Wayne is a village in DuPage and Kane counties, United States. The eastern portion, in DuPage County, is in Wayne Township, while the western portion, in Kane County, is in St. Charles Township; the population was 2,431 at the 2010 census. And 2,490 as a 2012-2016 five year population estimate with over 70% of families reporting income over $100,000 in census figures. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Wayne was a prominent center of horse breeding and farming research; the community was known for breeding French Percheron horses, a draught horse similar to a Clydesdale. Wayne was named Wayne Station and was named after Anthony Wayne. Wayne was incorporated in 1958; the community was administered as a private association called the "Wayne Community Association" with voluntary contributions funding village services including police. Since World War II, Wayne has grown adding subdivisions near Illinois Route 59, off Munger Road, near Smith Road, near Dunham Castle at Army Trail Road, along Powis Road, filling in throughout the Village.
For work, residents are commuters to Chicago via railroad stations in Geneva, Bartlett, or West Chicago or drive to Chicago or other suburbs in Kane, DuPage, Cook, or McHenry County. A number of residents have home-based home offices. In October, 2007, the historic Chicago and Northwestern railway station was relocated from Dunham Castle to the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad tracks at Army Trail Road; the station was at that location, but moved to Dunham Castle during the 1940s or 1950s. Through grants and contributions from Dunham Castle's owners, the station was moved back to its original location and is being restored; this building is locally called "The Depot". Additional railroad buildings were relocated to private property in the Village including one station building about ½ mile west of Munger Road on Army Trail Road. Wayne's primary landmark is the Dunham Castle built between 1878 and 1882; the stone structure, complete with turret, was inspired by a Norman castle and was built by one of Wayne's first pioneers, Mark Dunham, a Percheron horse breeder.
Assisting Mark in the design was architect Smith Hoag of Illinois. Mark Dunham's horse farm, Oaklawn Farm, founded in Wayne in 1866, was one of the earliest Percheron breeding farms in the U. S.. During the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, a train from Chicago to Wayne brought guests to see the Percheron horses at the 2,000 acres farm; those that made the trip included Cyrus McCormick, George Pullman, the Duke of Veragua. At the height of the Percheron business, Dunham built a house, now called Dunham Castle, near the farm, on the northwest corner of Army Trail Road and Dunham Road; the Dunhams-based the idea for the design of their new home on that of French chateaux. The building, of brick, stone, with different colored slate roofing, stands surrounded by woods, a sloping lawn; the interior has parquet floors, statues and copies of fine, French artwork. In 1899, Wirth Dunham inherited Dunham Castle, he died in 1931. In 1953, Dunham Castle was converted into four spacious apartments. No interior alterations were made.
Between 1953 and 1976 there were several owners. In 1976, the Castle was sold to the Griffins family, who looked into making the house a museum, professional office, or private dining club. In 1976, the house was put up for sale; the castle has been open to public tours, for charity fund raisers. The house is again owned, having been sold in October, 2013 and in early 2016 started extensive renovation by its private owner with completion expected in 2018; when Marc Dunham finished the construction of Dunham Castle, made it his primary residence, the original Dunham home evolved into an inn and sales pavilion for the Dunham family’s Oaklawn Farm. However, Percheron horse demand declined as gas-powered cars and farm implements grew in popularity making Percherons a novelty or parade horse, Oaklawn Farm ceased operation as a commercial enterprise; the offices of Dunham's farm popularly known as the “Inn”, are well-preserved, now home to Wayne's only dining establishment and social club, the Dunham Woods Riding Club.
The Dunham Woods Riding Club was founded in 1934 by a group of Wayne and Geneva residents who leased the original Dunham family home. A fire destroyed the original old coach house in 1950 and the proceeds of the insurance were utilized by the club to purchase the Inn, the Lower Barn, swimming pool, tennis courts, surrounding land; the Gray Room ballroom, Formal Dining Room and a new kitchen were added in 1957. In 1961, the Wayne-DuPage Hunt was instrumental in purchasing more land from Dunham’s Inc. including the Kennels and Upper Barn. This purchase was made in the name of the Dunham Woods Riding Club. Additional land was purchased in 1975, which included the outdoor riding rings, indoor riding ring, outside cross-country course, tenant house, new pole barn all of which are leased to the Hunt by the Club. In 1979, the four corners comprising the intersection of Army Trail and Dunham Roads, The Dunham Woods Riding Club and Dunham Castle, together with the additional surrounding land and outbuildings were accepted into the National Register of Historic Places.
