Outline of James Bond
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to James Bond: James Bond is a fictional character created in 1953 by journalist and writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short story collections. The character has been used in the long-running and fourth most financially successful English language film series to date; the film series started in 1962 with Dr. No—with Sean Connery as Bond—and has continued most with Spectre, starring Daniel Craig as Bond. James Bond Inspirations for James Bond James Bond Jr. Young Bond Shaken, not stirred Vesper cocktail List of actors considered for the James Bond character Bond girl List of James Bond villains List of James Bond henchmen List of James Bond allies List of James Bond novels Ian Fleming Publications Ian Fleming Casino Royale Live and Let Die Moonraker Diamonds Are Forever From Russia, with Love Dr. No Goldfinger For Your Eyes Only "From a View to a Kill" "For Your Eyes Only" "Quantum of Solace" "Risico" "The Hildebrand Rarity" Thunderball The Spy Who Loved Me On Her Majesty's Secret Service You Only Live Twice The Man with the Golden Gun Octopussy and The Living Daylights "Octopussy" "The Property of a Lady" "The Living Daylights" "007 in New York" Kingsley Amis as Robert Markham Colonel Sun John Pearson James Bond: The Authorized Biography of 007 Christopher Wood James Bond, The Spy Who Loved Me James Bond and Moonraker John Gardner Licence Renewed For Special Services Icebreaker Role of Honour Nobody Lives for Ever No Deals, Mr. Bond Scorpius Win, Lose or Die Licence to Kill Brokenclaw The Man from Barbarossa Death is Forever Never Send Flowers SeaFire GoldenEye Cold Raymond Benson "Blast From the Past" Zero Minus Ten Tomorrow Never Dies The Facts of Death "Midsummer Night's Doom" "Live at Five" The World Is Not Enough High Time to Kill DoubleShot Never Dream of Dying The Man with the Red Tattoo Die Another Day "The Heart of Erzulie" Charlie Higson SilverFin Blood Fever Double or Die Hurricane Gold By Royal Command "A Hard Man to Kill" Samantha Weinberg as Kate Westbrook Guardian Angel Secret Servant Final Fling "For Your Eyes Only, James" "Moneypenny's First Date with Bond" Sebastian Faulks Devil May Care Jeffery Deaver Carte Blanche William Boyd Solo Steve Cole Shoot to Kill Anthony Horowitz Trigger Mortis, which features passages by Ian Fleming and based on his plot Forever and a Day, prequel to Casino Royale The James Bond Dossier The Book of Bond or, Every Man His Own 007 For Bond Lovers Only The James Bond Bedside Companion Danger Society: The Young Bond Dossier Double O Seven, James Bond, A Report The Battle for Bond James Bond Encyclopedia For Your Eyes Only: Behind the Scenes of the James Bond Films Little Nellie 007 James Bond: The Secret World of 007 James Bond in film Eon Productions Sean Connery Dr.
No From Russia with Love Goldfinger Thunderball You Only Live Twice George Lazenby On Her Majesty's Secret Service Sean Connery Diamonds Are Forever Roger Moore Live and Let Die The Man with the Golden Gun The Spy Who Loved Me Moonraker For Your Eyes Only Octopussy A View to a Kill Timothy Dalton The Living Daylights Licence to Kill Pierce Brosnan GoldenEye Tomorrow Never Dies The World Is Not Enough Die Another Day Daniel Craig Casino Royale Quantum of Solace Skyfall Spectre Non-Eon films and television episodes "Casino Royale" – by CBS for Climax! television series - 1954 Casino Royale – by Columbia Pictures - 1967 Never Say Never Again – by Producers Sales Organization - 1983 List of James Bond films James Bond filmography Motifs in the James Bond film series List of James Bond film locations Gun barrel sequence List of recurring characters in the James Bond film series List of recurring actors and actresses in the James Bond film series Albert R. Broccoli Harry Saltzman Michael G. Wilson Barbara Broccoli List of James Bond vehicles James Bond Car Collection List of James Bond gadgets James Bond music John Barry David Arnold Thomas Newman "James Bond Theme" Monty Norman "James Bond Theme" Shaken and Stirred: The David Arnold James Bond Project Meets James Bond - Sounds Orchestral, 1965 Mister James Bond - Jean-Jacques Perrey, 1968 The Best of Bond...
