Anthony Wayne was a United States Army officer and statesman. He adopted a military career at the outset of the American Revolutionary War, where his military exploits and fiery personality earned him promotion to brigadier general and the nickname Mad Anthony, he led the Legion of the United States. Wayne was born in Chester County, he worked as a tanner and surveyor after attending the College of Philadelphia, he won election to the Pennsylvania General Assembly and helped raise a Pennsylvania militia unit in 1775. During the Revolutionary War, he served in the Invasion of Quebec, the Philadelphia campaign, the Yorktown campaign, his reputation suffered due to his defeat in the Battle of Paoli, but he won wide praise for his leadership in the 1779 Battle of Stony Point. After the war, Wayne settled in Georgia on land, granted to him for his military service, he represented Georgia in the United States House of Representatives returned to the Army to accept command of the Northwest Indian War.
His forces defeated several Indian tribes at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, the subsequent Treaty of Greenville ended the war. Wayne died in 1796 while on active duty. Various places and things have been named after him, including the cities of Fort Wayne, Waynesburg, Waynesboro and Waynesboro, Georgia, as well as Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. Wayne was one of four children born to Isaac Wayne and Elizabeth Iddings Wayne in Easttown Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, his father was part of a Protestant Anglo-Irish family. Wayne was born on January 1745 on his family's Waynesborough estate, he was educated as a surveyor at his uncle's private academy in Philadelphia as well as at the College of Philadelphia, although he did not earn a degree. In 1765, Benjamin Franklin sent him and some associates to work for a year surveying land granted in Nova Scotia, he assisted with starting a settlement the following year at The Township of Monckton. In 1767, he returned to work in while continuing work as a surveyor.
He became a prominent figure in Chester County and served in the Pennsylvania legislature from 1774 to 1780. He married Mary Penrose in 1766 and they had two children, their daughter Margretta was born in 1770 and their son Isaac Wayne was born in 1772 and became a Representative from Pennsylvania. Wayne raised a militia unit in 1775 and became colonel of the 4th Pennsylvania Regiment in 1776, he and his regiment were part of the Continental Army's unsuccessful invasion of Canada where he was sent to aid Benedict Arnold, during which he commanded a successful rear-guard action at the Battle of Trois-Rivières and led the distressed forces on Lake Champlain at Fort Ticonderoga and Mount Independence. His service resulted in a promotion to brigadier general on February 21, 1777. On September 11, 1777, Wayne commanded the Pennsylvania Line at the Battle of Brandywine where they held off General Wilhelm von Knyphausen to protect the American right flank; the two forces fought for three hours until the American line withdrew and Wayne was ordered to retreat.
He was ordered to harass the British rear in order to slow General Howe's advance towards Pennsylvania. Wayne's camp was attacked on the night of September 20–21 in the Battle of Paoli. General Charles Grey ordered his men to remove their flints and attack with bayonets in order to keep their assault secret; the attack earned General Grey the nickname "No Flint," but the Americans pointed to the tactics and casualties as examples of British brutality. General Wayne's own reputation was tarnished by the American losses, he demanded a formal inquiry in order to clear his name. On October 4, 1777, Wayne again led his forces against the British in the Battle of Germantown, his soldiers pushed ahead of other units, the British "pushed on with their Bayonets—and took Ample Vengeance" as they retreated, according to Wayne's report. Generals Wayne and Sullivan advanced too however, became entrapped when they reached two miles ahead of other American units. General Wayne was again ordered to cover the rear of the retreating body.
After winter quarters at Valley Forge, Wayne led the attack at the 1778 Battle of Monmouth where his forces were abandoned by General Charles Lee and pinned down by a numerically superior British force. Wayne held out; the body of Lt. Colonel Henry Monckton was discovered by the 1st Pennsylvania Regiment, a legend grew that he had died fighting Wayne. In July 1779, Washington named Wayne to command the Corps of Light Infantry, a temporary unit of four regiments of light infantry companies drawn from all the regiments in the Main Army, his successful attack on British positions in the Battle of Stony Point was the highlight of his Revolutionary War service. On July 16, 1779, he replicated the bold attack used against him at Paoli and led a nighttime bayonet attack lasting 30 minutes, his three columns of about 1,500 light infantry stormed and captured British fortifications at Stony Point, a cliff-side redoubt commanding the southern Hudson River. The battle lasted 25 minutes and ended with around 550 prisoners taken, with fewer than 100 casualties for Wayne's forces.
