Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland known internationally as the UK Parliament, British Parliament, or Westminster Parliament, domestically as Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and the overseas territories. Parliament is bicameral but has three parts, consisting of the Sovereign, the House of Lords, the House of Commons; the two houses meet in the Palace of Westminster in the City of Westminster, one of the inner boroughs of the capital city, London. The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual, consisting of the most senior bishops of the Church of England, the Lords Temporal, consisting of life peers, appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister, of 92 hereditary peers, sitting either by virtue of holding a royal office, or by being elected by their fellow hereditary peers.
Prior to the opening of the Supreme Court in October 2009, the House of Lords performed a judicial role through the Law Lords. The House of Commons is an elected chamber with elections to 650 single member constituencies held at least every five years under the first-past-the-post system; the two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster in London. By constitutional convention, all government ministers, including the Prime Minister, are members of the House of Commons or, less the House of Lords and are thereby accountable to the respective branches of the legislature. Most cabinet ministers are from the Commons, whilst junior ministers can be from either House. However, the Leader of the House of Lords must be a peer; the Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of Union by Acts of Union passed by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, both Acts of Union stating, "That the United Kingdom of Great Britain be represented by one and the same Parliament to be styled The Parliament of Great Britain".
At the start of the 19th century, Parliament was further enlarged by Acts of Union ratified by the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland that abolished the latter and added 100 Irish MPs and 32 Lords to the former to create the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 formally amended the name to the "Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland", five years after the secession of the Irish Free State in 1922. With the global expansion of the British Empire, the UK Parliament has shaped the political systems of many countries as ex-colonies and so it has been called the "Mother of Parliaments". However, John Bright – who coined the epithet – used it in reference to the political culture of "England" rather than just the parliamentary system. In theory, the UK's supreme legislative power is vested in the Crown-in-Parliament. However, the Crown acts on the advice of the Prime Minister and the powers of the House of Lords are limited to only delaying legislation.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created on 1 January 1801, by the merger of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland under the Acts of Union 1800. The principle of ministerial responsibility to the lower House did not develop until the 19th century—the House of Lords was superior to the House of Commons both in theory and in practice. Members of the House of Commons were elected in an antiquated electoral system, under which constituencies of vastly different sizes existed. Thus, the borough of Old Sarum, with seven voters, could elect two members, as could the borough of Dunwich, which had completely disappeared into the sea due to land erosion. Many small constituencies, known as pocket or rotten boroughs, were controlled by members of the House of Lords, who could ensure the election of their relatives or supporters. During the reforms of the 19th century, beginning with the Reform Act 1832, the electoral system for the House of Commons was progressively regularised.
No longer dependent on the Lords for their seats, MPs grew more assertive. The supremacy of the British House of Commons was reaffirmed in the early 20th century. In 1909, the Commons passed the so-called "People's Budget", which made numerous changes to the taxation system which were detrimental to wealthy landowners; the House of Lords, which consisted of powerful landowners, rejected the Budget. On the basis of the Budget's popularity and the Lords' consequent unpopularity, the Liberal Party narrowly won two general elections in 1910. Using the result as a mandate, the Liberal Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, introduced the Parliament Bill, which sought to restrict the powers of the House of Lords; when the Lords refused to pass the bill, Asquith countered with a promise extracted from the King in secret before the second general election of 1910 and requested the creation of several hundred Liberal peers, so as to erase the Conservative majority in the House of Lords. In the face of such a threat, the House of Lords narrowly passed the bill.
The Parliament Act 1911, as it became, prevented the Lords from blocking a money bill, allowed them to delay any other bill for a maximum of three sessions, after which it could become law over their objections. However, regardless of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, t
Medicare (United States)
Medicare is a national health insurance program in the United States, begun in 1966 under the Social Security Administration and now administered by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. It provides health insurance for Americans aged 65 and older, younger people with some disability status as determined by the Social Security Administration, as well as people with end stage renal disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Medicare is funded by a combination of a payroll tax, beneficiary premiums and surtaxes from beneficiaries, general U. S. Treasury revenue. In 2017, Medicare provided health insurance for over 58 million individuals—more than 49 million people aged 65 and older and about 9 million younger people. On average, Medicare covers about half of healthcare expenses of those enrolled. According to annual Medicare Trustees reports and research by the government's MedPAC group, the enrollees almost always cover their remaining costs either with additional insurance, or by joining a Medicare health plan.
