Patricia Davies Clarkson is an American actress. She has starred in numerous leading and supporting roles in a variety of films, ranging from independent features to major studio productions, her accolades include one Academy Award nomination, two Golden Globe Award nominations, four Screen Actors Guild Award nominations, one Tony Award nomination, two Primetime Emmy Awards, two National Society of Film Critics Awards, one British Independent Film Award. Born and raised in New Orleans to a politician mother and school administrator father, Clarkson earned a degree in drama from Fordham University before attending the Yale School of Drama, where she graduated with a Master of Fine Arts degree, she made her feature film debut in Brian De Palma's mob drama The Untouchables, followed by a supporting role in Clint Eastwood's The Dead Pool. After appearing in numerous minor roles in the early and mid-1990s, she garnered critical attention for her portrayal of a drug-addicted actress in the independent drama High Art.
Clarkson went on to appear in numerous supporting roles in such films as The Green Mile, The Pledge, Dogville. She garnered further critical acclaim in 2003 for her performances in the drama films The Station Agent, which earned her a Screen Actors Guild Award nomination, Pieces of April, for which she was nominated for a Golden Globe and an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. Clarkson appeared as a recurring guest star on the HBO series Six Feet Under from 2002 to 2006, won two Primetime Emmy Awards for her performance. Other credits from the 2000s include Good Night, Good Luck and the Real Girl, Elegy. In 2010, Clarkson had a supporting role in Martin Scorsese's thriller Shutter Island, followed by roles in the mainstream comedies Easy A and Friends with Benefits, she subsequently portrayed the villainous Ava Paige in its two sequels. She returned to theater in 2014, playing the role of Madge Kendal in a Broadway production of The Elephant Man, for which she was nominated for a Tony Award for Best Featured Actress.
In 2017, she won a British Independent Film Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in Sally Potter's drama The Party, guest-starred on the Netflix series House of Cards. She co-starred with Amy Adams on the HBO miniseries Sharp Objects in 2018, for which she won a Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actress in a Series, Miniseries, or Television Film. Clarkson was born in New Orleans, the daughter of Jackie Clarkson, a New Orleans politician and councilwoman, Arthur "Buzz" Clarkson, a school administrator who worked at the Louisiana State University School of Medicine, she is one of five sisters. She was raised on the West Bank of the Mississippi River. From 1977 to 1979, Clarkson studied speech pathology at Louisiana State University before deciding she wanted to pursue a drama degree. In 1980, she transferred to Fordham University in New York City to enroll in their undergraduate acting program, from which she graduated summa cum laude in 1982, she earned her Master of Fine Arts at the Yale School of Drama in 1985.
After graduating from the Yale School of Drama, Clarkson was cast in a 1986 Broadway production of The House of Blue Leaves as a replacement in the role of Corrinna Stroller. The following year, she made her feature film debut in Brian De Palma's The Untouchables, portraying Catherine Ness, the wife of US Treasury Prohibition agent Elliott Ness. Clarkson stated she was financially struggling during this time and was paying student loans, that De Palma expanded her role in the film as she only had several days' worth of shooting; the next year, she was cast in Clint Eastwood's The Dead Pool, the fifth installment in the Dirty Harry film series. In 1989, she returned to Broadway portraying a Wall Street investment counselor whose brother is diagnosed with AIDS. Clarkson has stated that beginning in the early 1990s, she went through a turbulent period in her career and was unable to find significant work, she had a small role in Jumanji before being cast in the independent drama High Art, portraying a drug-addicted German actress in New York City.
Her performance earned her an Independent Spirit Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress. In 1999, Clarkson appeared in a supporting role as an ailing wife of a prison warden in The Green Mile, nominated for a Screen Actors Guild Award for Best Ensemble Cast; the same year, she had a supporting part in the romantic comedy Simply Irresistible, followed by a supporting part in Stanley Tucci's biopic Joe Gould's Secret. Next, she portrayed a single mother in the drama The Safety of Objects, had a supporting role opposite Jack Nicholson in the Sean Penn-directed thriller The Pledge, playing the mother of a murder victim, she had a leading role in the independent horror film Wendigo, directed by Larry Fessenden, in the comedy Welcome to Collinwood. Roger Ebert praised the performances in the former, noting: "The actors have an unforced, natural quality that looks easy but is hard to do." In 2002, Clarkson was cast in a supporting role in Todd Haynes's period drama Far from Heaven, opposite Julianne Moore and Dennis Quaid, playing the neighbor of a repressed housewife in the 1950s.
