Histology microanatomy, is the branch of biology which studies the tissues of animals and plants using microscopy. It is studied using a light microscope or electron microscope, the specimen having been sectioned and mounted on a microscope slide. Histological studies may be conducted using tissue culture, where live animal cells are isolated and maintained in an artificial environment for various research projects; the ability to visualize or differentially identify microscopic structures is enhanced through the use of staining. Histology is one of the major preclinical subjects in medical school. Medical students are expected to be familiar with the morphological features and function of all cells and tissues of the human body from an early stage of their studies, so histology stretches over several semesters. Histopathology, the microscopic study of diseased tissue, is an important tool in anatomical pathology, since accurate diagnosis of cancer and other diseases requires histopathological examination of samples.
Trained physicians licensed pathologists, are the personnel who perform histopathological examination and provide diagnostic information based on their observations. The trained personnel who prepare histological specimens for examination are histotechnicians, histotechnologists, histology technicians, histology technologists, medical scientists, medical laboratory technicians, or biomedical scientists, their support workers, their field of study is called histotechnology. In the 17th century, Italian Marcello Malpighi invented one of the first microscopes for studying tiny biological entities. Malpighi analysed several parts of the organs of bats and other animals under the microscope. Malpighi, while studying the structure of the lung, noticed its membranous alveoli and the hair-like connections between veins and arteries, which he named capillaries, his discovery established how the oxygen enters the blood stream and serves the body. In the 19th century, histology was an academic discipline in its own right.
The French anatomist Bichat introduced the concept of tissue in anatomy in 1801, the term "histology" first appeared in a book of Karl Meyer in 1819. Bichat described twenty-one human tissues, which can be subsumed under the four categories accepted by histologists; the usage of illustrations in histology, deemed as useless by Bichat, was promoted by Jean Cruveilhier. During the 19th century, many fixation techniques were developed by Adolph Hannover, Franz Schulze and Max Schultze, Alexander Butlerov and Benedikt Stilling. In the early 1830, Purkynĕ invented a microtome with high precision. Mounting techniques were developed by Rudolf Heidenhain, Salomon Stricker, Andrew Pritchard and Edwin Klebs. Koelliker's laboratory developed haematoxylin staining, in 1870s, Vysockij introduced eosin as a double or counter staining; the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to histologists Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramon y Cajal. They had conflicting interpretations of the neural structure of the brain based on differing interpretations of the same images.
Cajal won the prize for his correct theory, Golgi for the silver staining technique he invented to make it possible. There are four basic types of animal tissues: muscle tissue, nervous tissue, connective tissue, epithelial tissue. All tissue types are subtypes of these four basic tissue types. Epithelium: the lining of glands, bowel and some organs like the liver and kidney Endothelium: the lining of blood and lymphatic vessels Mesothelium: the lining of pleural and pericardial spaces Mesenchyme: the cells filling the spaces between the organs, including fat, bone and tendon cells Blood cells: the red and white blood cells, including those found in lymph nodes and spleen Neurons: any of the conducting cells of the nervous system Germ cells: reproductive cells Placenta: an organ characteristic of true mammals during pregnancy, joining mother and offspring, providing endocrine secretion and selective exchange of soluble, but not particulate, blood-borne substances through an apposition of uterine and trophoblastic vascularised parts Stem cells: cells with the ability to develop into different cell typesThe tissues from plants and microorganisms can be examined histologically.
