The Atlanta Journal-Constitution
The Atlanta Journal-Constitution is the only major daily newspaper in the metropolitan area of Atlanta, United States. It is the flagship publication of Cox Enterprises; the Atlanta Journal-Constitution is the result of the merger between The Atlanta Journal and The Atlanta Constitution. The two staffs were combined in 1982. Separate publication of the morning Constitution and afternoon Journal ended in 2001 in favor of a single morning paper under the Journal-Constitution name; the AJC has its headquarters in the Atlanta suburb of Georgia. It is co-owned with television flagship WSB-TV and six radio stations, which are located separately in midtown Atlanta. Past issues of the newspaper are archived in the United States Library of Congress; the Atlanta Journal was established in 1883. Founder E. F. Hoge sold the paper to Atlanta lawyer Hoke Smith in 1887. After the Journal supported Presidential candidate Grover Cleveland in the 1892 election, Smith was named as Secretary of the Interior by the victorious Cleveland.
Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist Margaret Mitchell worked for the Journal from 1922 to 1926. Important for the development of her 1936 Gone With the Wind were the series of profiles of prominent Georgia Civil War generals she wrote for The Atlanta Journal's Sunday magazine, the research for which, scholars believe, led her to her work on the novel. In 1922, the Journal founded one of the first radio broadcasting stations in the South, WSB; the radio station and the newspaper were sold in 1939 to James Middleton Cox, founder of what would become Cox Enterprises. The Journal carried the motto "Covers Dixie like the Dew". In 1868, Carey Wentworth Styles, along with his joint venture partners James Anderson and William Hemphill purchased a small newspaper, the Atlanta Daily Opinion which they re-named; the Constitution, as it was known, was first published on June 16, 1868. Its name changed to The Atlanta Constitution in October 1869. Hemphill became the business manager, a position that he retained until 1901.
When Styles was unable to liquidate his holdings in an Albany newspaper, he could not pay for his purchase of the Constitution. He was forced to surrender his interest in the paper to Anderson and Hemphill, who each owned one half. In 1870 Anderson sold his one half interest in the paper to Col. E. Y. Clarke. In active competition with other Atlanta newspapers, Hemphill hired special trains to deliver newspapers to the Macon marketplace; the newspaper became such a force that by 1871 it had overwhelmed the Daily Intelligencer, the only Atlanta paper to survive the American Civil War. In August 1875 its name changed to The Atlanta Daily Constitution for two weeks to The Constitution again for about a year. In 1876 Captain Evan Howell purchased the 50 percent interest in the paper from E. Y. Clarke, became its editor-in-chief; that same year, Joel Chandler Harris began writing for the paper. He soon created the character of Uncle Remus, a black storyteller, as a way of recounting stories from African-American culture.
The Howell family would own full interest in the paper from 1902 until 1950. In October 1876 the newspaper was renamed as The Daily Constitution, before settling on the name The Atlanta Constitution in September 1881. During the 1880s, editor Henry W. Grady was a spokesman for the "New South", encouraging industrial development as well as the founding of Georgia Tech in Atlanta. Evan Howell's family would come to own The Atlanta Constitution from 1902 to 1950; the Constitution established one of the first radio broadcasting stations, WGM, which began operating on March 17, 1922, two days after the debut of the Journal's WSB. However, WGM ceased operations after just over a year, its equipment was donated to what was known as Georgia School of Technology, which used it to help launch WBBF in January 1924. In late 1947, the Constitution established radio station WCON. Subsequently, it received approval to begin operating an FM station, WCON-FM 98.5 mHz, a TV station, WCON-TV, on channel 2. But the 1950 merger with the Journal required major adjustments.
Contemporary Federal Communications Commission "duopoly" regulations disallowed owning more than one AM, FM or TV station in a given market, the Atlanta Journal owned WSB AM 750 and WSB-FM 104.5, as well as WSB-TV on channel 8. In order to comply with the duopoly restrictions, WCON and the original WSB-FM were shut down; the WCON-TV construction permit was canceled, WSB-TV was allowed to move from channel 8 to channel 2. In addition, in order to standardize with its sister stations, WCON-FM's call letters were changed to WSB-FM. Ralph McGill, editor for the Constitution in the 1940s, was one of the few southern newspaper editors to support the American Civil Rights Movement. Other noteworthy editors of The Atlanta Constitution include J. Reginald Murphy. "Reg" Murphy gained notoriety after being kidnapped in 1974. Murphy moved to the West Coast and served as editor of the San Francisco Examiner. From the 1970s until his death in 1994, Lewis Grizzard was a popular humor columnist for the Constitution.
He portrayed Southern "redneck" culture with a mixture of respect. The Constitution won numerous Pulitzer Prizes. In 1931 it won a Pulitzer Prize for Public Service for exposing corruption at the local level. In 1959, The Constitution won a Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Writing for Ralph McGill's editorial "A Church, A School....". In 1967 it was awarded another Pulitzer Prize for Eugene Patterson's editorials. In 1960, Jack Nelson won the Pulitzer Prize for local reporting, by exposing abuses at Milledgeville Stat
An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups. While the source of the conflict may be political, economic or religious, the individuals in conflict must expressly fight for their ethnic group's position within society; this final criterion differentiates ethnic conflict from other forms of struggle. Academic explanations of ethnic conflict fall into one of three schools of thought: primordialist, instrumentalist or constructivist. Several political scientists have argued for either top-down or bottom-up explanations for ethnic conflict. Intellectual debate has focused on whether ethnic conflict has become more prevalent since the end of the Cold War, on devising ways of managing conflicts, through instruments such as consociationalism and federalisation; the causes of ethnic conflict are debated by political sociologists. Explanations fall into one of three schools of thought: primordialist and constructivist. More recent scholarship draws on all three schools.
Proponents of primordialist accounts argue that "thnic groups and nationalities exist because there are traditions of belief and action towards primordial objects such as biological features and territorial location". Primordialist accounts rely on strong ties of kinship among members of ethnic groups. Donald L. Horowitz argues that this kinship "makes it possible for ethnic groups to think in terms of family resemblances". Clifford Geertz, a founding scholar of primordialism, asserts that each person has a natural connection to perceived kinsmen. In time and through repeated conflict, essential ties to one's ethnicity will coalesce and will interfere with ties to civil society. Ethnic groups will always threaten the survival of civil governments but not the existence of nations formed by one ethnic group. Thus, when considered through a primordial lens, ethnic conflict in multi-ethnic society is inevitable. A number of political scientists argue that the root causes of ethnic conflict do not involve ethnicity per se but rather institutional and economic factors.
These scholars argue that the concept of ethnic war is misleading because it leads to an essentialist conclusion that certain groups are doomed to fight each other when in fact the wars between them that occur are the result of political decisions. Moreover, primordial accounts do not account for the spatial and temporal variations in ethnic violence. If these "ancient hatreds" are always simmering under the surface and are at the forefront of people's consciousness ethnic groups should be ensnared in violence. However, ethnic violence occurs in sporadic outbursts. For example, Varshney points out that although Yugoslavia broke up due to ethnic violence in the 1990s, it had enjoyed a long peace of decades before the USSR collapsed. Therefore, some scholars claim that it is unlikely that primordial ethnic differences alone caused the outbreak of violence in the 1990s. Primordialists have reformulated the "ancient hatreds" hypothesis and have focused more on the role of human nature. Peterson argues that the existence of hatred and animosity does not have to be rooted in history for it to play a role in shaping human behavior and action: "If "ancient hatred" means a hatred consuming the daily thoughts of great masses of people the "ancient hatreds" argument deserves to be dismissed.
However, if hatred is conceived as a formed "schema" that guides action in some situations the conception should be taken more seriously." Anthony Smith notes that the instrumentalist account "came to prominence in the 1960s and 1970s in the United States, in the debate about ethnic persistence in what was supposed to have been an effective melting pot". This new theory sought explained persistence as the result of the actions of community leaders, "who used their cultural groups as sites of mass mobilization and as constituencies in their competition for power and resources, because they found them more effective than social classes". In this account of ethnic identification and race are viewed as instrumental means to achieve particular ends. Whether ethnicity is a fixed perception or not is not crucial in the instrumentalist accounts. Moreover, the scholars of this school do not oppose the view that ethnic difference plays a part in many conflicts, they claim that ethnic difference is not sufficient to explain conflicts.
Mass mobilization of ethnic groups can only be successful if there are latent ethnic differences to be exploited, otherwise politicians would not attempt to make political appeals based on ethnicity and would focus instead on economic or ideological appeals. Hence, it is difficult to discount the role of inherent ethnic differences. Additionally, ethnic entrepreneurs, or elites, could be tempted to mobilize ethnic groups in order to gain their political support in democratizing states. Instrumentalists theorists emphasize this interpretation in ethnic states in which one ethnic group is promoted at the expense of other ethnicities. Furthermore, ethnic mass mobilization is to be plagued by collective action problems if ethnic protests are to lead to violence. Instrumentalist scholars have tried to respond to these shortcomings. For example, Hardin argues that ethnic mobilization faces problems of coordination and not collective action, he points out that a charismatic leader acts as a focal point around which members of an ethnic group coalesce.
The existence of such an actor helps to clarify beliefs about the behavior of others within an ethnic group. A third, set of accounts stress the importance of the constructed nature of ethnic groups, drawing on Benedict And
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Fox News is an American pay television news channel. It is owned by the Fox News Group, which itself was owned by News Corporation from 1996–2013, 21st Century Fox from 2013–2019, Fox Corporation since 2019; the channel broadcasts from studios at 1211 Avenue of the Americas in New York City. Fox News is provided in 86 countries or overseas territories worldwide, with international broadcasts featuring Fox Extra segments during ad breaks; the channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch to appeal to a conservative audience, hiring former Republican Party media consultant and CNBC executive Roger Ailes as its founding CEO. It launched on October 1996, to 17 million cable subscribers. Fox News grew during the late 1990s and 2000s to become the dominant subscription news network in the US; as of February 2015 94,700,000 US households receive Fox News. Murdoch is the current executive chairman and Suzanne Scott is the CEO. Fox News has been described as practicing biased reporting in favor of the Republican Party, the George W. Bush and Donald Trump administrations and conservative causes while slandering the Democratic Party and spreading harmful propaganda intended to negatively affect its members' electoral performances.
Critics have cited the channel as detrimental to the integrity of news overall. Fox News employees have said that news reporting operates independently of its opinion and commentary programming, have denied bias in news reporting, while former employees have said that Fox ordered them to "slant the news in favor of conservatives." In May 1985, Australian publisher Rupert Murdoch announced he and American industrialist and philanthropist Marvin Davis intended to develop "a network of independent stations as a fourth marketing force" to compete directly with CBS, NBC, ABC through the purchase of six television stations owned by Metromedia. In July 1985, 20th Century Fox announced Murdoch had completed his purchase of 50% of Fox Filmed Entertainment, the parent company of 20th Century Fox Film Corporation. A year 20th Century Fox earned $5.6 million in its fiscal third period ended May 31, 1986, in contrast to a loss of $55.8 million in the third period of the previous year. Subsequently, prior to founding FNC, Murdoch had gained experience in the 24-hour news business when News Corporation's BSkyB subsidiary began Europe's first 24-hour news channel in the United Kingdom in 1989.
With the success of his fourth network efforts in the United States, experience gained from Sky News and the turnaround of 20th Century Fox, Murdoch announced on January 31, 1996, that News Corp. would launch a 24-hour news channel on cable and satellite systems in the United States as part of a News Corp. "worldwide platform" for Fox programming: "The appetite for news – news that explains to people how it affects them – is expanding enormously". In February 1996, after former U. S. Republican Party political strategist and NBC executive Roger Ailes left cable television channel America's Talking, Murdoch asked him to start Fox News Channel. Ailes demanded five months of 14-hour workdays and several weeks of rehearsal shows before its launch on October 7, 1996. At its debut 17 million households were able to watch FNC. Rolling news coverage during the day consisted of 20-minute single-topic shows such as Fox on Crime or Fox on Politics, surrounded by news headlines. Interviews featured facts at the bottom of the screen about the guest.
The flagship newscast at the time was The Schneider Report, with Mike Schneider's fast-paced delivery of the news. During the evening, Fox featured opinion shows: The O'Reilly Report, The Crier Report and Hannity & Colmes. From the beginning, FNC has placed heavy emphasis on visual presentation. Graphics were designed to gain attention. Fox News created the "Fox News Alert", which interrupted its regular programming when a breaking news story occurred. To accelerate its adoption by cable providers, Fox News paid systems up to $11 per subscriber to distribute the channel; this contrasted with the normal practice, in which cable operators paid stations carriage fees for programming. When Time Warner bought Ted Turner's Turner Broadcasting System, a federal antitrust consent decree required Time Warner to carry a second all-news channel in addition to its own CNN on its cable systems. Time Warner selected MSNBC as the secondary news channel, not Fox News. Fox News claimed. Citing its agreement to keep its U.
S. headquarters and a large studio in New York City, News Corporation enlisted the help of Mayor Rudolph Giuliani's administration to pressure Time Warner Cable to transmit Fox News on a city-owned channel. City officials threatened to take action affecting Time Warner's cable franchises in the city. During the September 11, 2001 attacks, Fox News was the first news organization to run a news ticker on the bottom of the screen to keep up with the flow of information that day; the ticker has remained, informing viewers about additional news which reporters may not mention on-screen and repeating news mentioned during a broadcast. FNC maintains an archive of most of its programs; this archive includes Fox Movietone newsreels. Licensing for the Fox N
A polygraph, popularly referred to as a lie detector test, is a device or procedure that measures and records several physiological indicators such as blood pressure, pulse and skin conductivity while a person is asked and answers a series of questions. The belief underpinning the use of the polygraph is that deceptive answers will produce physiological responses that can be differentiated from those associated with non-deceptive answers. There are, however, no specific physiological reactions associated with lying, making it difficult to identify factors that separate liars from truth tellers. Polygraph examiners prefer to use their own individual scoring method, as opposed to computerized techniques, as they may more defend their own evaluations; the polygraph was invented in 1921 by John Augustus Larson, a medical student at the University of California, Berkeley and a police officer of the Berkeley Police Department in Berkeley, California. Further work on the device was done by Leonarde Keeler.
As Larson's protege, Keeler updated the device by making it portable and added the galvanic skin response to it in 1939. His device was purchased by the FBI, served as the prototype of the modern polygraph. In some countries, polygraphs are used as an interrogation tool with criminal suspects or candidates for sensitive public or private sector employment. US law enforcement and federal government agencies such as the FBI, NSA and the CIA and many police departments such as the LAPD and the Virginia State Police use polygraph examinations to interrogate suspects and screen new employees. Within the US federal government, a polygraph examination is referred to as a psychophysiological detection of deception examination; the control question test known as the probable lie test, was developed to overcome or mitigate the problems with the relevant-irrelevant testing method. Although the relevant questions in the probable lie test are used to obtain a reaction from liars, the physiological reactions that "distinguish" liars may occur in innocent individuals who fear a false detection or feel passionately that they did not commit the crime.
Therefore, although a physiological reaction may be occurring, the reasoning behind the response may be different. Further examination of the probable lie test has indicated that it is biased against innocent subjects; those who are unable to think of a lie related to the relevant question will automatically fail the test. Polygraph examiners, or polygraphers, are regulated in some jurisdictions; the American Polygraph Association sets standards for courses of training of polygraph operators, though it does not certify individual examiners. The examiner begins polygraph test sessions with a pre-test interview to gain some preliminary information which will be used to develop diagnostic questions; the tester will explain how the polygraph is supposed to work, emphasizing that it can detect lies and that it is important to answer truthfully. A "stim test" is conducted: the subject is asked to deliberately lie and the tester reports that he was able to detect this lie. Guilty subjects are to become more anxious when they are reminded of the test's validity.
However, there are risks of innocent subjects being or more anxious than the guilty. The actual test starts; some of the questions asked are "irrelevant", others are "diagnostic" questions, the remainder are the "relevant questions" that the tester is interested in. The different types of questions alternate; the test is passed if the physiological responses to the diagnostic questions are larger than those during the relevant questions. Criticisms have been given regarding the validity of the administration of the Control Question Technique; the CQT may be vulnerable to being conducted in an interrogation-like fashion. This kind of interrogation style would elicit a nervous response from innocent and guilty suspects alike. There are several other ways of administering the questions. An alternative is the Guilty Knowledge Test, or the Concealed Information Test, used in Japan; the administration of this test is given to prevent potential errors that may arise from the questioning style. The test is conducted by a tester with no knowledge of the crime or circumstances in question.
The administrator tests the participant on their knowledge of the crime that would not be known to an innocent person. For example: "Was the crime committed with a.45 or a 9 mm?" The questions are in multiple choice and the participant is rated on how they react to the correct answer. If they react to the guilty information proponents of the test believe that it is that they know facts relevant to the case; this administration is considered more valid by supporters of the test because it contains many safeguards to avoid the risk of the administrator influencing the results. Although there is some debate in the scientific community regarding the efficacy of polygraphs, assessments of polygraphy by scientific and government bodies suggest that polygraphs are inaccurate, may be defeated by countermeasures, are an imperfect or invalid means of assessing truthfulness. Despite claims of 90% validity by polygraph advocates, the National Research Council has found no evidence of effectiveness. In particular, studies have indicated that the relevant–irrelevant questioning technique is not ideal, as many innocent subjects exert a heightened physiological reaction to the crime-relevant questions.
In 1991, two thirds of the scientific community who have the requisite background to evaluate polygraph procedures considered polygraphy to be pseudoscience. In 2002, a review by the National Research Council found that, in populations "untrai
Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is a member of the U. S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes. Although many of the FBI's functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. Unlike the Central Intelligence Agency, which has no law enforcement authority and is focused on intelligence collection abroad, the FBI is a domestic agency, maintaining 56 field offices in major cities throughout the United States, more than 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and areas across the nation.
At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI maintains a significant international footprint, operating 60 Legal Attache offices and 15 sub-offices in U. S. consulates across the globe. These foreign offices exist for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not conduct unilateral operations in the host countries; the FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a limited domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of the BOI or BI for short, its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D. C. In the fiscal year 2016, the Bureau's total budget was $8.7 billion. The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state and international agencies and partners.
The FBI's top priorities are: Protect the United States from terrorist attacks Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes Combat public corruption at all levels Protect civil rights, Combat transnational/national criminal organizations and enterprises Combat major white-collar crime Combat significant violent crime Support federal, state and international partners Upgrade technology to enable, further, the successful performances of its missions as stated above In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, which provided agencies across the country with information to identify known criminals. The 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created a perception that America was under threat from anarchists; the Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, but President Theodore Roosevelt wanted more power to monitor them.
The Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the Oregon land fraud scandal at the turn of the 20th Century. President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the U. S. Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. On May 27, 1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelt's urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, which would have its own staff of special agents; the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26, 1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including some veterans of the Secret Service, to work for a new investigative agency.
Its first "Chief" was Stanley Finch. Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908; the bureau's first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the "White Slave Traffic Act," or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910. In 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation; the following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition and rechristened the Division of Investigation before becoming an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935. In the same year, its name was changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J. Edgar Hoover served as FBI Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, FBI, he was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government. Hoover was involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure.
But as detailed below, his proved to be a controversial tenure as Bureau Director in its years. After Hoover's death, the Congress passed legislation that limited the tenure of future FBI Directors to ten years. Early homicide investigations of the new age
Netflix, Inc. is an American media-services provider headquartered in Los Gatos, founded in 1997 by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph in Scotts Valley, California. The company's primary business is its subscription-based streaming OTT service which offers online streaming of a library of films and television programs, including those produced in-house; as of January 2019, Netflix had over 139 million paid subscriptions worldwide, including 60.55 million in the United States, over 148 million subscriptions total including free trials. It is available worldwide except in mainland China as well as Syria, North Korea and Crimea; the company has offices in the Netherlands, India and South Korea. Netflix is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. Netflix's initial business model included DVD sales and rental by mail, but Hastings abandoned the sales about a year after the company's founding to focus on the DVD rental business. Netflix expanded its business in 2007 with the introduction of streaming media while retaining the DVD and Blu-ray rental service.
The company expanded internationally in 2010 with streaming available in Canada, followed by Latin America and the Caribbean. Netflix entered the content-production industry in 2012. Since 2012, Netflix has taken more of an active role as producer and distributor for both film and television series, to that end, it offers a variety of "Netflix Original" content through its online library. By January 2016, Netflix services operated in more than 190 countries. Netflix released an estimated 126 original series and films in 2016, more than any other network or cable channel, their efforts to produce new content, secure the rights for additional content, diversity through 190 countries have resulted in the company racking up billions in debt: $21.9 billion as of September 2017, up from $16.8 billion from the previous year. $6.5 billion of this is long-term debt. In October 2018, Netflix announced it would raise another $2 billion in debt to help fund new content. Netflix was founded on August 29, 1997, in Scotts Valley, California, by Marc Randolph and Reed Hastings.
Randolph worked as a marketing director for Pure Atria. Randolph was a co-founder of MicroWarehouse, a computer mail order company, was employed by Borland International as vice president of marketing. Hastings, a computer scientist and mathematician, sold Pure Atria to Rational Software Corporation in 1997 for $700 million in what was the biggest acquisition in Silicon Valley history, they came up with the idea for Netflix while commuting between their homes in Santa Cruz and Pure Atria's headquarters in Sunnyvale while waiting for government regulators to approve the merger, although Hasting has given several different explanations for how the idea was created. Hastings invested $2.5 million in startup cash for Netflix. Randolph admired the fledgling e-commerce company Amazon and wanted to find a large category of portable items to sell over the Internet using a similar model, they rejected VHS tapes as too expensive to stock and too delicate to ship. When they heard about DVDs, which were first introduced in the United States on March 31, 1997, they tested the concept of selling or renting DVDs by mail, by mailing a compact disc to Hastings' house in Santa Cruz.
When the disc arrived intact, they decided to take on the $16 billion home video sales and rental industry. Hastings is quoted saying that he decided to start Netflix after being fined $40 at a Blockbuster store for being late to return a copy of Apollo 13, but this is an apocryphal story that he and Randolph designed to explain the company's business model and motivation. Netflix was launched on April 14, 1998, as the world's first online DVD rental store, with only 30 employees and 925 titles available, the entire catalogue of DVDs in print at the time, through the pay-per-rent model with rates and due dates that were similar to its bricks-and-mortar rival, Blockbuster. Netflix introduced the monthly subscription concept in September 1997, dropped the multiple-rental model in early 2000. Since that time, the company has built its reputation on the business model of flat-fee unlimited rentals without due dates, late fees and handling fees, or per-title rental fees. In 2000, when Netflix had just about 300,000 subscribers and relied on the U.
S. Postal Service for the delivery of their DVDs, they were losing money and offered to be acquired by Blockbuster for $50 million, they proposed that Netflix, which would be renamed as Blockbuster.com, would handle the online business, while Blockbuster would take care of the DVDs, making them less dependent on the U. S. Postal Service; the offer was declined. While they experienced fast growth in early 2001, both the dot-com bubble burst and the September 11 attacks would occur that year, affecting the company badly and forcing them to lay off a third of their employees. However, sales of Apple products took off as they became more affordable, selling for about $2,000 around Thanksgiving time, becoming one of that year's most popular Christmas gifts. By early 2002, Netflix saw a huge increase in business from rental to laptop DVD users. Netflix initiated an initial public offering on May 29, 2002, selling 5.5 million shares of common stock at the price of US$15.00 per share. On June 14, 2002, the company sold an additional 825,000 shares of common stock at the same price.
After incurring substantial losses during its first few years, Netflix posted its first profit during fiscal year 2003, earning US$6.5 million profit on revenues of