The same year, she starred as Margaret White in the television film adaptation of Stephen King's Carrie. Between 2002 and 2005, Clarkson had a guest-starring role on the HBO drama series Six Feet Under, playing Sarah O'Connor, the arti
Walton Sanders Goggins Jr. is an American actor. He produced and starred in the 2001 short film The Accountant, which won an Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film, he was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series in the FX series Justified. Goggins was born in Birmingham, the son of Janet Long and Walton Sanders Goggins Sr, he was raised in Lithia Springs, attended Lithia Springs High School, for one year, Georgia Southern University. He moved to Los Angeles at the age of 19; when he was 19, Goggins moved to Los Angeles to pursue a career in acting. He worked on a valet car parking service for various restaurants in the valley and sold cowboy boots. In 1990, after working in a few acting roles in Georgia, he got his first big break in Murder in Mississippi. While filming, Goggins met and became friends with Ray McKinnon, who played his father in the film, with whom he began a creative partnership that continues to this day. Goggins played Detective Shane Vendrell in the FX series The Shield.
Goggins and McKinnon formed their production company Ginny Mule Pictures, which produced four films: The Accountant, Chrystal and the Mob and That Evening Sun. Goggins and McKinnon created the series Rectify. Goggins was set to play the lead and AMC had bought the pilot script, written by McKinnon, a role which went to Aden Young when the series went to SundanceTV. Goggins played Boyd Crowder in the pilot episode of the FX series Justified, was a recurring cast member in the first season of the show, while shooting a major supporting role as a deadly death row inmate being hunted by the titular antagonists in the film Predators. In May 2010, his role was promoted to the main cast for the second season. In May 2011, he appeared in "Code of the West", a commercial for Ram Truck's "Guts & Glory" campaign, he appeared in Cowboys & Aliens as Hunt, a bandit in the employ of the protagonist. In July 2011, Goggins was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series for his role on Justified.
He portrayed Billy Crash, a sadistic overseer and slave fighting trainer, in the 2012 film Django Unchained. From 2012 to 2013, Goggins guest-starred as transgender prostitute Venus Van Dam in the FX series Sons of Anarchy, he worked with the show's creator, Kurt Sutter, when the latter was a writer and executive producer on The Shield. The name "Venus Van Dam" is a play on the undercover name "Cletus Van Damme" used by Shane Vendrell on The Shield, he played Chris Mannix in The Hateful Lee Russell in the HBO series Vice Principals. Reviewing in The New York Times, critic Mike Hale wrote, "Walton Goggins makes a habit of being the best thing about the television shows he’s in." Goggins has received a steady stream of recognition for his professional work. With Ray McKinnon, Lisa Blount and Ginny Mule Pictures, he was recognized by the Spirit of Slamdance Award at the Slamdance Film Festival in 2001 for The Accountant, which went on to win the Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film in 2002.
Their film Chrystal appeared in the 2004 U. S. Dramatic Competition at the Sundance Film Festival, the same trio were awarded the Spirit of Slamdance Award again for Randy and the Mob. Goggins was nominated for a Television Critics Association Award for Individual Achievement in Drama in 2009 for his role as Detective Shane Vendrell in The Shield. In the same year, McKinnon, Hal Holbrook and the rest of the principal cast of That Evening Sun, won the Special Jury Award for Best Ensemble Cast at the South by Southwest Film Festival competition. In 2013, Goggins was nominated for the San Diego Film Critics Society Award for Best Performance by an Ensemble in Quentin Tarantino's western film Django Unchained. Goggins' role of Boyd Crowder in Justified received nominations for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series in 2011, the Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film in 2011, the TV Guide Award for Favorite Villain in 2013, the Online Film & Television Association's Television Award for Best Supporting Actor in a Drama Series in 2011 and 2014, for the Critics' Choice Television Award for Best Supporting Actor in a Drama Series in 2011, 2013, 2014 and 2015.