Their structure is different from animal tissues. For plants, the study of their tissues is more called as plant anatomy, with the following main types: Dermal tissue Vascular tissue Ground tissue Meristematic tissue Chemical fixatives are used to preserve tissue from degradation, to maintain the structure of the cell and of sub-cellular components such as cell organelles; the most common fixative for light microscopy is 10% neutral buffered formalin. For electron microscopy, the most used fixative is glutaraldehyde as a 2.5% solution in phosphate buffered saline. These fixatives preserve tissues or cells by irreversibly cross-linking proteins; the main action of these aldehyde fixatives is to cross-link amino groups in proteins through the formation of methylene bridges, in the case of formaldehyde, or by C5H10 cross-links in the case of glutaraldehyde. This process, while preserving the structural integrity of the cells and tissue can damage the biological functionality of proteins enzymes, and
Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates and protein by promoting the absorption of carbohydrates glucose from the blood into liver and skeletal muscle cells. In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both. Glucose production and secretion by the liver is inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood. Circulating insulin affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues, it is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism of reserve body fat. Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations known as blood sugar levels; when the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood. Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells, secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high.
Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin. The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the blood in response to the blood glucose concentration is the primary mechanism of glucose homeostasis. If beta cells are destroyed by an autoimmune reaction, insulin can no longer be synthesized or be secreted into the blood; this results in type 1 diabetes mellitus, characterized by abnormally high blood glucose concentrations, generalized body wasting. In type 2 diabetes mellitus the destruction of beta cells is less pronounced than in type 1 diabetes, is not due to an autoimmune process. Instead there is an accumulation of amyloid in the pancreatic islets, which disrupts their anatomy and physiology; the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not well understood but patients exhibit a reduced population of islet beta-cells, reduced secretory function of islet beta-cells that survive, peripheral tissue insulin resistance.
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high rates of glucagon secretion into the blood which are unaffected by, unresponsive to the concentration of glucose in the blood. Insulin is still secreted into the blood in response to the blood glucose; as a result, the insulin levels when the blood sugar level is normal, are much higher than they are in healthy persons. The human insulin protein is composed of 51 amino acids, has a molecular mass of 5808 Da, it is a dimer of a B-chain, which are linked together by disulfide bonds. Insulin's structure varies between species of animals. Insulin from animal sources differs somewhat in effectiveness from human insulin because of these variations. Porcine insulin is close to the human version, was used to treat type 1 diabetics before human insulin could be produced in large quantities by recombinant DNA technologies; the crystal structure of insulin in the solid state was determined by Dorothy Hodgkin. It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.
Insulin may have originated more than a billion years ago. The molecular origins of insulin go at least as far back. Apart from animals, insulin-like proteins are known to exist in the Fungi and Protista kingdoms. Insulin is produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets in most vertebrates and by the Brockmann body in some teleost fish. Cone snails Conus geographus and Conus tulipa, venomous sea snails that hunt small fish, use modified forms of insulin in their venom cocktails; the insulin toxin, closer in structure to fishes' than to snails' native insulin, slows down the prey fishes by lowering their blood glucose levels. The preproinsulin precursor of insulin is encoded by the INS gene. A variety of mutant alleles with changes in the coding region have been identified. A read-through gene, INS-IGF2, overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region. In the pancreatic β cells, glucose is the primary physiological stimulus for the regulation of insulin synthesis.
Insulin is regulated through the transcription factors PDX1, NeuroD1, MafA. PDX1 is in the nuclear periphery upon low blood glucose levels interacting with corepressors HDAC1 and 2, downregulating the insulin secretion. An increase in blood glucose levels causes phosphorylation of PDX1 and it translocates centrally and binds the A3 element within the insulin promoter. Upon translocation it interacts with coactivators HAT p300 and acetyltransferase set 7/9. PDX1 affects the histone modifications through deacetylation as well as methylation, it is said to suppress glucagon. NeuroD1 known as β2, regulates insulin exocytosis in pancreatic β cells by directly inducing the expression of genes involved in exocytosis, it is localized in the cytosol, but in response to high glucose it becomes glycosylated by OGT and/or phosphorylated by ERK, which causes translocation to the nucleus. In the nucleus β2 heterodimerizes with E47, binds to the E1 element of the insulin promoter and recruits co-activator p300 which acetylates β2.