The Dunham Woods Riding Club is an active social and tennis club, with three dining rooms, two private rooms, a terrace, a patio. The club is open February through December. Club members are Wayne residents, as well as residents from
Illinois's 6th congressional district
The 6th congressional district of Illinois covers parts of Cook, DuPage, Kane and McHenry counties, as of the 2011 redistricting which followed the 2010 census. All or parts of Algonquin, Barrington Hills, Burr Ridge, Carol Stream, Cary, Clarendon Hills, Crystal Lake, Deer Park, Downers Grove, East Dundee, Forest Lake, Fox River Grove, Glen Ellyn, Hawthorn Woods, Hoffman Estates, Kildeer, Lake Barrington, Lake in the Hills, Lake Zurich, Lisle, Long Grove, North Barrington, Oak Brook, Oakbrook Terrace, Oakwood Hills, Port Barrington, Rolling Meadows, Sleepy Hollow, South Barrington, South Elgin, St. Charles, Tower Lakes, Trout Valley, Wayne, West Chicago, West Dundee, Wheaton and Winfield are included, it is represented by Democrat Sean Casten. As of January 2019, there is one living former member of the House from the district. Illinois's congressional districts Illinois' 6th congressional district election, 2006 List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Washington Post page on the 6th District of Illinois U. S. Census Bureau - 6th District Fact Sheet
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Batavia is a city in DuPage and Kane Counties in the U. S. state of Illinois. A suburb of Chicago, it is the oldest city in Kane County. During the latter part of the 19th century, home to six American-style windmill manufacturing companies, became known as "The Windmill City." Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, a federal government-sponsored high-energy physics laboratory, where both the bottom quark and the top quark were first detected, is located in the city. Batavia is part of a vernacular region known as the Tri-City area, along with St. Charles and Geneva, all western suburbs of similar size and relative socioeconomic condition; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 26,045, estimated to have increased to 26,391 by July 2016. Batavia was first settled in 1833 by his family. Called Big Woods for the wild growth throughout the settlement, the town was renamed by local judge and former Congressman Isaac Wilson in 1840 after his former home of Batavia, New York; because Judge Wilson owned the majority of the town, he was given permission to rename the city.
Batavia's settlement was delayed one year by the Black Hawk War, in which Abraham Lincoln was a citizen soldier, Zachary Taylor and Jefferson Davis were Army officers. Although there is no direct evidence that Lincoln, Taylor, or Davis visited the future site of Batavia, there are writings by Lincoln that refer to "Head of the Big Woods,", Batavia's original name from its first settler, Christopher Payne; the city was incorporated on July 27, 1872. After the death of her husband, Mary Todd Lincoln was an involuntary resident of the Batavia Institute on May 20, 1875. At the time the institute was known as a sanitarium for women. Mrs. Lincoln was released four months on September 11, 1875. In the late 19th century, Batavia was a major manufacturer of the Conestoga wagons used in the country's westward expansion. Into the early 20th century, most of the windmill operated waterpumps in use throughout America's farms were made at one of the three windmill manufacturing companies in Batavia. Many of the original limestone buildings that were part of these factories are still in use today as government and commercial offices and storefronts.
The Aurora Elgin and Chicago Railway constructed a power plant in southern Batavia and added a branch to the city in 1902. The Campana Factory was built in 1936 to manufacture cosmetics for The Campana Company, most notably Italian Balm, the nation's best-selling hand lotion at the time. Batavia is located at 41°50′56″N 88°18′30″W. According to the 2010 census, Batavia has a total area of 9.707 square miles, of which 9.64 square miles is land and 0.067 square miles is water. Batavia Avenue Main Street Randall Road Washington Street/River Street Wilson Street As of the 2000 U. S. census, there were 23,866 people, 8,494 households, 6,268 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,638.4 people per square mile. There were 8,806 housing units at an average density of 973.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.21% White, 2.42% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 1.35% Asian, none Pacific Islander, 1.53% from other races, 1.39% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.27% of the population.
There were 8,494 households out of which 41.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.0% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.2% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.27. In the city, the population was spread out with 31.3% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 30.6% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 9.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.4 males. Males had a median income of $55,913 versus $35,083 for females; the per capita income for the city was $38,576. About 2.5% of families and 3.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.1% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. According to the 2008 U.