Goggins' role of Venus Van Dam in Sons of Anarchy received nominations for the Online Film & Television Association's Television Award for Best Guest Actor in a Drama Series in 2013 and 2014, for the Critics' Choice Television Award for Best Guest Performer in a Drama Series in 2014 and 2015. Goggins was married to Canadian Leanne Kaun, owner of a Laurel Canyon, California dog-walking business. Born in 1967, she committed suicide on November 12, 2004. Goggins married filmmaker Nadia Conners in August 2011, they have a son, Augustus. Goggins showcases some of his photography on a blog that he created, when he took time off work and traveled across India, he is active in various nonprofit organizations that range from environmental to humanitarian work, he attends Global Green USA events. Walton Goggins on IMDb Audio Interview w/ The Rafferty/Mills Connection Podcast myFanbase Interview with Walton Goggins on "Justified" and "The Shield", December 2011 Walton Goggins Fan
Louisiana State Penitentiary
The Louisiana State Penitentiary is a maximum-security prison farm in Louisiana operated by the Louisiana Department of Public Safety & Corrections. It is named "Angola" after the former plantation; the plantation was named for the African country, the origin of many slaves brought to Louisiana. Angola is the largest maximum-security prison in the United States with 6,300 prisoners and 1,800 staff, including corrections officers, janitors and wardens. Located in West Feliciana Parish, the prison is set between oxbow lakes on the east side of a bend of the Mississippi River, so it is surrounded on three sides by water, it lies less than two miles south of Louisiana's straight east-west border with Mississippi. The 18,000-acre of land the prison sits on was known before the American Civil War as the Angola Plantations and was owned by Isaac Franklin; the prison is located at the end of Louisiana Highway 66, around 22 miles northwest of St. Francisville. Burl Cain served as the warden from 1995 to March 7, 2016.
He was known for making numerous improvements and lowering the rate of violence at the prison, but court challenges to harsh conditions there have continued. Death row for men and the state execution chamber for both sexes are located at the Angola facility. Before 1835, state inmates were held in a jail in New Orleans; the first Louisiana State Penitentiary, located at the intersection of 6th and Laurel streets in Baton Rouge, was modeled on a prison in Wethersfield, Connecticut. In 1844 the state leased operation of the prison and its prisoners to McHatton Pratt and Company, a private company. During the American Civil War, Union soldiers occupied the prison in Baton Rouge. In 1869 during the Reconstruction era, Samuel Lawrence James, a former Confederate major, received the military lease to the future prison property along the Mississippi River, he tried to produce cotton with free labor of African Americans. The land, developed as Angola Penitentiary was purchased in the 1830s from Francis Rout as four contiguous plantations by Isaac Franklin, a slave trader and planter.
He used profits from his slave trading firm and Armfield, of Alexandria and Natchez, Mississippi. After his death in 1846, Franklin's widow, by known as Adelicia Cheatham, joined these plantations: Panola, Belle View and Angola, when she sold them all in 1880 to Samuel Lawrence James, the former CSA officer; the Angola plantation was named for the country in Africa from. It contained. Under the convict lease system, Major James ran his vast plantation using convicts leased from the state as his workers, he was responsible for their room and board, had total authority over them. With the incentive to earn money from prisoners, the state passed laws directed at African Americans, requiring payment of minor fees and fines as punishment for infractions. Cash-poor men in the agricultural economy were forced into convict labor; such convicts were abused and subject to unregulated violence. The state exercised little oversight of conditions. Prisoners were worked to death under harsh conditions. James died in 1894.
The Louisiana Department of Public Safety & Corrections says that this facility opened as a state prison in 1901. Charles Wolfe and Kip Lornell, authors of The Life and Legend of Leadbelly, said that Angola was "probably as close to slavery as any person could come in 1930." Hardened criminals broke down upon being notified. White-black racial tensions in the society were expressed at the prison, adding to the violence: each year one in every ten inmates received stab wounds. Wolfe and Lornell said that the staff, consisting of 90 people, "ran the prison like it was a private fiefdom." The two authors said that prisoners were viewed as "'niggers' of the lowest order." The state did not appropriate many funds for the operation of Angola, saved money by trying to decrease costs. Much of the remaining money ended up in the operations of other state projects. In 1948, Governor Earl Kemp Long appointed Rollo C. Lawrence, a former mayor of Pineville, as the first Angola superintendent. Long subsequently established the position of warden as one of political patronage.