No one uses United States Medicare only. No matter which of those two options the beneficiaries choose or if they choose to do nothing extra, beneficiaries have out of pocket costs. OOP costs can include co-pays. Medicare is divided into four Parts. Medicare Part A covers hospital, skilled nursing, hospice services. Part B covers outpatient services including some providers' services while inpatient at a hospital, outpatient hospital charges, most provider office visits if the office is "in a hospital," and most professionally administered prescription drugs. Part D covers self-administered prescription drugs. Part C is an alternative called Managed Medicare by the Trustees that allows patients to choose health plans with at least the same service coverage as Parts A and B the benefits of Part D, always an annual OOP spend limit which A and B lack; the beneficiary must enroll in Parts A and B first before signing up for Part C. The name "Medicare" was given to a program providing medical care for families of people serving in the military as part of the Dependents' Medical Care Act, passed in 1956.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower held the first White House Conference on Aging in January 1961, in which creating a health care program for social security beneficiaries was proposed. In July 1965, under the leadership of President Lyndon Johnson, Congress enacted Medicare under Title XVIII of the Social Security Act to provide health insurance to people age 65 and older, regardless of income or medical history. Johnson signed the bill into law on July 30, 1965 at the Harry S. Truman Presidential Library in Independence, Missouri. Former President Harry S. Truman and his wife, former First Lady Bess Truman became the first recipients of the program. Before Medicare was created 60% of people over the age of 65 had health insurance, with coverage unavailable or unaffordable to many others, as older adults paid more than three times as much for health insurance as younger people. Many of this latter group became "dual eligible" for both Medicare and Medicaid with passing the law. In 1966, Medicare spurred the racial integration of thousands of waiting rooms, hospital floors, physician practices by making payments to health care providers conditional on desegregation.
Medicare has been operated for a half century and, during that time, has undergone several changes. Since 1965, the program's provisions have expanded to include benefits for speech and chiropractic therapy in 1972. Medicare added the option of payments to health maintenance organizations in the 1970s; as the years progressed, Congress expanded Medicare eligibility to younger people with permanent disabilities and receive Social Security Disability Insurance payments and to those with end-stage renal disease. The association with HMOs begun in the 1970s was formalized under President Bill Clinton in 1997 as Medicare Part C. In 2003, under President George W. Bush, a Medicare program for covering all self-administered prescription drugs was passed as Medicare Part D; the government added hospice benefits to aid elderly people on a temporary basis in 1982, made this permanent in 1984. Congress further expanded Medicare in 2001 to cover younger people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, a component of the U.
S. Department of Health and Human Services, administers Medicare, the Children's Health Insurance Program, the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments, parts of the Affordable Care Act. Along with the Departments of Labor and Treasury, the CMS implements the insurance reform provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 and most aspects of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 as amended; the Social Security Administration is responsible for determining Medicare eligibili
Social Security (United States)
In the United States, Social Security is the used term for the federal Old-Age and Disability Insurance program and is administered by the Social Security Administration. The original Social Security Act was signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1935, the current version of the Act, as amended, encompasses several social welfare and social insurance programs. Social Security is funded through payroll taxes called Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax or Self Employed Contributions Act Tax. Tax deposits are collected by the Internal Revenue Service and are formally entrusted to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the two Social Security Trust Funds. With a few exceptions, all salaried income, up to an amount determined by law, is subject to the Social Security payroll tax. All income over said. In 2018, the maximum amount of taxable earnings was $128,400. With few exceptions, all legal residents working in the United States now have an individual Social Security number.
Indeed, nearly all working residents since Social Security's 1935 inception have had a Social Security number because it is requested by a wide range of businesses. In 2017, Social Security expenditures totaled $806.7 billion for OASDI and $145.8 billion for DI. Income derived from Social Security is estimated to have reduced the poverty rate for Americans age 65 or older from about 40% to below 10%. In 2018, the trustees of the Social Security Trust Fund reported that the program will become financially insolvent in the year 2034 unless corrective action is enacted by Congress. Social Security Timeline 1935 The 37-page Social Security Act signed August 14 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Retirement benefits only to worker, welfare benefits started 1937 First Social Security Cards issued by post offices, over 20 million issued in first year 1937 Ernest Ackerman receives first lump-sum payout in January. 1939 Two new categories of beneficiaries added: spouse and minor children of a retired worker 1940 First monthly benefit check issued to Ida May Fuller for $22.54 1950 Benefits increased and cost of living adjustments made at irregular intervals – 77% COLA in 1950 1954 Disability program added to Social Security 1960 Flemming v. Nestor.