S. Census Bureau estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $90,680, the median income for a family was $103,445, the median home value was $329,800. Aldi, Inc. the U. S. subsidiary of Aldi Süd, has its headquarters in Batavia. Fermilab is located just outside the town borders and serves as employment for many of the town's residents. According to the City's 2017 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: Batavia is an award-winning community. In 2007, BusinessWeek ranked Batavia #21 on a national list of the 50 best places in America to raise kids. In 2009, Batavia was ranked #56 on CNN Money's Best Small Towns in the nation. In 2011, Batavia was voted by RelocateAmerica as one of the Top 100 Places to Live in America. In 2013, Batavia won the Best Street Award from the Illinois Chapter of the Congress of New Urbanism for the City's Streetscape redevelopment of River Street; the River Street design was awarded the Lieutenant Governor's Award for Excellence in Downtown Revitalization at the Illinois Main Street Conference in 2013.
In 2013, the City of Batavia was designated as a Bike Friendly Community by the League of American Bicyclists. Only six communities in Illinois are designated Bike Friendly Communities. In 2013, Batavia's collection of historic windmills was designated as an Histor
Darien is a city in DuPage County, Illinois, USA. The population was 22,086 at the 2010 census. A south-western suburb of Chicago, Darien was named after a town in Connecticut; the first people to settle in Darien came from New England via the Erie Great Lakes. Among the first to arrive was the Andres Neiman family, they settled along an old stagecoach line in 1835. Andres served as Justice of the Peace, Town Clerk, Dog Catcher, County Commissioner, he established the Andres Inn, near what is the intersection of Lemont Road and I-55. Andres named the area "Cass."Andres and Father Beggs built the First Cass Church, a log cabin design. The church's cemetery, located west of where the church stood, can still be seen today; the church was used as a school house. Elisha and Eliza Smart settled in Darien in 1838 with their 10 children. Elisha joined the Gold Rush and left for California, returning seven years as a rich man, he bought more land and donated it, on which a new Cass Church was built in 1870.
John and Hannah Oldfield came to Cass in 1850. Mr. Oldfield increased his land holdings to 2,000 acres. In 1881, a man named; the factory was moved or closed. Martin Madden was an Irish immigrant, he became a member of the Chicago City Council and was elected to the House of Representatives and served in the United States Congress. In 1903, Mr. Madden built a home to look like the White House in Washington D. C. he called it Castle Eden. Today Castle Eden is part of the Aylesford Retreat Center of the Carmelite Fathers. A group of German Lutherans from Europe came to the area near 67th and Clarendon Hills Road in 1859, they laid out the cemetery behind the church. Today the cemetery is still located at Clarendon Hills Road. In 1899, a new church was built on the northeast corner of 75th Street; the Church was located where the Taco Buona Beef Restaurant now stand. In 1969, the second church was torn down and the present St. John's Lutheran Church was built west of Cass and north of 75th Street. A school was built on the northwest corner of Cass and 75th street in 1860.
It was the first Lace School. It burned down in 1924, was replaced with the present building, it is now a museum, open on the first Sunday of each month from 2:00pm to 4:00pm. By 1890, the Village of Lace was established; the important location at that time was the triangle bordered by Cass Avenue, Plainfield Road and 75th Street. It was called "The Point"; the Point included General Store, Blacksmith Shop and the office of Dr. Roe. A Post Office had been established at The Point in 1884; the future city of Darien was part of the Lace and Cass communities. Residents of the Marion Hills, Brookhaven and Hinsbrook subdivisions wanted to incorporate as a single city; when the incorporation committee reached an impasse on an acceptable name for the new city, acting mayor Sam Kelly suggested the name "Darien". He had visited Darien and found it to be a pleasant and attractive community. Today, Darien is known as "A Nice Place to Live". Darien in Illinois is pronounced with the accent on the first syllable.
According to the 2010 census, Darien has a total area of 6.303 square miles, of which 6.18 square miles is land and 0.123 square miles is water. Darien's City Hall used to be underground until 1994, when it was lifted up. Now only 75% is underground. Darien's City Hall is surrounded on three sides by the village of Downers Grove. Darien is bordered by the cities of Downers Grove, Woodridge and Willowbrook, it has easy access to the three major thoroughfares crossing Chicago's southwest suburbs: Interstate 55, Interstate 355, Interstate 294; as of the census of 2000, there were 22,860 people, 8,735 households, 6,455 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,782.7 people per square mile. There were 8,929 housing units at an average density of 1,477.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.10% White, 0.97% African American, 0.11% Native American, 9.53% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.97% from other races, 1.29% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.64% of the population.
There were 8,735 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.1% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.1% were non-families. 22.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.09. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 30.0% from 45 to 64, 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $78,122, the median income for a family was $95,332. Males had a median income of $70,580 versus $46,352 for females; the per capita income for the city was $39,795. About 1.6% of families and 2.2% of the po
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl