We Are One: The Obama Inaugural Celebration at the Lincoln Memorial

We Are One: The Obama Inaugural Celebration at the Lincoln Memorial was a public celebration of the forthcoming inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States at the Lincoln Memorial and the National Mall in Washington, D. C. on January 18, 2009. By some estimates the attendance was over 400,000; the event was musically directed by Rob Mathes of the Kennedy Center Honors. A backing band used by many of the artists was in the orchestra pit, featured veteran session drummer Kenny Aronoff; the concert featured performances by Beyoncé, Mary J. Blige, Jon Bon Jovi, Garth Brooks, Sheryl Crow, Renée Fleming, Caleb Green, Josh Groban, Herbie Hancock, Heather Headley, Bettye Lavette, John Legend, John Mellencamp, Jennifer Nettles, Pete Seeger, Bruce Springsteen, James Taylor, U2, and Stevie Wonder. Several of the songs performed had been used by Obama's presidential campaign; the concert featured readings of historical passages by Jack Black, Steve Carell, Rosario Dawson, Jamie Foxx, Tom Hanks, Samuel L. Jackson, Ashley Judd, Martin Luther King III, Queen Latifah, Laura Linney, George Lopez, Kal Penn, Marisa Tomei, Denzel Washington, Forest Whitaker and Tiger Woods.

Episcopal Bishop of New Hampshire Gene Robinson gave an open prayer to start the celebration. Attendance at the concert was free to the public, HBO broadcast the concert for free on cable television services on their subscription-only network; the Associated Press called it a "near-flawless production with multiple camera angles and a majestic backdrop in the giant statue of Abraham Lincoln". The concert was broadcast around the world. In Finland it was broadcast live and free to air by YLE TV1. In the Netherlands it was broadcast live and free by Nederland 3, it was broadcast in Portugal by RTP 2 on January 24, 2009. In Sweden it was broadcast by TV8. HBO released the concert as part of a 2 DVD set in April 2010, it was shown for the crowd at Obama's inauguration two days on megascreens in the hours before the ceremony began


Pteranodon is a genus of pterosaur that included some of the largest known flying reptiles, with wingspans over 7 meters. They lived during the late Cretaceous geological period of North America in present-day Kansas, Nebraska and South Dakota. More fossil specimens of Pteranodon have been found than any other pterosaur, with about 1,200 specimens known to science, many of them well preserved with nearly complete skulls and articulated skeletons, it was an important part of the animal community in the Western Interior Seaway. Pteranodon were pterosaurs, not dinosaurs. By definition, all dinosaurs belong to one of the two groups within Dinosauria, i.e. Saurischia or Ornithischia; as such, this excludes pterosaurs. Nonetheless, Pteranodon are featured in dinosaur media and are associated with dinosaurs by the general public. While not dinosaurs, pterosaurs such as Pteranodon form a sister clade to dinosaurs within the clade Avemetatarsalia. Pteranodon species are well represented in the fossil record, allowing for detailed descriptions of their anatomy and analysis of their life history.

Over 1,000 specimens have been identified, though less than half are complete enough to give researchers good anatomical information. Still, this is more fossils material than is known for any other pterosaur, it includes both male and female specimens of various age groups and species. Adult Pteranodon specimens from the two major species can be divided into two distinct size classes; the smaller class of specimens have small, rounded head crests and wide pelvic canals wider than those of the much larger size class. The size of the pelvic canal allowed the laying of eggs, indicating that these smaller adults are females; the larger size class, representing male individuals, have narrow hips and large crests, which were for display. Adult male Pteranodon were among the largest pterosaurs, were the largest flying animals known until the late 20th century, when the giant azhdarchid pterosaurs were discovered; the wingspan of an average adult male Pteranodon was 5.6 metres. Adult females were much smaller.

The largest specimen of Pteranodon longiceps from the Niobrara Formation measured 6.25 metres from wingtip to wingtip. An larger specimen is known from the Pierre Shale Formation, with a wingspan of 7.25 metres, though this specimen may belong to the distinct genus and species Geosternbergia maysei. While most specimens are found crushed, enough fossils exist to put together a detailed description of the animal. Methods used to estimate the mass of large male Pteranodon specimens have been notoriously unreliable, producing a wide range of estimates from as low as 20 kilograms to as high as 93 kilograms. In a review of pterosaur size estimates published in 2010, researchers Mark Witton and Mike Habib demonstrated that the latter, largest estimates are certainly incorrect given the total volume of a Pteranodon body, could only be correct if the animal "was principally comprised of aluminium". Witton and Habib considered the methods used by researchers who obtained smaller mass estimates flawed.