The success of this operation provided a boost to the morale of the army, which had suffered a series of military defeats, the Continental Congress awarded him a medal for the victory. It was after this battle that he earned the name Mad Anthony for what his fellow sold
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Marion County, Illinois
Marion County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 39,437, its county seat is Salem. Marion County comprises the Centralia, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the St. Louis-St. Charles-Farmington, MO-IL Combined Statistical Area. Marion County was organized on 24 January 1823 from portions of Fayette counties, it was named in honor of Revolutionary War Gen. Francis Marion, the "Swamp Fox". According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 576 square miles, of which 572 square miles is land and 3.7 square miles is water. The southwest corner of Marion County is the intersection of the Baseline with the Third Principal Meridian, the point of origin for the third survey of the Northwest Territory under the Land Ordinance of 1785; the origin is marked with a boulder south of Centralia just off U. S. 51. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Salem have ranged from a low of 18 °F in January to a high of 88 °F in July, although a record low of −23 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in August 1983.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.46 inches in January to 4.37 inches in May. Interstate 57 U. S. Route 50 U. S. Route 51 Illinois Route 37 Illinois Route 161 Fayette County - north Clay County - east Wayne County - southeast Jefferson County - south Washington County - southwest Clinton County - west As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 39,437 people, 16,148 households, 10,746 families residing in the county; the population density was 68.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 18,296 housing units at an average density of 32.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.1% white, 3.9% black or African American, 0.6% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.4% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 27.5% were German, 15.8% were Irish, 13.6% were English, 10.8% were American. Of the 16,148 households, 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.5% were non-families, 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age was 41.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $38,974 and the median income for a family was $50,518. Males had a median income of $41,428 versus $28,042 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,493. About 12.2% of families and 16.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.9% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those age 65 or over. Centralia Kinmundy Salem Wamac Marion County is divided into seventeen townships: Initially a Democratic anti-Yankee county, Marion County has undergone two transitions. Between 1912 and 2004 it was a perfect bellwether apart from the Catholicism-influenced 1960 election when substantial anti-Catholic voting by its southern white population caused it to support Republican Richard Nixon. Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, strong opposition to the Democratic Party’s liberal views on social issues has transformed the county into a powerfully Republican one, with Hillary Clinton receiving a vote share over twelve percent smaller than any pre-2010 Democratic presidential nominee.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Marion County, Illinois
Northwest Indian War
The Northwest Indian War known as the Ohio War, Little Turtle's War, by other names, was a war between the United States and a confederation of numerous Native American tribes, with support from the British, for control of the Northwest Territory. It followed centuries of conflict over this territory, first among Native American tribes, with the added shifting alliances among the tribes and the European powers of France and Great Britain, their colonials. Under the Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolutionary War, Great Britain ceded to the U. S. "control" of what were known as the Ohio Country and the Illinois Country, which were occupied by numerous Native American peoples. Despite the treaty, the British kept forts there and continued policies that supported the Native Americans. With the encroachment of European settlers west of the Appalachians after the War, a Huron-led confederacy formed in 1785 to resist usurpation of Indian lands, declaring that lands north and west of the Ohio River were Indian territory.
President George Washington directed the United States Army to enforce U. S. sovereignty over the territory. The U. S. Army, consisting of untrained recruits and volunteer militiamen, suffered a series of major defeats, including the Harmar Campaign and St. Clair's Defeat. About 1,000 soldiers and militiamen were killed and the United States forces suffered many more casualties than their opponents. After St. Clair's disaster, Washington ordered Revolutionary War hero General "Mad" Anthony Wayne to organize and train a proper fighting force. Wayne took command of the new Legion of the United States late in 1792. After a methodical campaign up the Great Miami and Maumee River Valleys in western Ohio Country, he led his men to a decisive victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers near southwestern Lake Erie in 1794. Afterward he went on to establish Fort Wayne at the Miami capital of Kekionga, the symbol of U. S. sovereignty in the heart of Indian Country. The defeated tribes were forced to cede extensive territory, including much of present-day Ohio, in the Treaty of Greenville in 1795.