James Bond Soundtracks Dr. No From Russia with Love Goldfinger "Goldfinger" Thunderball You Only Live Twice "You Only Live Twice" On Her Majesty's Secret Service "We Have All the Time in the World" Diamonds Are Forever Live and Let Die "Live and Let Die" The Man with the Golden Gun The Spy Who Loved Me "Nobody Does It Better" Moonraker For Your Eyes Only "For Your Eyes Only" Octopussy "All Time High" A View to a Kill "A View to a Kill" The Living Daylights "The Living Daylights" "Where Has Everybody Gone?" Licence to Kill "If You Asked Me To" GoldenEye "GoldenEye" Tomorrow Never Dies "Tomorrow Never Dies" The World Is Not Enough "The World Is Not Enough" Die Another Day "Die Another Day" Casino Royale "You Know My Name" Quantum of Solace "Another Way to Die" Skyfall "Skyfall" Spectre "Writing's On The Wall" James Bond Video games: Shaken but Not Stirred James Bond 007 A View to a Kill Goldfinger The Living Daylights Live and Let Die 007: Licence to Kill The Spy Who Loved Me Operation Stealth James Bond Jr. James Bond 007: The Duel GoldenEye GoldenEye 007 James Bond 007 Tomorrow Never Dies The World Is Not Enough The World Is Not Enough 007 Racing The World Is Not Enough Agent Under Fire Nightfire Everything or Nothing GoldenEye: Rogue Agent From Russia with Love Quantum of Solace GoldenEye 007 Blood Stone 007 Legends James Bond: World of Espionage Role-playing game James Bond 007, Role-Playing in Her Majesty's Secret Servi
Louis Daniel Armstrong, nicknamed Satchmo and Pops, was an American trumpeter, composer and occasional actor, one of the most influential figures in jazz. His career spanned five decades, from the 1920s to the 1960s, different eras in the history of jazz. In 2017, he was inducted into the Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame. Armstrong was raised in New Orleans. Coming to prominence in the 1920s as an "inventive" trumpet and cornet player, Armstrong was a foundational influence in jazz, shifting the focus of the music from collective improvisation to solo performance. Around 1922, he followed Joe "King" Oliver, to Chicago to play in the Creole Jazz Band. In the Windy City, he networked with other popular jazz musicians, reconnecting with his friend, Bix Beiderbecke, made new contacts, which included Hoagy Carmichael and Lil Hardin, he earned a reputation at "cutting contests", relocated to New York in order to join Fletcher Henderson's band. With his recognizable rich, gravelly voice, Armstrong was an influential singer, demonstrating great dexterity as an improviser, bending the lyrics and melody of a song for expressive purposes.
He was very skilled at scat singing. Armstrong is renowned for his charismatic stage presence and voice as much as for his trumpet playing. Armstrong's influence extends well beyond jazz, by the end of his career in the 1960s, he was regarded as a profound influence on popular music in general. Armstrong was one of the first popular African-American entertainers to "cross over", that is, whose skin color became secondary to his music in an America, racially divided at the time, he publicly politicized his race to the dismay of fellow African Americans, but took a well-publicized stand for desegregation in the Little Rock crisis. His artistry and personality allowed him access to the upper echelons of American society highly restricted for black men. Armstrong stated that he was born on July 4, 1900. Although he died in 1971, it was not until the mid-1980s that his true birth date, August 4, 1901, was discovered by Tad Jones by researching baptismal records. At least three other biographies treat the July 4th birth date as a myth.