It is able to interact with other transcription factors as well in activation of the insulin gene. MafA is degraded by proteasomes upon low blood glucose levels
Detroit Receiving Hospital
Detroit Receiving Hospital in Detroit, Michigan, is the state's first Level I Trauma Center. Receiving’s emergency department treats more than 105,000 patients annually, nearly 60% of Michigan’s emergency physicians are trained at Receiving. Receiving features the state’s largest burn center, Michigan’s first hospital-based 24/7 hyperbaric oxygen therapy program, Metro Detroit’s first certified primary stroke center, it is one of the eight institutions that comprise the Detroit Medical Center. Detroit Receiving Hospital was founded in 1915 as a city-owned hospital, dedicated to caring for everyone, regardless of ability to pay. In 1965, the hospital was renamed Detroit General, maintained that mission. In 1980, Detroit General moved to a new 320-bed facility, reclaimed the name Detroit Receiving Hospital. DRH was the first American College of Surgeons verified Level I Trauma Center in Michigan, one of the first in the nation. Focusing on adult medical care for emergency and critically ill patients, the majority of DRH patients arrive through the emergency department.
The University Health Center clinics adjacent to Detroit Receiving treat more than 250,000 patients annually, making it one of the busiest ambulatory facilities in the country. 95% of the physicians on staff at the hospital serve on the faculty of Wayne State University School of Medicine. In 1976, before emergency medicine was recognized as a specialty, Detroit Receiving began a postgraduate emergency medicine training program. Nearly half the physicians practicing in Michigan have received some of their training at Detroit Receiving Hospital. On May 2, 2018, Tenet decided to terminate its century long contract with Wayne State University School of Medicine. Tenet CEO cited a letter sent April 27, 2018 in which Wayne State threatened to sever ties if a deal was not reached on May 15, 2018. Anonymous members of Wayne State University Physician Group said that Tenet had had plans to sever ties prior. Many conflicts arose during the tumultuous relationship including Tenet’s unwillingness to contribute to medical student education and reinvest profits to medical research, typical of true academic research centers.
Specialties at Detroit Receiving include emergency medicine, orthopaedic traumatology, trauma surgery, burn treatment, earning national and international recognition for the hospital. DRH was the site of the first cranioplasty, using a pre-cast replica of missing bone to repair a skull. Detroit Receiving, along with Harper University Hospital, is home to Cardio Team One, a cardiac care program designed to improve the response time for patients presenting at an emergency department with severe cardiac disease. Detroit Receiving is the site of Wayne State University School of Medicine affiliated residency and fellowship training programs, including anesthesiology, emergency medicine, general surgery, otolaryngology, orthopedic surgery, podiatry, psychiatry and urology. Established in 1976 by Brooks Bock and Judith Tintinalli, Detroit Receiving Hospital Emergency Medicine Residency Program is one of nation's first training program in emergency medicine and the first program of its type to be established in the state of Michigan.
Detroit Receiving hosts the longest-running, annual trauma conference in the country, the Detroit Trauma Symposium. The facility received an award from the American Institute of Architecture for design, houses an art collection, composed of donations to DRH over a 30-year period; the collection features more than 1,200 pieces, estimated at more than $3 million, one of the largest hospital-based collections in the nation. Detroit Receiving Hospital is listed in The Leapfrog Group’s 2008 Top Hospital list for patient quality and safety; the Leapfrog group identified 33 hospitals, which have achieved the highest level for quality and safety practices. Detroit Receiving Hospital received Magnet Status in 2009 http://motorcityorthopaedics.org/index.html Detroit Medical Center Detroit Receiving Hospital Detroit Trauma Symposium Detroit Receiving Hospital Emergency Medicine Residency Program Detroit Medical Center Orthopaedic Surgery Residency Program
Embryology is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes and development of embryos and fetuses. Additionally, embryology encompasses the study of congenital disorders that occur before birth, known as teratology. Embryology has a long history. Aristotle proposed the accepted theory of epigenesis, that organisms develop from seed or egg in a sequence of steps; the alternative theory, that organisms develop from pre-existing miniature versions of themselves, held sway until the 18th century. Modern embryology developed from the work of von Baer, though accurate observations had been made in Italy by anatomists such as Aldrovandi and Leonardo da Vinci in the Renaissance. After cleavage, the dividing cells, or morula, becomes a hollow ball, or blastula, which develops a hole or pore at one end. In bilateral animals, the blastula develops in one of two ways that divide the whole animal kingdom into two halves. If in the blastula the first pore becomes the mouth of the animal, it is a protostome.
