1.
Number theory
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Number theory or, in older usage, arithmetic is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers. It is sometimes called The Queen of Mathematics because of its place in the discipline. Number theorists study prime numbers as well as the properties of objects out of integers or defined as generalizations of the integers. Integers can be considered either in themselves or as solutions to equations, questions in number theory are often best understood through the study of analytical objects that encode properties of the integers, primes or other number-theoretic objects in some fashion. One may also study real numbers in relation to rational numbers, the older term for number theory is arithmetic. By the early century, it had been superseded by number theory. The use of the arithmetic for number theory regained some ground in the second half of the 20th century. In particular, arithmetical is preferred as an adjective to number-theoretic. The first historical find of a nature is a fragment of a table. The triples are too many and too large to have been obtained by brute force, the heading over the first column reads, The takiltum of the diagonal which has been subtracted such that the width. The tables layout suggests that it was constructed by means of what amounts, in language, to the identity 2 +1 =2. If some other method was used, the triples were first constructed and then reordered by c / a, presumably for use as a table. It is not known what these applications may have been, or whether there could have any, Babylonian astronomy, for example. It has been suggested instead that the table was a source of examples for school problems. While Babylonian number theory—or what survives of Babylonian mathematics that can be called thus—consists of this single, striking fragment, late Neoplatonic sources state that Pythagoras learned mathematics from the Babylonians. Much earlier sources state that Thales and Pythagoras traveled and studied in Egypt, Euclid IX 21—34 is very probably Pythagorean, it is very simple material, but it is all that is needed to prove that 2 is irrational. Pythagorean mystics gave great importance to the odd and the even, the discovery that 2 is irrational is credited to the early Pythagoreans. This forced a distinction between numbers, on the one hand, and lengths and proportions, on the other hand, the Pythagorean tradition spoke also of so-called polygonal or figurate numbers

2.
Decimal
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This article aims to be an accessible introduction. For the mathematical definition, see Decimal representation, the decimal numeral system has ten as its base, which, in decimal, is written 10, as is the base in every positional numeral system. It is the base most widely used by modern civilizations. Decimal fractions have terminating decimal representations and other fractions have repeating decimal representations, Decimal notation is the writing of numbers in a base-ten numeral system. Examples are Brahmi numerals, Greek numerals, Hebrew numerals, Roman numerals, Roman numerals have symbols for the decimal powers and secondary symbols for half these values. Brahmi numerals have symbols for the nine numbers 1–9, the nine decades 10–90, plus a symbol for 100, Chinese numerals have symbols for 1–9, and additional symbols for powers of ten, which in modern usage reach 1072. Positional decimal systems include a zero and use symbols for the ten values to represent any number, positional notation uses positions for each power of ten, units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. The position of each digit within a number denotes the multiplier multiplied with that position has a value ten times that of the position to its right. There were at least two independent sources of positional decimal systems in ancient civilization, the Chinese counting rod system. Ten is the number which is the count of fingers and thumbs on both hands, the English word digit as well as its translation in many languages is also the anatomical term for fingers and toes. In English, decimal means tenth, decimate means reduce by a tenth, however, the symbols used in different areas are not identical, for instance, Western Arabic numerals differ from the forms used by other Arab cultures. A decimal fraction is a fraction the denominator of which is a power of ten. g, Decimal fractions 8/10, 1489/100, 24/100000, and 58900/10000 are expressed in decimal notation as 0.8,14.89,0.00024,5.8900 respectively. In English-speaking, some Latin American and many Asian countries, a period or raised period is used as the separator, in many other countries, particularly in Europe. The integer part, or integral part of a number is the part to the left of the decimal separator. The part from the separator to the right is the fractional part. It is usual for a number that consists only of a fractional part to have a leading zero in its notation. Any rational number with a denominator whose only prime factors are 2 and/or 5 may be expressed as a decimal fraction and has a finite decimal expansion. 1/2 =0.5 1/20 =0.05 1/5 =0.2 1/50 =0.02 1/4 =0.25 1/40 =0.025 1/25 =0.04 1/8 =0.125 1/125 =0.008 1/10 =0

3.