Armstrong was born in New Orleans on August 4, 1901 to William Armstrong. Albert was from Boutte and gave birth at home when she was about sixteen. William Armstrong abandoned the family shortly after. About two years he had a daughter, Beatrice "Mama Lucy" Armstrong, raised by Albert. Louis Armstrong was raised by his grandmother until the age of five when he was returned to his mother, he spent his youth in poverty in a rough neighborhood known as The Battlefield. At six he attended the Fisk School for Boys, a school that accepted black children in the racially segregated system of New Orleans, he did odd jobs for a family of Lithuanian Jews. While selling coal in Storyville, he heard spasm bands, groups that played music out of household objects, he heard the early sounds of jazz from bands that played in brothels and dance halls such as Pete Lala's, where King Oliver performed. The Karnoffskys treated him like family. Knowing he lived without a father, they nurtured him. In his memoir Louis Armstrong + the Jewish Family in New Orleans, La. the Year of 1907, he described his discovery that this family was subject to discrimination by "other white folks" who felt that they were better than Jews: "I was only seven years old but I could see the ungodly treatment that the white folks were handing the poor Jewish family whom I worked for."
He wore a Star of David pendant for the rest of his life and wrote about what he learned from them: "how to live—real life and determination." His first musical performance may have been at the side of the Karnoffsky's junk wagon. To distinguish them from other hawkers, he tried playing a tin horn to attract customers. Morris Karnoffsky gave Armstrong an advance toward the purchase of a cornet from a pawn shop; when Armstrong was eleven, he dropped out of school. His mother moved into a one-room house on Perdido Street with him and her common-law husband, Tom Lee, next door to her brother Ike and his two sons. Armstrong joined a quartet of boys, he got into trouble. Cornetist Bunk Johnson said. In his years Armstrong credited King Oliver, he said about his youth, "Every time I close my eyes blowing that trumpet of mine—I look right in the heart of good old New Orleans... It has given me something to live for." Borrowing his stepfather's gun without permission, he fired a blank into the air and was arrested on December 31, 1912.
He spent the night at New Orleans Juvenile Court was sentenced the next day to detention at the Colored Waif's Home. Life at the home was spartan. Mattresses were absent. Meals were little more than bread and molasses. Captain Joseph Jones used corporal punishment. Armstrong developed his cornet skills by playing in the band. Peter Davis, who appeared at the home at the request of Captain Jones, became Armstrong's first teacher and chose him as bandleader. With this band, the thirteen year-old. On June 14, 1914, Armstrong was released into the custody of his father and his new stepmother, Gertrude, he lived in this household with two stepbrothers for several months. After Gertrude gave birth to a daughter, Armstrong's father never welcomed him, so he returned to his mother, Mary Albert. In her small home, he had to share a bed with his sister, his mother still lived in The Battlefield
James Newell Osterberg Jr. better known as Iggy Pop, is an American singer, musician, record producer, actor. Designated the "Godfather of Punk", he was the vocalist of influential proto-punk band The Stooges, who were formed in 1967 and have disbanded and reunited multiple times since, he began a solo career with the 1977 album The Idiot, recorded in collaboration with David Bowie. He is well known for his unpredictable stage antics. Pop's music has encompassed a number of styles over the course of his career, including garage rock, punk rock, hard rock, art rock, new wave, jazz and electronic. Though his popularity has fluctuated through the years, many of Pop's songs have become well-known, including "Search and Destroy" and "I Wanna Be Your Dog" by the Stooges, his solo hits "Lust for Life", "The Passenger", "Real Wild Child". In 1990, he recorded his first and only Top 40 U. S. hit, "Candy", a duet with B-52's singer Kate Pierson. Iggy and The Stooges were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2010.
Iggy Pop was born James Newell Osterberg Jr. in Muskegon, Michigan, on April 21, 1947, the son of Louella and James Newell Osterberg Sr. a former high school English teacher and baseball coach at Fordson High School in Dearborn, Michigan. He is of English and Irish descent on his father's side, Danish and Norwegian ancestry on his mother's side, his father was adopted by Swedish Jews who fled the Holocaust, took on their surname. Pop was raised in a trailer park in Michigan. In a 2007 Rolling Stone interview, Pop explained his relationship with his parents and their contribution to his music: Osterberg began his music career as a drummer in various high school bands in Ann Arbor, including the Iguanas, who cut several records such as Bo Diddley's "Mona" in 1965, his stage name, Iggy, is derived from the Iguanas. After exploring local blues-style bands such as the Prime Movers, he dropped out of the University of Michigan and moved to Chicago to learn more about blues. While in Chicago, he played drums in blues clubs, helped by Sam Lay who shared his connections with Iggy.