Long appointed distant relatives as wardens of the prison. In the institution's history, the electric chair, Gruesome Gertie, was stored at Angola; because West Feliciana Parish did not want to be associated with state executions, for some time the state transported the chair to the parish of conviction of a condemned prisoner before executing him or her. A former Angola prisoner, William Sadler, wrote a series of articles about Angola in the 1940s. Hell on Angola helped bring about prison reform. In 1952, 31 inmates, in protest of the prison's conditions, cut their Achilles' tendons This caused national news agencies to write exposé stories about conditions at Angola. In its November 22, 1952 issue, Collier's Magazine referred to Angola as "the worst prison in America." In addition, Margaret Dixon, managing editor of the Baton Rouge Morning Advocate for two decades, worked for prison reform construction of other facilities in order to reduce the population at Angola. The new Margaret Dixon Correctiona
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per
James Newton Howard
James Newton Howard is an American composer and music producer. He has scored over 100 films and is the recipient of a Grammy Award, Emmy Award, eight Academy Award nominations, his film scores include Pretty Woman, Grand Canyon, The Fugitive, The Devil's Advocate, Atlantis: The Lost Empire, Treasure Planet, King Kong, Batman Begins, Blood Diamond, The Dark Knight, The Bourne Legacy, The Hunger Games series and Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them. He has collaborated with directors M. Night Shyamalan, having scored nine of his films since The Sixth Sense, Francis Lawrence, having scored all of his films since I Am Legend. Howard was born in Los Angeles, he is from a musical family. Howard began taking classical piano lessons at the age of four, he went on to attend the Thacher School in Ojai and the Music Academy of the West in Santa Barbara, California with Reginald Stewart and Leon Fleischer. He attended the University of Southern California, studying at the School of Music as a piano performance major, but dropped out after 6 weeks because "He wanted to do other things than practicing the piano."After Howard left college, he joined a short-lived rock band called Mama Lion.
The band was led by Neil Merryweather and featured vocalist Lynn Carey, Coffi Hall on bass, Rick Gaxiola on guitar. Mama Lion recorded two full-length albums. Members of Mama Lion formed the band Heavy Cruiser with Merryweather singing lead, recording two albums in the Heavy Prog Psyche genre, he worked for a couple of years as a session musician with artists including Diana Ross, Ringo Starr, Harry Nilsson. In the early 70s, he described himself as being "dirt poor", until his big break in 1975 when his manager got him an audition with Elton John, he toured with them as keyboardist during the late 70s and early 80s. He was part of the band that played Central Park, New York, on September 13, 1980. Howard arranged strings for several of John's songs during this period including the hits "Don't Go Breaking My Heart" and "Sorry Seems to Be the Hardest Word", played additional keyboards and synthesizers on studio albums including Rock of the Westies, Blue Moves, 21 at 33, The Fox. In 1982, Howard was featured on Toto IV as the strings conductor and orchestrator for "I Won't Hold You Back", "Afraid of Love", "Lovers in the Night".
A year he released the live album James Newton Howard and Friends, which featured Toto's David Paich, Steve Porcaro, Jeff Porcaro, Joe Porcaro. In 1983, Howard was co-producer and orchestrator of Riccardo Cocciante's album Sincerità. After touring with Crosby and Nash, he took an opportunity brought to him by his manager to write a film score for a small-time movie; this career move would lead to his becoming a successful film music composer. During this early foray into film music, he did not abandon his previous musical path and returned for a brief collaboration with Elton John on his Tour De Force of Australia in the fall of 1986, he conducted both his own and Paul Buckmaster's arrangements during the second half of the set, which focused on orchestrated performances of selected songs from the Elton John catalog. When delving into his family history, twenty-five years after the death of his father, Howard learned that his father was Jewish. Howard became a practicing Reconstructionist Jew.
Howard scored the surprise blockbuster romantic comedy Pretty Woman and received his first Academy Award nomination for his score for Barbra Streisand's drama The Prince of Tides. Setting the musical mood for numerous films throughout the decade, Howard's skills encompassed a plethora of genres, including four more best original score Oscar nominations, for the Harrison Ford action feature The Fugitive, the Julia Roberts romantic comedy My Best Friend's Wedding, M. Night Shyamalan's The Village, Michael Clayton. In addition, Howard scored the Western epic Wyatt Earp, Kevin Costner's Waterworld, Primal Fear, his collaborations on songs for One Fine Day and Junior garnered Oscar nominations for Best Song. Along with scoring small-scaled, independent films such as Five Corners, Glengarry Glen Ross, American Heart, Howard proved skilled at composing for big-budget Hollywood spectacles, including Space Jam, Dante's Peak, Collateral, he has scored three Disney animated feature films: Dinosaur, Atlantis: The Lost Empire and Treasure Planet.
Although he concentrates on films, Howard has contributed music for TV, earning an Emmy nomination in 1995 for his theme to NBC's ratings smash ER. He has scored all of Shyamalan's suspense thrillers, The Sixth Sense, Signs, The Village, Lady in the Water, The Happening, The Last Airbender, notably dropping the intense, yet subtle, opening credit music for The Sixth Sense from the corresponding soundtrack album. On October 14, 2005 Howard replaced Howard Shore as composer for King Kong, due to "differing creative aspirations for the score" between Shore and director Peter Jackson; the resultant score earned Howard his first Golden Globe nomination for Best