Terence Tao
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Terence Terry Chi-Shen Tao FAA FRS, is an Australian-American mathematician who has worked in various areas of mathematics. He currently focuses on analysis, partial differential equations, algebraic combinatorics, arithmetic combinatorics, geometric combinatorics, compressed sensing. As of 2015, he holds the James and Carol Collins chair in mathematics at the University of California, Tao was a co-recipient of the 2006 Fields Medal and the 2014 Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics. Taos father, Dr. Billy Tao, was a pediatrician who was born in Shanghai, Taos mother, Grace, is from Hong Kong, she received a first-class honours degree in physics and mathematics at the University of Hong Kong. She was a school teacher of mathematics and physics in Hong Kong. Billy and Grace met as students at the University of Hong Kong and they then emigrated from Hong Kong to Australia. Tao has two living in Australia, both of whom represented Australia at the International Mathematical Olympiad. Nigel Tao was part of the team at Google Australia that created Google Wave and he now works on the Go programming language. Trevor Tao is an International Master in Chess and he has a double degree in mathematics and music and is an autistic savant. Taos wife, Laura, is an engineer at NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory and they live with their son and daughter in Los Angeles, California. Tao exhibited extraordinary mathematical abilities from an age, attending university level mathematics courses at the age of 9. In 1986,1987, and 1988, Tao was the youngest participant to date in the International Mathematical Olympiad, first competing at the age of ten, winning a bronze, silver, and gold medal. He remains the youngest winner of each of the three medals in the Olympiads history, winning the gold medal shortly after his thirteenth birthday, at age 14, Tao attended the Research Science Institute. When he was 15 he published his first assistant paper and he received his bachelors and masters degrees at the age of 16 from Flinders University under Garth Gaudry. In 1992 he won a Fulbright Scholarship to undertake study in the United States. From 1992 to 1996, Tao was a student at Princeton University under the direction of Elias Stein. He joined the faculty of the University of California, Los Angeles in 1996, when he was 24, he was promoted to full professor at UCLA and remains the youngest person ever appointed to that rank by the institution. Within the field of mathematics, Tao is known for his collaboration with Ben J. Green of Oxford University, known for his collaborative mindset, by 2006 Tao had worked with over 30 others in his discoveries, reaching 68 co-authors by October 2015

4.
Prime number
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A prime number is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself. A natural number greater than 1 that is not a number is called a composite number. For example,5 is prime because 1 and 5 are its only positive integer factors, the property of being prime is called primality. A simple but slow method of verifying the primality of a number n is known as trial division. It consists of testing whether n is a multiple of any integer between 2 and n, algorithms much more efficient than trial division have been devised to test the primality of large numbers. Particularly fast methods are available for numbers of forms, such as Mersenne numbers. As of January 2016, the largest known prime number has 22,338,618 decimal digits, there are infinitely many primes, as demonstrated by Euclid around 300 BC. There is no simple formula that separates prime numbers from composite numbers. However, the distribution of primes, that is to say, many questions regarding prime numbers remain open, such as Goldbachs conjecture, and the twin prime conjecture. Such questions spurred the development of branches of number theory. Prime numbers give rise to various generalizations in other domains, mainly algebra, such as prime elements. A natural number is called a number if it has exactly two positive divisors,1 and the number itself. Natural numbers greater than 1 that are not prime are called composite, among the numbers 1 to 6, the numbers 2,3, and 5 are the prime numbers, while 1,4, and 6 are not prime. 1 is excluded as a number, for reasons explained below. 2 is a number, since the only natural numbers dividing it are 1 and 2. Next,3 is prime, too,1 and 3 do divide 3 without remainder, however,4 is composite, since 2 is another number dividing 4 without remainder,4 =2 ·2. 5 is again prime, none of the numbers 2,3, next,6 is divisible by 2 or 3, since 6 =2 ·3. The image at the right illustrates that 12 is not prime,12 =3 ·4, no even number greater than 2 is prime because by definition, any such number n has at least three distinct divisors, namely 1,2, and n

5.