Inspired by Chicago blues as well as bands like The Sonics, MC5 and The Doors, he formed the Psychedelic Stooges and began calling himself Iggy. The band was composed of Iggy on vocals, Ron Asheton on guitar, Asheton's brother Scott on drums, Dave Alexander on bass, their first show was played at a Halloween party at a house in Michigan. Members of the MC5 were in attendance; the seeds of Iggy Pop's stage persona were sown when he saw The Doors perform in 1967 at the University of Michigan and was amazed by the stage antics and antagonism displayed by singer Jim Morrison. Morrison's extreme behavior, while performing in a popular band, inspired the young Iggy Pop to push the boundaries of stage performance. Other influences on Iggy Pop's vocals and persona were James Brown. Iggy Pop popularized the activity. Iggy Pop, who traditionally performs bare-chested performed such stage theatrics as rolling around in broken glass and exposing himself to the crowd. I attended two concerts by the Doors; the first one I attended was early on and they had not gotten their shit together yet.
That show was a big, big influence on me. They had just had their big hit, "Light My Fire" and the album had taken off.... So, here's this guy, out of his head on acid, dressed in leather with his hair all oiled and curled; the stage was tiny and it was low. It got confrontational. I found it interesting. I loved the performance... Part of me was like. He's pissing people off and he's lurching around making these guys angry." People were rushing Morrison's going "Fuck you. You blank, blank." You can fill in your sexual comments yourself. The other half of it was that I thought, "If they've got a hit record out and they can get away with this I have no fucking excuse not to get out on stage with my band." It was sort of the case of, "Hey, I can do that." There was some of that in there. In addition to Jim Morrison and The Doors' influence on the band, Iggy Pop attributes the Stooges getting jump started after seeing an all-girls rock band from Princeton, New Jersey called The Untouchable play. In a 1995 interview with Bust Magazine, he relates: And the other thing was we went to New York.
We had gone to New York a couple of months before that just to check out the scene, we had never been to a place like New York... we went down around Eighth Street there where all the young tourists hang out, we met these girls from New Jersey, from Princeton, they had a band called The Untouchable, we're like, "Oh, you've got a band, sure, ha ha ha," and they said "Well, come to our house and see us play." And we didn't have anywhere to crash, they played for us, they rocked, we were ashamed. In 1968, one year after their live debut and now dubbed the Psychedelic Stooges, the band signed with Elektra Records, again following in the footsteps of The Doors, who were Elektra's biggest act at the time. Iggy himself told the story in the 2016 Jim Jarmusch documentary film about The Stooges, Gimme Danger; the Stooges' first album The Stooges, (on which Iggy Pop was credited as "Igg
Guinness is a dark Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness at St. James's Gate, Ireland, in 1759, it is one of the most successful beer brands worldwide, brewed in 50 countries, available in over 120. Sales in 2011 amounted to 850 million litres, it is popular with the Irish, both in Ireland and abroad. In spite of declining consumption since 2001, it is still the best-selling alcoholic drink in Ireland. Where Guinness & Co. Brewery makes €2 billion worth annually. Guinness' flavour derives from malted barley and roasted unmalted barley, a modern development, not becoming part of the grist until the mid-20th century. For many years, a portion of aged brew was blended with freshly brewed beer to give a sharp lactic acid flavour. Although Guinness's palate still features a characteristic "tang", the company has refused to confirm whether this type of blending still occurs; the draught beer's thick, creamy head comes from mixing the beer with carbon dioxide. The company moved its headquarters to London at the beginning of the Anglo-Irish Trade War in 1932.