The protostomes include most invertebrate animals, such as insects and molluscs, while the deuterostomes include the vertebrates. In due course, the blastula changes into a more differentiated structure called the gastrula; the gastrula with its blastopore soon develops three distinct layers of cells from which all the bodily organs and tissues develop: The innermost layer, or endoderm, give rise to the digestive organs, the gills, lungs or swim bladder if present, kidneys or nephrites. The middle layer, or mesoderm, gives rise to the muscles, skeleton if any, blood system; the outer layer of cells, or ectoderm, gives rise to the nervous system, including the brain, skin or carapace and hair, bristles, or scales. Embryos in many species appear similar to one another in early developmental stages; the reason for this similarity is. These similarities among species are called homologous structures, which are structures that have the same or similar function and mechanism, having evolved from a common ancestor.
Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly, is a model organism in biology on which much research into embryology has been done. Before fertilization, the female gamete produces an abundance of mRNA - transcribed from the genes that encode bicoid protein and nanos protein; these mRNA molecules are stored to be used in what will become the developing embryo. The male and female Drosophila gametes exhibit anisogamy; the female gamete is larger than the male gamete because it harbors more cytoplasm and, within the cytoplasm, the female gamete contains an abundance of the mRNA mentioned. At fertilization, the male and female gametes fuse and the nucleus of the male gamete fuses with the nucleus of the female gamete. Note that before the gametes' nuclei fuse, they are known as pronuclei. A series of nuclear divisions will occur without cytokinesis in the zygote to form a multi-nucleated cell known as a syncytium. All the nuclei in the syncytium are identical, just as all the nuclei in every somatic cell of any multicellular organism are identical in terms of the DNA sequence of the genome.
Before the nuclei can differentiate in transcriptional activity, the embryo must be divided into segments. In each segment, a unique set of regulatory proteins will cause specific genes in the nuclei to be transcribed; the resulting combination of proteins will transform clusters of cells into early embryo tissues that will each develop into multiple fetal and adult tissues in development. Outlined below is the process that leads to tissue differentiation. Maternal-effect genes - subject to Maternal inheritance Egg-polarity genes establish the Anteroposterior axis. Zygotic-effect genes - subject to Mendelian inheritance Segmentation genes establish 14 segments of the embryo using the anteroposterior axis as a guide. Gap genes establish 3 broad segments of the embryo. Pair-rule genes define 7 segments of the embryo within the confines of the second broad segment, defined by the gap genes. Segment-polarity genes define another 7 segments by dividing each of the pre-existing 7 segments into anterior and posterior halves.
Homeotic genes use the 14 segments as pinpoints for specific types of cell differentiation and the histological developments that correspond to each cell type. Humans are deuterostomes. In humans, the term embryo refers to the ball of dividing cells from the moment the zygote implants itself in the uterus wall until the end of the eighth week after conception. Beyond the eighth week after conception, the developing human is called a fetus; as as the 18th century, the prevailing notion in western human embryology was preformation: the idea that semen contains an embryo – a preformed, miniature infant, or homunculus – that becomes larger during development. Until the birth of modern embryology through observation of the mammalian ovum by von Baer in 1827, there was no clear scientific understanding of embryology. Only in the late 1950s when ultrasound was first used for uterine scanning, was the true developmental chronology of human fetus available; the competing explanation of embryonic development was epigenesis proposed 2,000 years earlier by
Harper University Hospital
Harper University Hospital is one of eight hospitals and institutes that compose the Detroit Medical Center. Harper offers services in a broad range of clinical areas, including cardiology, neurosurgery, organ transplant, plastic surgery, general surgery, bariatric endocrinology and sleep disorders. Established in 1863, Harper is among the oldest U. S. medical teaching institutions. Nursing became professionalized in the late 19th century, opening a new middle-class career for talented young women of all social backgrounds; the Harper Hospital School of Nursing, begun in 1884, was a national leader. Its graduates worked at the hospital and in institutions, public health services, as private duty nurses, volunteered for duty at military hospitals during the Spanish–American War and the two world wars. Base Hospital No. 17 was organized at Harper Hospital in September 1916, was mobilized on June 28, 1917. On July 3, 1917, the organization was transferred to Allentown, leaving there July 11, for New York City, where it embarked on the Mongolia and sailed July 13, 1917.
It arrived at Southampton, England on July 24, by way of Plymouth, at Le Havre, France on July 25, 1917. It remained at Le Havre until July 28, when it proceeded by rail to its final destination, Department Cote D'or, in the advance section, arriving there July 29, 1917. Base Hospital No. 17 was the first American organization to arrive at that station, where it functioned as an independent hospital, until January 8, 1919. At Dijon the unit was assigned the Hospital St. Ignace operated by the French Army; the French had about 230 patients in the hospital when the unit arrived, the evacuation of, not completed until August 18, 1917. It began receiving American patients on August 21, 1917, but the hospital was not turned over to the commanding officer until September 2, 1917. In June 1918, when the capacity of the hospital proved inadequate, a French seminary was taken over at Plombiers, about 3½ miles from the main hospital, was operated as an annex; the seminary was a large stone building, of 800-bed capacity, was used for convalescent and minor surgical cases.
Base Hospital No. 17 ceased to function January 8, 1919. Harper was the site of the world’s first successful open-heart operation, using a mechanical heart called the Dodrill-GMR developed by a General Motors engineer with Harper physicians, including Forest Dewey Dodrill; the mechanical blood-pumping machine allowed a human heart to be temporarily stopped and operated on while the machine maintained blood circulation in the patient's body. The successful first surgery occurred on 3 July 1952. In 2004, Harper was the first to debut the Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging system in Michigan. In 2004, surgeons at Harper were the first to perform a kidney transplant on an HIV recipient; the hospital is now staffed by faculty of the Wayne State University School of Medicine. Harper is in The Leapfrog Group's 2008 Top Hospital list for patient safety; the Leapfrog Group rankings are based on a survey conducted at 1,220 hospitals across the country. Harper University Hospital ranked above the national average in a survey compiled by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Federal Department of Health and Human Services.
The list included data from 4,807 hospitals across the United States. Of those hospitals, only 38 were ranked above the national average; the results are meant to assist the public in assessing how well their area hospitals care for patients with specific types of medical conditions, including heart failure and heart attacks. Harper University Hospital has received full approval from the Surgical Review Corporation and the American Society for Bariatric Surgery as a Bariatric Center of Excellence; this accreditation recognizes that Harper's bariatric program meets the patient care standards as set forth by the SRC and ASBS. The HealthGrades website contains the clinical quality data for Harper University Hospital, as of 2017. For this rating section three different types of data from HealthGrades are presented: clinical quality ratings for twenty-nine inpatient conditions and procedures, thirteen patient safety indicators and the percentage of patients giving the hospital as a 9 or 10. For inpatient conditions and procedures, there are three possible ratings: worse than expected, as expected, better than expected.