On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences
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The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, also cited simply as Sloanes, is an online database of integer sequences. It was created and maintained by Neil Sloane while a researcher at AT&T Labs, Sloane continues to be involved in the OEIS in his role as President of the OEIS Foundation. OEIS records information on integer sequences of interest to professional mathematicians and amateurs, and is widely cited. As of 30 December 2016 it contains nearly 280,000 sequences, the database is searchable by keyword and by subsequence. Neil Sloane started collecting integer sequences as a student in 1965 to support his work in combinatorics. The database was at first stored on punched cards and he published selections from the database in book form twice, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, containing 2,372 sequences in lexicographic order and assigned numbers from 1 to 2372. The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences with Simon Plouffe, containing 5,488 sequences and these books were well received and, especially after the second publication, mathematicians supplied Sloane with a steady flow of new sequences. The collection became unmanageable in book form, and when the database had reached 16,000 entries Sloane decided to go online—first as an e-mail service, as a spin-off from the database work, Sloane founded the Journal of Integer Sequences in 1998. The database continues to grow at a rate of some 10,000 entries a year, Sloane has personally managed his sequences for almost 40 years, but starting in 2002, a board of associate editors and volunteers has helped maintain the database. In 2004, Sloane celebrated the addition of the 100, 000th sequence to the database, A100000, in 2006, the user interface was overhauled and more advanced search capabilities were added. In 2010 an OEIS wiki at OEIS. org was created to simplify the collaboration of the OEIS editors and contributors, besides integer sequences, the OEIS also catalogs sequences of fractions, the digits of transcendental numbers, complex numbers and so on by transforming them into integer sequences. Sequences of rationals are represented by two sequences, the sequence of numerators and the sequence of denominators, important irrational numbers such as π =3.1415926535897. are catalogued under representative integer sequences such as decimal expansions, binary expansions, or continued fraction expansions. The OEIS was limited to plain ASCII text until 2011, yet it still uses a form of conventional mathematical notation. Greek letters are represented by their full names, e. g. mu for μ. Every sequence is identified by the letter A followed by six digits, sometimes referred to without the leading zeros, individual terms of sequences are separated by commas. Digit groups are not separated by commas, periods, or spaces, a represents the nth term of the sequence. Zero is often used to represent non-existent sequence elements, for example, A104157 enumerates the smallest prime of n² consecutive primes to form an n×n magic square of least magic constant, or 0 if no such magic square exists. The value of a is 2, a is 1480028129, but there is no such 2×2 magic square, so a is 0

6.
Partition (number theory)
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In number theory and combinatorics, a partition of a positive integer n, also called an integer partition, is a way of writing n as a sum of positive integers. Two sums that differ only in the order of their summands are considered the same partition, a summand in a partition is also called a part. The number of partitions of n is given by the function p. The notation λ ⊢ n means that λ is a partition of n, Partitions can be graphically visualized with Young diagrams or Ferrers diagrams. They occur in a number of branches of mathematics and physics, including the study of symmetric polynomials, the symmetric group and in group representation theory in general. For example, the partition 2 +2 +1 might instead be written as the tuple or in the more compact form where the superscript indicates the number of repetitions of a term. There are two common methods to represent partitions, as Ferrers diagrams, named after Norman Macleod Ferrers. Both have several possible conventions, here, we use English notation, with diagrams aligned in the upper-left corner. The partition 6 +4 +3 +1 of the positive number 14 can be represented by the diagram, The 14 circles are lined up in 4 rows. The diagrams for the 5 partitions of the number 4 are listed below, rather than representing a partition with dots, as in the Ferrers diagram, the Young diagram uses boxes or squares. As a type of shape made by adjacent squares joined together, by convention p =1, p =0 for n negative. The first few values of the function are,1,1,2,3,5,7,11,15,22,30,42,56,77,101,135,176,231,297,385,490,627,792,1002,1255,1575,1958,2436,3010,3718,4565,5604. As of June 2013, the largest known prime number that counts a number of partitions is p, the generating function for p is given by, ∑ n =0 ∞ p x n = ∏ k =1 ∞. Expanding each factor on the side as a geometric series. The xn term in this product counts the number of ways to write n = a1 + 2a2 + 3a3 +, where each number i appears ai times. This is precisely the definition of a partition of n, so our product is the generating function. More generally, the function for the partitions of n into numbers from a set A can be found by taking only those terms in the product where k is an element of A. This result is due to Euler, the formulation of Eulers generating function is a special case of a q-Pochhammer symbol and is similar to the product formulation of many modular forms, and specifically the Dedekind eta function

7.
Pell number
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In mathematics, the Pell numbers are an infinite sequence of integers, known since ancient times, that comprise the denominators of the closest rational approximations to the square root of 2. This sequence of approximations begins 1/1, 3/2, 7/5, 17/12, and 41/29, so the sequence of Pell numbers begins with 1,2,5,12, and 29. The numerators of the sequence of approximations are half the companion Pell numbers or Pell–Lucas numbers, these numbers form a second infinite sequence that begins with 2,6,14,34. As with Pells equation, the name of the Pell numbers stems from Leonhard Eulers mistaken attribution of the equation, the Pell–Lucas numbers are also named after Édouard Lucas, who studied sequences defined by recurrences of this type, the Pell and companion Pell numbers are Lucas sequences. The Pell numbers are defined by the recurrence relation P n = {0 if n =0,1 if n =1,2 P n −1 + P n −2 otherwise. In words, the sequence of Pell numbers starts with 0 and 1, and then each Pell number is the sum of twice the previous Pell number and the Pell number before that. The first few terms of the sequence are 0,1,2,5,12,29,70,169,408,985,2378,5741,13860, …. The Pell numbers can also be expressed by the closed form formula P n = n − n 22, a third definition is possible, from the matrix formula = n. Pell numbers arise historically and most notably in the rational approximation to √2. If two large integers x and y form a solution to the Pell equation x 2 −2 y 2 = ±1 and that is, the solutions have the form P n −1 + P n P n. The approximation 2 ≈577408 of this type was known to Indian mathematicians in the third or fourth century B. C, the Greek mathematicians of the fifth century B. C. also knew of this sequence of approximations, Plato refers to the numerators as rational diameters. In the 2nd century CE Theon of Smyrna used the term the side and these approximations can be derived from the continued fraction expansion of 2,2 =1 +12 +12 +12 +12 +12 + ⋱. As Knuth describes, the fact that Pell numbers approximate √2 allows them to be used for accurate rational approximations to an octagon with vertex coordinates. All vertices are equally distant from the origin, and form uniform angles around the origin. Alternatively, the points, and form approximate octagons in which the vertices are equally distant from the origin. A Pell prime is a Pell number that is prime, the first few Pell primes are 2,5,29,5741, …. The indices of these primes within the sequence of all Pell numbers are 2,3,5,11,13,29,41,53,59,89,97,101,167,181,191, … These indices are all themselves prime. As with the Fibonacci numbers, a Pell number Pn can only be prime if n itself is prime, the only Pell numbers that are squares, cubes, or any higher power of an integer are 0,1, and 169 =132. However, despite having so few squares or other powers, Pell numbers have a connection to square triangular numbers

8.