The Jay Treaty in the same year arranged for cessions of British Great Lakes outposts on the great U. S. territory. Settlement west of the Appalachians brought about a collision of differing notions of land usage and ownership between Indians and whitemen. To the Indians, land belonged to all, anyone could hunt or use it. Attempts to avoid conflict resulted in a succession of boundary lines being defined between Indian Country and whiteman's settlements. Co-operation among the Native American tribes forming the Western Confederacy had gone back to the French colonial era, it was renewed during the American Revolutionary War. The confederacy first came together in the autumn of 1785 at Fort Detroit, proclaiming that the parties to the confederacy would deal jointly with the United States, rather than individually; this determination was renewed in 1786 at the Wyandot village of Upper Sandusky. The confederacy declared the Ohio River as the boundary between their lands and those of American settlers.
The confederacy was a loose association of Algonquin-speaking tribes in the Great Lakes area. The Wyandot were the nominal "fathers," or senior guaranteeing tribe of the confederacy, but the Shawnee and Miami provided the greatest share of the fighting forces. Other tribes in the confederacy included the Delaware, Council of Three Fires, Kickapoo and Wabash Confederacy. In most cases, an entire tribe was not involved in the war. Villages and individual warriors and chiefs decided on participation in the war. Nearly 200 Cherokee warriors from two bands of the Overmountain Towns fought alongside the Shawnee from the inception of the Revolution through the years of the Indian Confederacy. In addition, the Chickamauga Cherokee leader, Dragging Canoe, sent a contingent of warriors for a specific action; some warriors of the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes from the southeast, traditional enemies of the northwest tribes, served as scouts for the United States during these years. Still opposed to the US, some British agents in the region sold weapons and ammunition to the Indians and encouraged attacks on American settlers.
British Lieutenant Governor John Simcoe, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War, was delighted with the United States' failures, hoped for British involvement in the creation of a neutral barrier state between the United States and Canada. In 1793, Simcoe abruptly changed policy and sought peace with the United States in order to avoid opening a new front in the French Revolutionary Wars. Simcoe treated the United States commissioners - Benjamin Lincoln, Beverly Randolph, Timothy Pickering - cordially when they arrived at Niagara in May 1793, seeking an escort by way of the Great Lakes in order to avoid the fate of John Hardin and Alexander Truman in 1792. War parties launched a series of isolated raids in the mid-1780s, resulting in escalating bloodshed and mistrust. In the fall of 1786, General Benjamin Logan led a force of Federal soldiers and mounted Kentucky militia against several Shawnee towns along the Mad River; these were defended by noncombatants while the warriors were raiding forts in Kentucky.
Logan burned the native towns and food supplies, killed or captured numerous natives, including their chief Moluntha, murdered by one of Logan's men. Logan's raid and the execution of the chief embittered the Shawnees, who retaliated by escalating their attacks on American settlers. Native American raids on both sides of the Ohio River resulted in increasing casualties. During the
White County, Illinois
White County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 14,665, its county seat is Carmi. It is located in the southern portion of Illinois known locally as "Little Egypt". White County was organized from Gallatin County in 1815, was named after Captain Leonard White, a Gallatin County legislator, credited with the idea of extending the Illinois-Wisconsin border a few miles north of the southern tip of Lake Michigan and was in charge of the salt works at Equality, he was killed in 1811 at the Battle of Tippecanoe. The county seat, was founded in 1814, incorporated in 1816; the first courthouse was in the log cabin of John Craw. The first white settlers came to White County between 1807 and 1809; the first settlements were near the Little Wabash River and Big Prairie, one of the numerous prairies in the county. These families—Hanna, Hay, Calvert, Holderby, Stewart, among others—typically had spent time in the Carolinas, Kentucky or Tennessee before moving into Illinois, most were of Scots-Irish descent.
Many came through the land office at Shawneetown, a port for flatboats which traveled the Ohio River. Other early settlements were Grayville, located at the mouth of Bonpas Creek and the Wabash River, settled by the Gray family around 1810. Old Sharon Church, located near the village of Sacramento, was organized around 1816, the village of Seven Mile Prairie was established a few miles north of the church in the 1830s; the parents of longtime Abraham Lincoln girlfriend Ann Rutledge were part of this group, along with families named McArthy, Miller, McClellan, Storey and Johnson. About 1839, a group of Irish immigrants began moving into the extreme western part of Enfield Township, led by Patrick Dolan, as well as members of the Mitchell and Dunn clans. Dolan was auctioneer in 1853 when the village of Enfield was platted, as Seven Mile moved west in anticipation of a railroad line, not built until 1872. German families moved into the middle portion of the county in the 1840s and onward from the Baden region, included the family names of Rebstock, Brown, Sailer and Drone.
