Burke County, Georgia
Burke County is a county located along the eastern border of the U. S. state of Georgia in the Piedmont. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,316; the county seat is Waynesboro. Burke County is part of the Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. Burke County is an original county of Georgia, created February 5, 1777. In 1779, Col. John Twiggs and brothers Col. William Few and Benjamin Few, along with 250 men, defeated British in the Battle of Burke Jail. Burke County is located within the CSRA. During the antebellum period, it was developed by slave labor for large cotton plantations; the county was majority African American in population in this period, as slaveholders needed high numbers of slaves for laborers to cultivate and process cotton. The military tradition continued during the American Civil War, when Burke County provided volunteers for numerous units: the 2nd Regiment Georgia Infantry Company D, 3rd Regiment Georgia Infantry Company A, 32nd Regiment Georgia Infantry Company C, 32nd Regiment Georgia Infantry Company K, 48th Regiment Georgia Infantry Company D, Cobb's Legion Infantry company E, the Cobb's Legion Cavalry Company F. Agriculture continued as the basis of the economy for decades after the American Civil War, when most freedmen worked as sharecroppers or tenant farmers.
Cotton was the major commodity crop. In the early 20th century, mechanization of agriculture caused many African-American farm workers to lose their jobs; as can be seen from the census tables below, the county lost population from 1910-1920, from 1930-1970. Part of the decline was related to the Great Migration, as millions of African Americans left the rural South and Jim Crow oppression for jobs and opportunities in industrial cities of the Midwest, North. From World War II on, primary migration destinations were West Coast cities because of the buildup of the defense industry. In addition, whites left rural areas for industrial jobs in the North, in cities such as Chicago and Detroit. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 835 square miles, of which 827 square miles is land and 8.0 square miles is water. It is the second-largest county by area in Georgia; the southern half of Burke County, defined by a line running along State Route 80 to Waynesboro southeast to east of Perkins, is located in the Upper Ogeechee River sub-basin of the Ogeechee River basin.
North of Waynesboro, bordered on the north by a line running from Keysville southeast to Girard, the territory is part of the Brier Creek sub-basin of the Savannah River basin. The most northern sliver of Burke County is located in the Middle Savannah River sub-basin of the same Savannah River basin; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 23,316 people, 8,533 households, 6,110 families residing in the county. The population density was 28.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,865 housing units at an average density of 11.9 per square mile. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 23,316 people residing in the county. 49.5% were Black or African American, 47.5% White, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.1% from some other race and 1.3% from two or more races. 2.6 % were Latino. In terms of ancestry, 49.5% have some African ancestry, 11.0% identify as of American, 9.3% are Irish, 5.5% were English, 5.1% were German. Of the 8,533 households, 39.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 24.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.4% were non-families, 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.20. The median age was 35.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $33,155 and the median income for a family was $41,659. Males had a median income of $37,061 versus $24,952 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,934. About 20.0% of families and 25.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.0% of those under age 18 and 16.2% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2000, there were 22,243 people, 7,934 households, 5,799 families residing in the county; the population density was 27 people per square mile. There were 8,842 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 51.00% Black or African American, 46.90% White, 0.23% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.63% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races. 1.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,934 households out of which 38.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.40% were married couples living together, 22.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.90% were non-families.
23.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.27. In the county, the population was spread out with 31.30% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 27.30% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 10.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,877, the median income for a family was $31,660. Males had a median income of $29,992 and females had an income of $19,008; the per capita income for the county was $13,136. About 23.80% of families and
Joseph "Fighting Joe" Wheeler was an American military commander and politician. He is known for having served both as a cavalry general in the Confederate States Army in the 1860s during the American Civil War, as a general in the United States Army during both the Spanish–American War and Philippine–American War near the turn of the twentieth century. For much of the Civil War he served as the senior cavalry general in the Army of Tennessee and fought in most of its battles in the Western Theater. Between the Civil War and the Spanish–American War, Wheeler served multiple terms as a United States Representative from the state of Alabama as a Democrat. Although of New England ancestry, Joseph Wheeler was born near Augusta and spent most of his early life growing up with relatives in Connecticut, his parents were Julia Knox Hull Wheeler. He was the grandson of Brigadier General William Hull, a veteran of the American Revolution, court-martialed for surrendering at Detroit early in the War of 1812.
Despite his northern upbringing, he was appointed to the United States Military Academy at West Point from the state of Georgia and always considered himself a Georgian and Southerner. Wheeler entered West Point in July 1854 meeting the height requirement at the time for entry, he graduated on July 1, 1859, placing 19th out of 22 cadets, was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 1st U. S. Dragoons, he attended the U. S. Army Cavalry School located in Carlisle and upon completion was transferred on June 26, 1860, to the Regiment of Mounted Rifles stationed in the New Mexico Territory, it was while stationed in New Mexico and fighting in a skirmish with Indians that Joseph Wheeler picked up the nickname "Fighting Joe." On September 1, 1860, he was promoted to the rank of second lieutenant. At the start of the Civil War, Wheeler entered the Confederate Army on March 16 as a first lieutenant serving in the Georgia state militia artillery, was assigned to Fort Barrancas off of Pensacola, reporting to Maj. Gen. Braxton Bragg.
His resignation from the U. S. Army was accepted on April 22, 1861, he was ordered to Huntsville, Alabama, to take command of the newly formed 19th Alabama Infantry Regiment and was promoted to colonel on September 4. Wheeler and the 19th Alabama fought well under Bragg at the Battle of Shiloh in April 1862. During the Siege of Corinth in April and May, Wheeler's men on picket duty clashed with Union patrols. Serving as acting brigade commander, Wheeler burned the bridges over the Tuscumbia River to cover the Confederate withdrawal to Tupelo, Mississippi. Wheeler transferred to the cavalry branch and commanded the 2nd Cavalry Brigade of the Left Wing in the Army of Mississippi from September to October. During the Kentucky Campaign, Wheeler aggressively maintained contact with the enemy, he began to suffer from poor relations with the Confederacy's arguably greatest cavalryman, Nathan Bedford Forrest, when Bragg reassigned most of Forrest's men to Wheeler, sending Forrest to Murfreesboro to recruit a new brigade.
Wheeler fought at the Battle of Perryville in October and after the fight performed an excellent rearguard action protecting the army's withdrawal. He was promoted to brigadier general on October 30 and led the cavalry belonging to the Second Corps of the Army of Tennessee from November to December. During action at La Vergne, Tennessee, on November 27, Wheeler was wounded by an artillery shell that exploded near him. In December 1862, the Union Army of the Cumberland began to advance from Nashville against Bragg's army and Wheeler, now commanding all of the Army of Tennessee's cavalry, skirmished aggressively to delay their advance, he drove into the rear of the Union army, destroying hundreds of wagons and capturing more than 700 prisoners. After the Battle of Stones River, as Bragg's army withdrew to the Duck River line, Wheeler struck the Union supply lines at Harpeth Shoals on January 12–13, burning three steamboats and capturing more than 400 prisoners. Bragg recommended that Wheeler be promoted as a "just reward" and he became a major general on January 20, 1863.
Wheeler led the army's Cavalry Corps from January to November 24 again from December to November 15, 1864. For his actions on January 12–13, 1863, Wheeler and his troopers received the Thanks of the Confederate Congress on May 1, 1863. In February 1863, Wheeler and Forrest attacked Fort Donelson at Dover, but they were repulsed by the small Union garrison. Forrest angrily told Wheeler "Tell that I will be in my coffin before I will fight again under your command." Bragg dealt with this rivalry in the Tullahoma Campaign by assigning Wheeler to guard the army's right flank while Forrest guarded the left. A Union cavalry advance on Shelbyville on June 27 trapped Wheeler and 50 of his men on the north side of the Duck River, forcing Wheeler to plunge his horse over a 15-foot embankment and escape through the rain-swollen river. Wheeler and his troopers guarded the army's left flank at Chickamauga in September 1863, after the routed Union Army collected in Chattanooga, Gen. Bragg sent Wheeler's men into central Tennessee to destroy railroads and Federal supply lines in a major raid.
On October 2 his raid at Anderson's Cross Roads destroyed more than 700 Union supply wagons, tightening the Confederates siege on Chattanooga. Pursued by his Union counterparts, Wheeler advanced to McMinnville and captured its 600-man garrison. There were more actions at Murfreesboro and Farmington, but by October 9 Wheeler had safely crossed the Tennessee River at Muscle Shoals, Alabama; the extensive raid and a subsequent northern movement to assist Longstreet in his siege of Knoxville, would cause the mounted arm of
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Augusta Augusta–Richmond County, is a consolidated city-county on the central eastern border of the U. S. state of Georgia. The city lies across the Savannah River from South Carolina at the head of its navigable portion. Georgia's second-largest city after Atlanta, Augusta is located in the Piedmont section of the state. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Augusta–Richmond County had a 2017 estimated population of 197,166, not counting the unconsolidated cities of Blythe and Hephzibah, it is the 122nd largest city in the United States. The process of consolidation between the City of Augusta and Richmond County began with a 1995 referendum in the two jurisdictions; the merger was completed on July 1, 1996. Augusta is the principal city of the Augusta metropolitan area, situated in both Georgia and South Carolina on both sides of the Savannah River. In 2017 it had an estimated population of 600,151, making it the second-largest metro area in the state, it is the 93rd largest metropolitan area in the United States.
Augusta was established in 1736 and is named for Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, the bride of Frederick, Prince of Wales and the mother of the British monarch George III. During the American Civil War, Augusta housed the principal Confederate powder works. Augusta's warm climate made it a major resort town of the Eastern United States in the early and mid-20th century. Internationally, Augusta is best known for hosting The Masters golf tournament each spring; the Masters brings over 200,000 visitors from across the world to the Augusta National Golf Club. Membership at Augusta National is considered to be the most exclusive in the sport of golf across the world. Augusta lies two hours east of downtown Atlanta by car via I-20; the city is home to Fort Gordon, a major U. S. Army base. In 2016, it was announced that the new National Cyber Security Headquarters would be based in Augusta, bringing as many as 10,000 cyber security specialists to the Fort Gordon area; the area along the river was long inhabited by varying cultures of indigenous peoples, who relied on the river for fish and transportation.
The site of Augusta was used by Native Americans as a place to cross the Savannah River, because of its location on the fall line. In 1735, two years after James Oglethorpe founded Savannah, he sent a detachment of troops to explore the upper Savannah River, he gave them an order to build a fort at the head of the navigable part of the river. The expedition was led by Noble Jones, who created a settlement as a first line of defense for coastal areas against potential Spanish or French invasion from the interior. Oglethorpe named the town in honor of Princess Augusta, the mother of King George III and the wife of Frederick, Prince of Wales. Oglethorpe visited Augusta in September 1739 on his return to Savannah from a perilous visit to Coweta Town, near present-day Phenix City, Alabama. There, he had met with a convention of 7,000 Native American warriors and concluded a peace treaty with them in their territories in northern and western Georgia. Augusta was the second state capital of Georgia from 1785 until 1795.
Augusta developed as a market town as the Black Belt in the Piedmont was developed for cotton cultivation. Invention of the cotton gin made processing of short-staple cotton profitable, this type of cotton was well-suited to the upland areas. Cotton plantations were worked by slave labor, with hundreds of thousands of slaves shipped from the Upper South to the Deep South in the domestic slave trade. Many of the slaves were brought from the Lowcountry, where their Gullah culture had developed on the large Sea Island cotton and rice plantations; the city experienced the Augusta Fire of 1916, which damaged 25 blocks of the town and many buildings of historical significance. As a major city in the area, Augusta was a center of activities after. In the mid-20th century, it was a site of civil rights demonstrations. In 1970 Charles Oatman, a mentally disabled teenager, was killed by his cellmates in an Augusta jail. A protest against his death broke out in a riot involving 500 people, after six black men were killed by police, each found to have been shot in the back.
The noted singer and entertainer James Brown was called in to help quell lingering tensions, which he succeeded in doing. Augusta is located on the Georgia/South Carolina border, about 150 miles east of Atlanta and 70 miles west of Columbia; the city is located at 33°28′12″N 81°58′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Augusta–Richmond County balance has a total area of 306.5 square miles, of which 302.1 square miles is land and 4.3 square miles is water. Augusta is located about halfway up the Savannah River on the fall line, which creates a number of small falls on the river; the city marks the end of a navigable waterway for the river and the entry to the Georgia Piedmont area. The Clarks Hill Dam is built on the fall line near Augusta. Farther downstream, near the border of Columbia County, is the Stevens Creek Dam, which generates hydroelectric power. Farther downstream is the Augusta Diversion Dam, which marks the beginning of the Augusta Canal and channels Savannah River waters into the canal.
As with the rest of the state, Augusta has a humid subtropical climate, with short, mild winters hot, humid summers, a wide diurnal temperature variation throughout much of the year, despite its low elevation and moisture. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 45.4 °F in January to 81.6 °F in July.
Statesboro is the largest city and county seat of Bulloch County, United States, located in the southeastern part of the state. Statesboro is home to the flagship campus of Georgia Southern University and is part of the Savannah–Hinesville–Statesboro Combined Statistical Area; as of 2016, the Statesboro Micropolitan Statistical Area, which consists of Bulloch County, had an estimated population of 74,722. The city had an estimated 2016 population of 31,419. Statesboro is the largest Micropolitan Statistical Area in Georgia, it is largest city in the Magnolia Midlands Region. The city was chartered in 1803, starting as a small trading community providing basic essentials for surrounding cotton plantations; this drove the economy throughout the 19th century, both before and after the U. S. Civil War. In 1906, Statesboro and area leaders joined together to bid for and win the First District A&M School, a land grant college that developed into Georgia Southern University. Statesboro inspired the blues song "Statesboro Blues," written by Blind Willie McTell in the 1920s, covered in a well-known version by the Allman Brothers Band.
In 2017, Statesboro was selected in the top three of the national America's Best Communities competition and was named one of nine Georgia "live, play" cities by the Georgia Municipal Association. In 1801, George Sibbald of Augusta donated a 9,301-acre tract for a centrally located county seat for the growing agricultural community of Bulloch County; the area was developed by white planters for cotton plantations that were worked by black slave labor. In December 1803, the Georgia legislature created the town of Statesborough. In 1866 the state legislature granted a permanent charter to the city, changing the spelling of its name to the present "Statesboro." During the Civil War and General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea through Georgia, a Union officer asked a saloon proprietor for directions to Statesboro; the proprietor replied, "You are standing in the middle of town," indicating its small size. The soldiers destroyed the courthouse, a crude log structure that doubled as a barn when court was not in session.
After the Civil War, the small town began to grow, Statesboro has developed as a major town in southeastern Georgia. Many freedmen stayed in the area. Following the Reconstruction era, racial violence of whites against blacks increased. In the era from 1880 to 1930, Georgia had the highest rate of lynchings of any state in the nation. Among them were three black men who were lynched and burned to death on August 16, 1904, near Statesboro. A fourth man was lynched in the month in Bulloch County. After a white farm family was killed, the white community spread unfounded rumors of black clergy urging blacks to violence against whites, more than twelve black men were arrested in this case. Paul Reed and Will Cato were convicted of the Hodge family murders by an all-white jury and sentenced to death on August 16, 1904, but they were abducted that day from the courthouse by a lynch mob and brutally burned to death. Handy Bell, another suspect, was burned by a mob that night. White violence against blacks did not end.
Area newspaper coverage of the trial and lynching had been sensationalized, arousing anger, two more black men were lynched in August 1904: Sebastian McBride in Portal in Bulloch County and A. L. Scott in Wilcox County. To escape oppression and violence, many African Americans left Statesboro and Bulloch County altogether, causing local businessmen to worry about labor shortages in the cotton and turpentine industries. African Americans made a Great Migration from the rural South to northern cities in the first half of the 20th century. Local effects can be seen in the drop in Statesboro population growth from 1910 to 1930 on the census tables below in the "Demographics" section. Around the turn of the century, new businesses in Statesboro included stores and banks built along the town's four major streets, each named Main. In 1908 Statesboro led the world in sales of long-staple Sea Island Cotton, a specialty of the Low Country. Mechanization of agriculture decreased the need for some farm labor.
After the boll weevil destroyed the cotton crop in the 1930s, farmers shifted to tobacco. The insect had invaded the South from the west. By 1953, more than 20 million pounds of tobacco passed through warehouses in Statesboro the largest market of the "Bright Tobacco Belt" spanning Georgia and Florida; the 1906 First District Agricultural & Mechanical School at Statesboro was developed as a land grant college, initiated by federal legislation to support education. Its mission shifted in the 1920s to teacher training. With expansion of the curriculum to a 4-year program, it was renamed as the South Georgia Teachers College in 1929. Other name changes were to Georgia Teachers College in 1939, Georgia Southern College in 1959. After this period, it became racially integrated and with development of graduate programs and research in numerous fields, since 1990 it has had university status as Georgia Southern University. During the Cold War, the Statesboro Bomb Plot was reported at the 12th RBS Squadron, a Strategic Air Command radar station for Radar Bomb Scoring.
The economy of Statesboro is based on education and agribusiness sectors. Statesboro serves as a regional economic hub and has more than one billion dollars in annual retail sales. Georgia Southern University is the largest employer in the city, with 6,700 regional jobs tied directly and indirectly to the campus. Agriculture is responsible for $100 mil
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Pointing dogs, sometimes called bird dogs, are a type of gundog used in finding game. Gundogs are traditionally divided into three classes: retrievers, flushing dogs, pointing breeds; the name pointer comes from the dog's instinct to point, by stopping and aiming its muzzle towards game. This allows them to move into gun range. Pointers were selectively bred from dogs who had abundant backing instinct, they start to acquire their hunting instincts at about 2 months of age. Pointing dogs can be dated to Europe in about the 1650s, they may have descended from dogs from Spain of the Old Spanish Pointer. Pointing dogs were used by hunters who netted the game; the dog would set and allow the hunter to throw the net over the game before it flushed. Flushing dogs, on the other hand, were used by falconers to flush game for the raptors. Most continental European pointing breeds are classified as versatile gun dog breeds or sometimes HPR breeds; the distinction is made because versatile breeds were developed to find and point game as all pointing breeds, but were bred to perform other hunting tasks as well.
This distinction arose because while the British developed breeds which specialized in tasks such as pointing and retrieving from land or water, in Continental Europe, the same dog was trained to be able to perform each of these tasks. The North American Versatile Hunting Dog Association defines versatility as "the dog, bred and trained to dependably hunt and point game, to retrieve on both land and water, to track wounded game on both land and water." As an example, German Shorthair Pointers are used to retrieve birds, i.e.: duck hunting, whereas calling upon a Pointer to do the same would be less common. Unlike the pure pointing and setting breeds, many versatile dogs were bred for working in dense cover, traditionally have docked tails; the Westminster Kennel Club was organized in the early 1870s, the club's early English import, "Sensation", is still used as the club logo. Pointing dogs come in all varieties of coats, from short-haired dogs, to wire-haired dogs, to silky-coated Setters.
Most breeds tend to have some sort of spots on their body, whether the spots are small and round, or a large oval shape. Pointers include the following breeds: English Setter Gordon Setter Irish Red and White Setter Irish Setter English PointerThe following breeds are considered versatile hunting dogs: Bracco Italiano Braque de l’Ariège Braque du Bourbonnais Braque d'Auvergne Braque Francais Braque Saint-Germain Brittany Burgos Pointer Cesky Fousek French Brittany French Spaniel German Hunt Terrier German Longhaired Pointer German Roughhaired Pointer German Shorthaired Pointer German Wirehaired Pointer Labrador Retriever Large Munsterlander Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever Old Danish Pointer Pachón Navarro Portuguese Pointer Pudelpointer Slovakian Wirehaired Pointer Small Munsterlander Spinone Italiano Stabyhoun Vizsla Weimaraner Wirehaired Pointing Griffon Wirehaired Vizsla Old Spanish Pointer, an extinct dog believed to be the first pointing breed Fergus, Charles. Gun Dog Breeds, A Guide to Spaniels and Pointing Dogs, The Lyons Press, 2002.