ArXiv
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In many fields of mathematics and physics, almost all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14,1991, arXiv. org passed the half-million article milestone on October 3,2008, by 2014 the submission rate had grown to more than 8,000 per month. The arXiv was made possible by the low-bandwidth TeX file format, around 1990, Joanne Cohn began emailing physics preprints to colleagues as TeX files, but the number of papers being sent soon filled mailboxes to capacity. Additional modes of access were added, FTP in 1991, Gopher in 1992. The term e-print was quickly adopted to describe the articles and its original domain name was xxx. lanl. gov. Due to LANLs lack of interest in the rapidly expanding technology, in 1999 Ginsparg changed institutions to Cornell University and it is now hosted principally by Cornell, with 8 mirrors around the world. Its existence was one of the factors that led to the current movement in scientific publishing known as open access. Mathematicians and scientists regularly upload their papers to arXiv. org for worldwide access, Ginsparg was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship in 2002 for his establishment of arXiv. The annual budget for arXiv is approximately $826,000 for 2013 to 2017, funded jointly by Cornell University Library, annual donations were envisaged to vary in size between $2,300 to $4,000, based on each institution’s usage. As of 14 January 2014,174 institutions have pledged support for the period 2013–2017 on this basis, in September 2011, Cornell University Library took overall administrative and financial responsibility for arXivs operation and development. Ginsparg was quoted in the Chronicle of Higher Education as saying it was supposed to be a three-hour tour, however, Ginsparg remains on the arXiv Scientific Advisory Board and on the arXiv Physics Advisory Committee. The lists of moderators for many sections of the arXiv are publicly available, additionally, an endorsement system was introduced in 2004 as part of an effort to ensure content that is relevant and of interest to current research in the specified disciplines. Under the system, for categories that use it, an author must be endorsed by an established arXiv author before being allowed to submit papers to those categories. Endorsers are not asked to review the paper for errors, new authors from recognized academic institutions generally receive automatic endorsement, which in practice means that they do not need to deal with the endorsement system at all. However, the endorsement system has attracted criticism for allegedly restricting scientific inquiry, perelman appears content to forgo the traditional peer-reviewed journal process, stating, If anybody is interested in my way of solving the problem, its all there – let them go and read about it. The arXiv generally re-classifies these works, e. g. in General mathematics, papers can be submitted in any of several formats, including LaTeX, and PDF printed from a word processor other than TeX or LaTeX. The submission is rejected by the software if generating the final PDF file fails, if any image file is too large. ArXiv now allows one to store and modify an incomplete submission, the time stamp on the article is set when the submission is finalized

9.
Pierpont prime
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A Pierpont prime is a prime number of the form 2 u 3 v +1 for some nonnegative integers u and v. That is, they are the prime numbers p for which p −1 is 3-smooth. They are named after the mathematician James Pierpont, who introduced them in the study of regular polygons that can be constructed using conic sections. It is possible to prove that if v =0 and u >0, then u must be a power of 2, if v is positive then u must also be positive, and the Pierpont prime is of the form 6k +1. Empirically, the Pierpont primes do not seem to be rare or sparsely distributed. There are 36 Pierpont primes less than 106,59 less than 109,151 less than 1020, there are few restrictions from algebraic factorisations on the Pierpont primes, so there are no requirements like the Mersenne prime condition that the exponent must be prime. As there are Θ numbers of the form in this range. Andrew M. Gleason made this explicit, conjecturing there are infinitely many Pierpont primes. According to Gleasons conjecture there are Θ Pierpont primes smaller than N, when 2 u >3 v, the primality of 2 u 3 v +1 can be tested by Proths theorem. As part of the ongoing search for factors of Fermat numbers. The following table gives values of m, k, and n such that k ⋅2 n +1 divides 22 m +1, the left-hand side is a Pierpont prime when k is a power of 3, the right-hand side is a Fermat number. As of 2017, the largest known Pierpont prime is 3 ×210829346 +1, whose primality was discovered by Sai Yik Tang, in the mathematics of paper folding, the Huzita axioms define six of the seven types of fold possible. It has been shown that these folds are sufficient to allow the construction of the points that solve any cubic equation. It follows that they allow any regular polygon of N sides to be formed, as long as N >3 and of the form 2m3nρ and this is the same class of regular polygons as those that can be constructed with a compass, straightedge, and angle-trisector. Regular polygons which can be constructed with compass and straightedge are the special case where n =0 and ρ is a product of distinct Fermat primes, themselves a subset of Pierpont primes. In 1895, James Pierpont studied the same class of regular polygons, Pierpont generalized compass and straightedge constructions in a different way, by adding the ability to draw conic sections whose coefficients come from previously constructed points. As he showed, the regular N-gons that can be constructed with these operations are the ones such that the totient of N is 3-smooth. Since the totient of a prime is formed by subtracting one from it, however, Pierpont did not describe the form of the composite numbers with 3-smooth totients. As Gleason later showed, these numbers are exactly the ones of the form 2m3nρ given above, the smallest prime that is not a Pierpont prime is 11, therefore, the hendecagon is the smallest regular polygon that cannot be constructed with compass, straightedge and angle trisector