seating capacity, or more room for passenger comfort, through a larger cabin area. There is the advantage of being able to have the drivers seat positioned in a small cubicle, next to the main passenger entrance, allowing the driver to collect fares in a transit bus role. Examples of body built minibuses are: Busette Optare CityPacer Plaxton Beaver Examples of vehicles used for this type of minibuses are: Ford Transit Freight Rover Isuzu Elf locally built as the NQR bus A next generation approach to the van-derived or cutaway chassis approach, is for manufacturers to produce an integral design, where the whole vehicle is purposely designed and built for use as a minibus.
This is done by an integral bus manufacturer, although large automotive groups produce their own models. These designs are available in long high capacity versions, may attract different designations, such as midibus, or light bus. Examples of purpose built minibuses are: Hino Liesse Isuzu Journey MCW Metrorider Nissan Diesel RN Nissan Civilian Mitsubishi Fuso Rosa Toyota Coaster Karsan J9 Premier Karsan J10 Hyundai County Daewoo Lestar Renault Dodge S56 Following the development of low-floor technology, some low-floor purpose built minibuses have been created; some offer a low floor access through a centre door. Some short versions of low floor midibuses are sometimes called minibuses. Orion International "Orion II" Mitsubishi Fuso Aero Midi ME Optare Solo Optare Alero Karsan JEST! Hino Poncho Nissan Diesel RN Bluebird Tucana Bluebird Auriga Mercedes-Benz Sprinter There are many different form of public transportation services around the world that are provided by using vehicles that can be considered as minibus: Chiva bus in Colombia and