Most have been produced by scaling modern animals such as bats and birds up to Pteranodon size, despite the fact that pterosaurs have vastly different body proportions and soft tissue anatomy from any living animal. Other distinguishing characteristics that set Pteranodon apart from other pterosaurs include narrow neural spines on the vertebrae, plate-like bony ligaments strengthening the vertebrae above the hip, a short tail in which the last few vertebrae are fused into a long rod; the entire length of the tail was about 3.5% as long as the wingspan, or up to 25 centimetres in the largest males. Unlike earlier pterosaurs, such as Rhamphorhynchus and Pterodactylus, Pteranodon had toothless beaks, similar to those of birds. Pteranodon beaks were made of bony margins that projected from the base of the jaws; the beaks were long and ended in thin, sharp points. The upper jaw, longer than the lower jaw, was curved upward. While the tip of the beak is not known in this specimen, the level of curvature suggests it would have been long.

The unique form of the beak in this specimen led Alexander Kellner to assign it to a distinct genus, Dawndraco, in 2010. The most distinctive characteristic of Pteranodon is its cranial crest; these crests consisted of skull bones backward from the skull. The size and shape of these crests varied due to a number of factors, including age and species. Male Pteranodon sternbergi, the older species of the two described to date, had a more vertical crest with a broad forward projection, while their descendants, Pteranodon longiceps, evolved a narrower, more backward-projecting crest. Females of both species bore small, rounded crests; the crests were mainly display structures, though they may have had other functions as well. The wing shape of Pteranodon suggests; this is based on the fact that Pteranodon had a high aspect ratio similar to that of the albatross — 9:1 for Pteranodon, compared to 8:1 for an albatross. Albatrosses spend long stretches of time at sea fishing, use a flight pattern called "dynamic soaring" which exploits t

Albert Johnston (rugby league)

Albert "Ricketty" Johnston was a pioneering Australian rugby league footballer who played in the 1910s and 1920s, coached in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s. He was a three-quarter for the Australian national team, played in eight tests between 1919 and 1922, two as captain, he was born and grew up in Balmain and started playing rugby league at a junior level when the game commenced in Australia in 1908. In 1911 he made his first grade debut with the Balmain Tigers at half-back. Following Arthur Halloway's move to the Tigers in 1915, Johnston moved to five-eighth and their strong halves partnership was one of factors enabling Balmain to three consecutive premiership titles from 1915 to 1917, he joined Wests for the 1918 season spent two years as captain-coach at Newtown 1919-20. Following his Australian representative appearances in 1920 the admission of the St George Dragons meant that Johnston being a local resident had to play with the club, which he did for his final two club seasons of 1921 and 1922.

In 1912 he was selected in a Sydney Metropolis side. In 1913 he was in a New South Wales touring squad to New Zealand as half-back but was kept out of the major matches by the form of his peer Arthur Halloway, he captained New South Wales in some 1918 games and made his Australian Test debut in 1919 on Australia's tour of New Zealand. He scored a try on debut assisting Australia to a 44-21 victory. With tour captain Halloway unfit for the 3rd Test Johnston led the side to a series victory in Auckland in the process becoming Australia's 11th Kangaroo captain. In 1920 Johnston was chosen for the first Test of the domestic Ashes series, he captained the side to an 8-4 victory over England. Herb Gilbert took over as captain for the 2nd and 3rd Tests but Johnston's continued successful halves pairing with Queenslander Duncan Thompson set a platform for the talented backline featuring Harold Horder, Dick Vest and Gilbert, Australia won the series and the Ashes for the first time on home soil. Johnston did not captain Australia again.

He appeared for New South Wales through till 1922 and toured with the 1921-22 Kangaroos playing in the 1st Test and in 11 tour matches. Johnston coached Newtown in 1923, 1925 and 1926 and Wests in 1924, he coached St George in 1933-35 taking the club to their first premiership final. He was awarded Life Membership of the New South Wales Rugby League in 1938, he was a state selector from 1938 and state coach from 1939 to 1946. He was a national selector in 1946 and coach of the national side for the 1946 first post-WWII Anglo-Australian series. Whiticker, Alan Captaining the Kangaroos, New Holland, Sydney