For this hospital the data for this category is: Worse than expected - 5 As expected - 22 Better than expected - 2For patient safety indicators, there are the same three possible ratings. For this hospital safety indicators were rated as: Worse than expected - 6 As expected - 7 Better than expected - 0Percentage of patients rating this hospital as a 9 or 10 - 68% Percentage of patients who on average rank hospitals as a 9 or 10 - 69% Harper, along with Detroit Receiving Hospital and Sinai-Grace Hospital, is the home of Cardio Team One, a specialized initiative designed to reduce the response time for patients presenting at emergency room with severe cardiac disease. Detroit Medical Center Harper University Hospital
A public university is a university, publicly owned or receives significant public funds through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a private university. Whether a national university is considered public varies from one country to another depending on the specific education landscape. In Egypt, Al-Azhar University was founded in 970 AD as a madrassa, making it one of the oldest institutions of higher education in the world, formally becoming a university in 1961, it was followed by a lot of universities opened as public universities in the 20th century such as Cairo University, Alexandria University, Assiut University, Ain Shams University, Helwan University, Beni-Suef University, Benha University, Zagazig University, Suez Canal University, where tuition fees are subsidized by the government. In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public universities. Students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4 system of education and attaining a mark of C+ or above. Students who meet the criteria determined annually by the Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service receive government sponsorship, as part of their university or college fee is catered for by the government.
They are eligible for a low interest loan from the Higher Education Loan Board. They are expected to pay back the loan after completing higher education. In Nigeria public universities can be established by both the federal government and by state governments. Examples include the University of Lagos, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Ibadan, University of Benin, University of Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello University, Abia State University, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Gombe State University, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Federal University of Technology Yola, University of Maiduguri, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, University of Jos, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, University of Ilorin, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University South Africa has 23 public tertiary educational institutions, either categorised as a traditional university or a comprehensive university. Prominent public South African universities include the University of Johannesburg, University of Cape Town, Nelson Mandela University, North-west University, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Pretoria, University of Stellenbosch, University of Witwatersrand, Rhodes University and the University of South Africa.
In Tunisia, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research controls all of the public universities. For some universities, the ministry of higher education coordinates with other ministries like: the Ministry of Public health or the Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies. Admission in a public university in Tunisia is assured after succeeding in the Tunisian Baccalaureate: Students are classified according to a Formula score based on their results in the Baccalaureate; the students make a wishlist with the universities they want to attend on a state website dedicated for orientation. Thus, the high-ranking-students get priority to choose. Examples of Tunisian public universities: Carthage University, Carthage Ez-Zitouna University, Tunis Manouba University, Manouba Tunis El Manar University, Tunis Tunis University, Tunis Université Tunis Carthage University of Gabès, Gabès University of Gafsa, Gafsa University of Jendouba, Jendouba University of Kairouan, Kairouan University of Monastir, Monastir University of Sfax, Sfax University of Sousse, Sousse There are 40 public universities in Bangladesh.
The universities do not deal directly with the government, but with the University Grants Commission, which in turn deals with the government. Many private universities are established under the Private University Act of 1992. All universities in Brunei are public universities; these are major universities in Brunei: University of Brunei Darussalam Brunei Technological University Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University In mainland China, nearly all universities and research institutions are public and all important and significant centers for higher education in the country are publicly administered. The public universities are run by the provincial governments; some public universities are national. Private undergraduate colleges do exist, which are vocational colleges sponsored by private enterprises; the majority of such universities are not entitled to award bachelor's degrees. Public universities enjoy higher reputation domestically. Eight institutions are funded by the University Grants Committee.
The Academy for Performing Arts receives funding from the government. The Open University of Hong Kong is a public university, but it is self-financed; the Shue Yan University is the only private institution with the status of a university, but it receives some financial support from the government since it was granted university status. In India, most universities and nearly all research institutions are public. There are some private undergraduate colleges engineering schools, but a majority of these are affiliated to public universities; some of these private schools are partially aided by the national or state governments. India has an "open" public university, the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which offers distance education, in terms of the number of enrolled students is now the largest university in the world with over 4 million students. There are private educational institutes in Indonesia; the government (Ministry of Re