Landmark U. S. Supreme Court ruling that gave Congress the power to revise the schedule of benefits; the Court ruled that recipients have no contractual right to receive payments. 1961 Early retirement age lowered to age 62 at reduced benefits 1965 Medicare health care benefits added to Social security – 20 million joined in three years 1966 Medicare tax of 0.7% added to pay for increased Medicare expenses 1972 Supplemental Security Income program federalized and assigned to Social Security Administration 1975 Automatic cost of living adjustments mandated 1977 COLA adjustments brought back to "sustainable" levels 1980 Amendments are made in disability program to help solve some problems of fraud 1983 Taxation of Social Security benefits introduced, new federal hires required to be under Social Security, retirement age increased for younger workers to 66 and 67 years 1984 Congress passed the Disability Benefits Reform Act modifying several aspects of the disability program 1996 Drug addiction or alcoholism disability benefits could no longer be eligible for disability benefits.
The Earnings limit doubled exemption amount for retired Social Security beneficiaries. Terminated SSI eligibility for most non-citizens 1997 The law requires the establishment of federal standards for state-issued birth certificates and requires SSA to develop a prototype counterfeit-resistant Social Security card – still being worked on. 1997 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, replaces Aid to Families with Dependent Children program placed under SSA 1997 State Children's Health Insurance Program for low income citizens – added to Social Security Administration 2003 Voluntary drug benefits with supplemental Medicare insurance payments from recipients added 2009 No Social Security Benefits for Prisoners Act of 2009 signed. A limited form of the Social Security program began, during President Franklin D. Roosevelt's first term, as a measure to implement "social insurance" during the Great Depression of the 1930s; the Act was an attempt to limit unforeseen and unprepared-for dangers in modern life, including old age, poverty and the burdens of widows with and without children.
Opponents, decried the proposal as socialism. In a Senate Finance Committee hearing, Senator Thomas Gore asked Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins, "Isn't this socialism?" She said that it was not, but he continued, "Isn't this a teeny-weeny bit of socialism?"The provisions of Social Security have been changing since the 1930s, shifting in response to economic worries as well as coverage for the poor, dependent children, spouses and the disabled. By 1950, debates moved away from which occupational groups should be included to get enough taxpayers to fund Social Security to how to provide more benefits. Changes in Social Security have reflected a balance between promoting "equality" and efforts to provide "adequate" and affordable protection for low wage workers; the larger and better known programs under the Social Security Administration, SSA, are: Federal Old-Age and Disability Insurance, OASDI Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, TANF Health Insurance for Aged and Disabled, Medicare Grants to States for Medical Assistance Programs for low income citizens, Medicaid State Children's Health Insurance Program for low income citizens, SCHIP Supplement
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Speaker of the House of Commons (United Kingdom)
The Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, the United Kingdom's nominally lower, but more influential, chamber of Parliament. John Bercow was elected Speaker on 22 June 2009, following the resignation of Michael Martin, he was since re-elected, three times, following the general elections in 2010, 2015 and 2017. The Speaker presides over the House's debates; the Speaker is responsible for maintaining order during debate, may punish members who break the rules of the House. Unlike presiding officers of legislatures in many other countries, Speakers remain non-partisan and renounce all affiliation with their former political parties when taking office and afterwards; the Speaker does not take part in vote. Aside from duties relating to presiding over the House, the Speaker performs administrative and procedural functions, remains a constituency Member of Parliament; the Speaker has the obligation to reside in Speaker's House at the Palace of Westminster.
The office of Speaker is as old as Parliament itself. The earliest year for which a presiding officer has been identified is 1258, when Peter de Montfort presided over the Parliament held in Oxford. Early presiding officers were known by prolocutor; the continuous history of the office of Speaker is held to date from 1376 when Sir Peter de la Mare spoke for the commons in the "Good Parliament" as they joined leading magnates in purging the chief ministers of the Crown and the most unpopular members of the king's household. Edward III was frail and in seclusion, it was left to a furious John of Gaunt, to fight back. He arrested disgraced other leading critics. In the next, "Bad Parliament", in 1377, a cowed Commons put forward Gaunt's steward, Thomas Hungerford, as their spokesman in retracting their predecessors' misdeeds of the previous year. Gaunt evidently wanted a "mirror-image" as his form of counter-coup and this notion, born in crisis, of one'speaker', who also became'chairman' and organiser of the Commons' business, was recognised as valuable and took immediate root after 1376–7.
On 6 October 1399, Sir John Cheyne of Beckford was elected speaker. The powerful Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Arundel, is said to have voiced his fears of Cheyne's reputation as a critic of the Church. Eight days Cheyne resigned on grounds of ill-health, although he remained in favour with the king and active in public life for a further 14 years. Although the officer was elected by the Commons at the start of each Parliament, with at least one contested election known, in 1420, in practice the Crown was able to get whom it wanted, indicating that the famous'defence of the Commons' privilege' should not be seen in isolation as the principal thread in the office's evolution. Whilst the principle of giving this spokesman personal immunity from recrimination as only being the voice of the whole body was adopted and did enhance the Commons' role, the Crown found it useful to have one person with the authority to select and lead the lower house's business and responses to the Crown's agenda, much more than not in the way the Crown wanted.
Thus, Whig ideas of the Commons growing in authority as against royal power are somewhat simplistic. Throughout the medieval and early modern period, every speaker was an MP for a county, reflecting the implicit position that such shire representatives were of greater standing in the house than the more numerous burgess MPs. Although evidence is non-existent, it has been surmised that any vote was by count of head, but by the same token the lack of evidence of actual votes suggests that most decisions, at least of a general kind, were reached more through persuasion and the weight by status of the county MPs. In such a situation, the influence of the speaker should not be underestimated. Sir Thomas More was the first speaker to go on to become Lord Chancellor; until the 17th century, members of the House of Commons continued to view their speaker as an agent of the Crown. As Parliament evolved, the Speaker's position grew to involve more duties to the House than to the Crown; this change is sometimes said to be reflected by an incident in 1642, when King Charles I entered the House in order to search for and arrest five members for high treason.
When the King asked him if he knew of the location of these members, the Speaker, William Lenthall, famously replied: "May it please your Majesty, I have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this place but as the House is pleased to direct me, whose servant I am here."The development of Cabinet government under King William III in the late 17th century caused further change in the role of the Speaker. Speakers were associated with the ministry, held other government offices. For example, Robert Harley served as Speaker and as a Secretary of State between 1704 and 1705; the speaker between 1728 and 1761, Arthur Onslow, reduced ties with the government, though the office remained to a large degree political. The speakership evolved into its modern form—in which the holder is an impartial and apolitical officer who does not
A Finance Act is the headline fiscal legislation enacted by the UK Parliament, containing multiple provisions as to taxes, duties and reliefs at least once per year, in particular setting out the principal tax rates for each fiscal year. In the UK, the Chancellor of the Exchequer delivers a Budget speech on Budget Day, outlining changes in spending, as well as tax and duty; the changes to tax and duty are passed as law, each year form the respective Finance Act. Additional Finance Acts are common and are the result of a change in governing party due to a general election, a pressing loophole or defect in the law of taxation, or a backtrack with regard to government spending or taxation; however a repeal order can be made by statutory instrument. The rules governing the various taxation methods are contained within the relevant taxation acts. Capital Gains Tax legislation, for example, is contained within Taxation of Chargeable Gains Act 1992; the Finance Act details amendments to be made to each one of these Acts.
The main taxes are Excise Duties. Excise duties are inland. Alcoholic liquor duties Alcoholic Liquor Duties Act 1979 Hydrocarbon Oil Duty Hydrocarbon Oil Duties Act 1979 Tobacco products duty Tobacco Products Duty Act 1979 Gaming duty Finance Act 1997 Amusement Machine Licence Duty Betting and Gaming Duties Act 1981 Vehicle Excise Duty Vehicle Excise and Registration Act 1994 The Finance Act 1910 resulted in a significant net increase in taxation, it requisitioned a survey dubbed by right-wing journalists the "Lloyd George's Domesday land-survey", in particular entailing the 1910–1915 valuation maps; each property and related right under and over land in England and Wales was surveyed and valued, so Increment Value Duty based on land value could be levied when any property was sold. The initial rate was 20% of the increase in land-value between the date of the survey and the date of sale. Exemptions included plots smaller than 50 acres; this tax was substantively altered by the repeal of s. 67 by the Finance Act 1920 which superseded it.
As part of the survey, landowners had to fill in a form, the resulting records are useful for local history. The records today consist of: working maps valuation maps valuation books field books; the valuation maps and books are kept in local record offices, the other items are in the National Archives at Kew, London. This included a new "Duty on licences for mechanically propelled vehicles", repealed "customs duties on motor spirit and motor spirit dealers licence duties", introduced "Provisions as to spirits used for generating mechanical power" along with other provisions related to income tax and tax on alcohol; the 1946 Act established much of National Savings and Investments. The 1948 Act established the "Special Contribution", a one-off wealth tax. See e.g. https://api.parliament.uk/historic-hansard/commons/1948/dec/14/special-contribution The Finance Act 1977 abolished the last remaining tithes payable to the Church of England or Church in Wales. The Finance Act 2000 increased the Climate Change Levy.
This Act shortly before the United Kingdom General Election, 2010, passed as set out by the Labour Party adjusted the rates of the main taxes, in particular introducing on income tax the 50%'additional rate' band. The Act reversed a prospective rise enacted in the Finance Act 2007 of the inheritance tax nil rate band threshold from £325,000 to £350,000 which would have applied from 6 April 2010, emphasising a degree of redistribution, the tax instead continues to apply to death estates that do not benefit from any exemptions and consist of a property valued at 25% above the national average; this Act of 27 July 2010 under the Coalition Government reduced the headline rate of Capital Gains Tax to 18%. The Act increased the general rate of VAT from 17.5% to 20%. Enacted on 16 December 2010 this Act extended foster care relief, extended the applicability of venture capital schemes to companies with a "permanent establishment" in the UK "in financial health", modified the meaning of "distribution" in the Corporation Tax Acts, addressed the income tax treatment of seafarer's income, adjusted treatment of REITs:, modified rules as to EEA/UK consortium claims for group relief, introduced first-year allowances for zero-emission goods vehicles, adjusted for VAT purposes treatment of non-business use of business assets, amended penalties for failure to make payments on time and returns on time, proceduralised recovery of overpaid stamp duty and petroleum revenue tax, modified compliance checks as to excise duties, clarified the tax treatment of asbestos compensation settlements in relation to the three main taxes.
An Act to grant certain duties, to alter other duties, to amend the law relating to the National Debt and the Public Revenue, to make further provision in connection with finance. Most Gracious Sovereign We Your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects the Commons of the United Kingdom in Parliament assembled, towards raising the necessary supplies to defray Your Majesty's public expenses and making an addition to the public revenue have and voluntarily resolved to give and grant unto Your Majesty the several duties hereinafter mentioned and do therefore most humbly beseech Your Ma
Dame Rosalie Winterton, is a Labour Party politician in the United Kingdom. She was first elected as the Member of Parliament for Doncaster Central in 1997. Since June 2017, Winterton has served as Second Deputy Chairman of Ways and Means, she served under Prime Minister Gordon Brown as the Minister for Work and Pensions from 2008 to 2009, the Minister for Local Government from 2009 to 2010. She entered the Shadow Cabinet in May 2010 as the Shadow Leader of the House of Commons. In September 2010, she was nominated and elected unopposed as Labour Chief Whip and served in the post until October 2016, she was elected as one of three deputy speakers of the House of Commons on 28 June 2017. Educated at St. Mary's, Ackworth School and Doncaster Grammar School on Thorne Road and reading for a BA in History at the University of Hull in 1979, Winterton first worked as John Prescott's Constituency Personal Assistant from 1980 until 1986, Parliamentary Officers, first for Southwark Council for two years until 1988 and for a further two for the Royal College of Nursing until 1990.
After working for four years in the private sector, as Managing Director of Connect Public Affairs, she returned to politics to assist John Prescott in 1994. Winterton became an MP in the 1997 election, serving the safe Labour seat of Doncaster Central constituency with a vote share exceeding 50% in each general election until in 2010, where her vote share fell to 39.7%. She entered government in 2001, serving as a Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State in the Lord Chancellor's Department, became a Minister of State at the Department for Health in June 2003, she presided over the introduction of the new NHS dental contract of April 2006. In June 2006, she was appointed to the Privy Council, she was sworn in on 19 July 2006. In June 2007, she was appointed Minister of State at the Department for Transport by the new Prime Minister, Gordon Brown. Winterton was subsequently appointed Minister for Yorkshire and the Humber in addition to her DfT responsibilities on 24 January 2008, she was promoted to Minister of State for Pensions at the Department for Work and Pensions in the October 2008 reshuffle, retaining her Ministerial brief for Yorkshire and the Humber.
Winterton was caught up in the row over MPs' expenses when it was claimed she used taxpayers' cash to soundproof the bedroom of her south London flat. According to The Daily Telegraph, the minister claimed a total of £86,277 over four years in additional costs allowance – close to the total allowed under Parliament's green book. In the June 2009 reshuffle Winterton was moved to Minister of State for Regional Economic Development and Co-ordination at the Department for Business and Skills and the Department for Communities and Local Government and in that role was invited to attend cabinet when her responsibility was on the agenda. In September 2010, she was nominated and elected unopposed as Labour Chief Whip and served until October 2016 when she was replaced by Nick Brown. In June 2017 Winterton was elected to serve as Second Deputy Chairman of Ways and Means, she was appointed Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2016 New Year Honours. Rosie Winterton MP official constituency website Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 2010–present Contributions in Parliament during 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 at Hansard Archives Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 1803–2005 Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou Profile at Westminster Parliamentary Record