The second half of the 19th century saw the establishment of the towns of Norris City, Mill Shoals, Herald, Burnt Prairie, Phillipstown, Concord and Rising Sun --the latter two villages are located on the Wabash and attracted several African-American families. A number of villages which no longer exist were formed: Trumbull, Middle Point, Stokes Station, Bungay, Calvin and Dolan Settlement. In 1925, White County was devastated by the Tri-State Tornado, the deadliest tornado in U. S. history. A good proportion of the 127 killed in Hamilton and White counties were in White County itself; the main town affected was Carmi. Agriculture was the primary industry of White County until the summer of 1939, when oil was discovered in the Storms and Stinson fields in the Wabash River Bottoms; the population of Carmi doubled within two years, from 2,700 to 5,400, with corresponding increases at Crossville and Grayville—in 1940 it was said one could walk between these two towns by walking from rig to rig. Many of these workers migrated from previous oil booms in Oklahoma.
As of 2013, fracking is underway near Carmi. The current population of White County is a little over 17,000, with 6,500 in the county seat of Carmi. There is a high number of retired people, many citizens work in the factories of Evansville or Mount Vernon, located 45 and 25 miles to the east, respectively. Besides oil and agriculture, industries include auto parts manufacturing, plastics, a convenience store distribution center and underground coal mining. White County, Illinois was the site of the ill-fated Erie Canal Soda Pop Festival known as the Bull Island Fest in 1972. Three county sheriffs were the only police force present at the festival. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 502 square miles, of which 495 square miles is land and 7.1 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Carmi have ranged from a low of 22 °F in January to a high of 89 °F in July, although a record low of −20 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 103 °F was recorded in August 2007.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.61 inches in October to 5.00 inches in May. Interstate 64 U. S. Highway 45 Illinois Route 1 Illinois Route 14 Illinois Route 141 Edwards County Gibson County, Indiana Posey County, Indiana Gallatin County Saline County Hamilton County Wayne County As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 14,665 people, 6,313 households, 4,142 families residing in the county; the population density was 29.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,181 housing units at an average density of 14.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.1% white, 0.4% black or African American, 0.3% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.1% of the population
Clay County, Illinois
Clay County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,815, its county seat is Louisville. In 1950, the U. S. Census Bureau placed the mean center of U. S. population in Clay County. Clay County was formed in 1824 out of portions of Wayne and Fayette counties, its name is in honor of Henry Clay, famous American statesman, member of the United States Senate from Kentucky and United States Secretary of State in the 19th century. Clay was an unsuccessful candidate for President in the year. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 470 square miles, of which 468 square miles is land and 1.3 square miles is water. Jasper County - northeast Richland County - east Wayne County - south Marion County - west Fayette County - northwest Effingham County - north I-57 US 45 US 50 IL 37 In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Louisville have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 89 °F in July, although a record low of −25 °F was recorded in January 1904 and a record high of 111 °F was recorded in July 1936.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.49 inches in February to 4.34 inches in June. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 13,815 people, 5,697 households, 3,790 families residing in the county; the population density was 29.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,404 housing units at an average density of 13.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.7% white, 0.5% Asian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 0.5% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 21.7% were German, 14.6% were American, 12.6% were Irish, 8.6% were English. Of the 5,697 households, 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.1% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.5% were non-families, 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.89.
The median age was 42.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $38,016 and the median income for a family was $48,659. Males had a median income of $38,191 versus $27,347 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,802. About 11.2% of families and 16.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.4% of those under age 18 and 14.7% of those age 65 or over. Clay City Community Unit District 10 Dieterich Community Unit School District 30 Effingham Community Unit School District 40 Flora Community Unit School District 35 Jasper County Community Unit School District 1 North Clay Community Unit School District 25 North Clay High School South Central Community Unit School District 401 West Richland Community Unit School District 2 Flora Clay City Iola Louisville Sailor Springs Xenia Clay County is divided into these twelve townships: As part of Upper Southern-leaning Southern Illinois, Clay County is powerfully Republican. No Democratic Presidential nominee has won a majority in Clay County since Lyndon Johnson’s 1964 landslide, for the region recent Presidential elections have seen dramatic declines in Democratic support due to disagreement with liberal positions on social issues.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Clay County, Illinois Specific GeneralUnited States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names United States National Atlas Illinois State Archives
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com