In 1997, Guinness Plc merged with Grand Metropolitan to form the multinational alcoholic-drinks producer Diageo plc, based out of London. Arthur Guinness started brewing ales in 1759 at Dublin. On 31 December 1759, he signed a 9,000 year lease at £45 per annum for the unused brewery. Ten years on 19 May 1769, Guinness first exported his ale: he shipped six-and-a-half barrels to Great Britain. Arthur Guinness started selling the dark beer porter in 1778; the first Guinness beers to use the term were Single Stout and Double Stout in the 1840s. Throughout the bulk of its history, Guinness produced only three variations of a single beer type: porter or single stout, double or extra and foreign stout for export. "Stout" referred to a beer's strength, but shifted meaning toward body and colour. Porter was referred to as "plain", as mentioned in the famous refrain of Flann O'Brien's poem "The Workman's Friend": "A pint of plain is your only man."Already one of the top-three British and Irish brewers, Guinness's sales soared from 350,000 barrels in 1868 to 779,000 barrels in 1876.
In October 1886 Guinness became a public company, was averaging sales of 1,138,000 barrels a year. This was despite the brewery's refusal to either offer its beer at a discount. Though Guinness owned no public houses, the company was valued at £6 million and shares were twenty times oversubscribed, with share prices rising to a 60 per cent premium on the first day of trading; the breweries pioneered several quality control efforts. The brewery hired the statistician William Sealy Gosset in 1899, who achieved lasting fame under the pseudonym "Student" for techniques developed for Guinness Student's t-distribution and the more known Student's t-test. By 1900 the brewery was operating unparalleled welfare schemes for its 5,000 employees. By 1907 the welfare schemes were costing the brewery £40,000 a year, one-fifth of the total wages bill; the improvements were supervised by Sir John Lumsden. By 1914, Guinness was producing 2,652,000 barrels of beer a year, more than double that of its nearest competitor Bass, was supplying more than 10 per cent of the total UK beer market.
In the 1930s, Guinness became the seventh largest company in the world. Before 1939, if a Guinness brewer wished to marry a Catholic, his resignation was requested. According to Thomas Molloy, writing in the Irish Independent, "It had no qualms about selling drink to Catholics but it did everything it could to avoid employing them until the 1960s."Guinness thought they brewed their last porter in 1973. In the 1970s, following declining sales, the decision was taken to make Guinness Extra Stout more "drinkable"; the gravity was subsequently reduced, the brand was relaunched in 1981. Pale malt was used for the first time, isomerized hop extract began to be used. In 2014, two new porters were introduced: Dublin Porter. Guinness acquired the Distillers Company in 1986; this led to a scandal and criminal trial concerning the artificial inflation of the Guinness share price during the takeover bid engineered by the chairman, Ernest Saunders. A subsequent £5.2 million success fee paid to an American lawyer and Guinness director, Tom Ward, was the subject of the case Guinness plc v Saunders, in which the House of Lords declared that the payment had been invalid.
In the 1980s, as the IRA's bombing campaign spread to London and the rest of Britain, Guinness considered scrapping the harp as its logo. The company merged with Grand Metropolitan in 1997 to form Diageo. Due to controversy over the merger, the company was maintained as a separate entity within Diageo and has retained the rights to the product and all associated trademarks of Guinness; the Guinness brewery in Park Royal, London closed in 2005. The production of all Guinness sold in the UK and Ireland was moved to St. James's Gate Brewery, Dublin. Guinness has been referred to as "that black stuff". Guinness had a fleet of ships and yachts; the Irish Sunday Independent newspaper reported on 17 June 2007 that Diageo intended to close the historic St James's Gate plant in Dublin and move to a greenfield site on the outskirts of the city. This news caused some controversy; the following day, the Irish Daily Mail ran a follow-up story with a double page spread complete with images and a history of the plant since 1759.
Diageo said that talk of a move was pure speculation but in the face of mounting speculation in the wake of the Sunday Independent article, the company confirmed that it is undertaking a "significant review of its operations"
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem