David Hamilton Koch is an American businessman, political activist, chemical engineer. He joined the family business Koch Industries, the second-largest held company in the United States, in 1970, he became president of the subsidiary Koch Engineering in 1979, became a co-owner of Koch Industries, with older brother Charles, in 1983. He served as an executive vice president until his retirement in 2018. Upon retirement in June 2018 due to health issues, Koch received the title of Director Emeritus. Koch is an influential libertarian, he was the 1980 candidate for Vice President of the United States from the United States Libertarian Party and helped finance the campaign. He founded Citizens for a Sound Economy, he and his brother Charles have donated to political advocacy groups and to political campaigns entirely Republican. As of June 2018, he was ranked as the 12th-richest person in the world, with a fortune of $50.7 billion. Condé Nast Portfolio described him as "one of the most generous but low-key philanthropists in America".
Koch has contributed to several charities including Lincoln Center, Sloan Kettering, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Dinosaur Wing at the American Museum of Natural History. The New York State Theater at Lincoln Center, home of the New York City Ballet, was renamed the David H. Koch Theater in 2008 following a gift of $100 million for the renovation of the theater. Koch was the fourth richest person in the US as of 2012, the wealthiest resident of New York City as of 2013; as of June 2018, he was ranked as the 11th-richest person in the world, with an estimated net worth of $51 billion. Koch was born in Wichita, the son of Mary Clementine and Fred Chase Koch, a chemical engineer. David's paternal grandfather, Harry Koch, was a Dutch immigrant who founded the Quanah Tribune-Chief newspaper and was a founding shareholder of Quanah and Pacific Railway. David is the third of four sons, with elder brothers Frederick R. Koch, Charles Koch, nineteen-minute younger twin Bill Koch. Among his maternal great-great-grandparents were William Ingraham Kip, an Episcopalian bishop, William Burnet Kinney, a politician, Elizabeth Clementine Stedman, a writer.
Koch attended the Deerfield Academy prep school in Massachusetts, graduating in 1959. He went on to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, earning both a bachelor's and a master's degree in chemical engineering, he is a member of the Beta Theta Pi Fraternity. Koch played basketball at MIT, averaging 21 points per game at MIT over three years, a school record, he held the single-game scoring record of 41 points from 1962 until 2009, when it was eclipsed by Jimmy Bartolotta. In 1970, Koch joined Koch Industries under his brother Charles, to work as a technical-services manager, he founded the company's New York office and in 1979 he became the president of his own division, Koch Engineering, renamed Chemical Technology Group. In 1985, Koch Industries was sued by Bill Koch and Frederick R. Koch for the first time in a long series of lawsuits about ownership, that lasted until 2001; as of 2010, David Koch owned 42 percent of Koch Industries. He holds 4 U. S patents. On June 5, 2018, the company announced his retirement from the company due to declining health issues.
Koch was the Libertarian Party's vice-presidential candidate in the 1980 presidential election, sharing the party ticket with presidential candidate Ed Clark. The Clark–Koch ticket promised to abolish Social Security, the Federal Reserve Board, minimum-wage laws, corporate taxes, all price supports and subsidies for agriculture and business, U. S. Federal agencies including the SEC, EPA, ICC, FTC, OSHA, FBI, CIA, DOE; the ticket received 921,128 votes, 1% of the total nationwide vote, the Libertarian Party national ticket's best showing until 2016 in terms of percentage and its best showing in terms of raw votes until the 2012 presidential election, although that number was surpassed again in 2016. "Compared to what gotten before," Charles said, "and where we were as a movement or as a political/ideological point of view, pretty remarkable, to get 1 percent of the vote."After the bid, according to journalist Brian Doherty's Radicals for Capitalism, Koch viewed politicians as "actors playing out a script".
Koch credits the campaign of Roger MacBride as his inspiration for getting involved in politics: Here was a great guy, advocating all the things I believed in. He wanted less government and taxes, was talking about repealing all these victimless crime laws that accumulated on the books. I have friends. I know many homosexuals. It's ridiculous to treat them as criminals—and here was someone running for president, saying just that. Koch gave his own Vice Presidential campaign $100,000 a month after being chosen as Ed Clark's running mate. "We'd like to abolish the Federal Elections Commission and all the limits on campaign spending anyway," Koch said in 1980. When asked why he ran, he replied: "Lord knows I didn't need a job, but I believe in what the Libertarians are saying. I suppose if they hadn't come along, I could have been a big Republican from Wichita, but hell—everybody from Kansas is a Republican."In 1984 he broke with the Libertarian Party when it supported eliminating all taxes. Since Koch has been a Republican.
Koch considers himself a social liberal, supporting women's right to choose, gay rights, same-sex marriage and stem-cell research. He opposes the war on drugs. Koch supports policies that promote individual liberty and free market principles, supports reduced government spending. Koch supports a non-interventionist foreign policy.
Jeffrey Preston Bezos is an American technology entrepreneur and philanthropist. He is the founder, chairman, CEO, president of Amazon. Bezos was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico, raised in Houston, Texas, he graduated from Princeton University in 1986 with degrees in electrical engineering and computer science. He worked on Wall Street in a variety of related fields from 1986 to early 1994, he founded Amazon in late 1994 on a cross-country road trip from New York City to Seattle. The company began as an online bookstore and has expanded to a variety of products and services, including video and audio streaming, it is the world's largest online sales company, as well as the world's largest provider of cloud infrastructure services via its Amazon Web Services arm. Bezos added to his business interests when he founded aerospace company Blue Origin in 2000. A Blue Origin test flight first reached space in 2015, Blue has plans to begin commercial suborbital human spaceflight in 2019, he purchased The Washington Post in 2013 for US$250 million in cash.
Bezos manages other business investments through Bezos Expeditions. On July 27, 2017, he became the world's wealthiest person when his estimated net worth increased to just over $90 billion. Bezos's wealth surpassed $100 billion for the first time on November 24, 2017, he was formally designated the wealthiest person in the world by Forbes on March 6, 2018, with a net worth of $112 billion; the first centi-billionaire on the Forbes wealth index, he was named the "richest man in modern history" after his net worth increased to $150 billion in July 2018. Bezos was born Jeffrey Preston Jorgensen on January 12, 1964, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, the son of Jacklyn Gise Jorgensen and Chicago, native Ted Jorgensen. At the time of his birth, his mother was a 17-year-old high school student, his father was a bike shop owner. After Jacklyn divorced Ted, she married Cuban immigrant Miguel "Mike" Bezos in April 1968. Shortly after the wedding, Mike adopted four-year-old Jorgensen, whose surname was changed to Bezos.
The family moved to Houston, where Mike worked as an engineer for Exxon after he received a degree from the University of New Mexico. Bezos attended River Oaks Elementary School in Houston from fourth to sixth grade. Bezos is the maternal grandson of Lawrence Preston Gise, a regional director of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission in Albuquerque. Gise retired early to his family's ranch near Cotulla, where Bezos would spend many summers in his youth. Bezos would purchase this ranch and grow it from 25,000 acres to 300,000 acres, his maternal grandmother was Mattie Louise Gise, through whom he is a cousin of country singer George Strait. Bezos displayed scientific interests and technological proficiency; the family moved to Miami, where Bezos attended Miami Palmetto High School. While Bezos was in high school, he worked at McDonald's as a short-order line cook during the breakfast shift, he attended the Student Science Training Program at the University of Florida. He was high school valedictorian, a National Merit Scholar, a Silver Knight Award winner in 1982.
In 1986, he graduated from Princeton University with a 4.2 grade point average and Bachelor of Science degrees in electrical engineering and computer science and was a member of Phi Beta Kappa. While at Princeton, he was elected to Tau Beta Pi and was the president of the Princeton chapter of the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space. After Bezos graduated from Princeton in 1986, he was offered jobs at Intel, Bell Labs, Andersen Consulting, among others, he first worked at Fitel, a fintech telecommunications start-up, where he was tasked with building a network for international trade. Bezos was promoted to head of director of customer service thereafter, he transitioned into the banking industry. He joined D. E. Shaw & Co, a newly founded hedge fund, in 1990 and worked there until 1994. Bezos became D. E. Shaw's fourth senior vice-president at the age of 30. In late 1993, Bezos decided to start an online bookstore, he left his job at D. E. Shaw and founded Amazon in his garage on July 5, 1994, after writing its business plan on a trip from New York to Seattle.
Bezos named his new company Amazon after the Amazon River in South America, in part because the name begins with the letter A, at the beginning of the alphabet. He invested in Amazon, he warned many early investors that there was a 70 % chance that Amazon would go bankrupt. Although Amazon was an online bookstore, Bezos had always planned to expand to other products. Three years after Bezos founded Amazon, he took it public with an initial public offering. In response to critical reports from Fortune and Barron's, Bezos maintained that the growth of the internet would overtake competition from larger book retailers such as Borders and Barnes & Noble. In 1998, Bezos diversified into the online sale of video. Bezos used the $54 million raised during the company's 1997 equity offering to finance aggressive acquisition of smaller competitors. In 2002, Bezos led Amazon to launch Amazon Web Services, which compiled data from weather channels and website traffic. In late 2002, rapid spending from Amazon caused it financial distress.
In 2000, Bezos borrowed $2 billion from banks, as its ca
Warren Edward Buffett is an American business magnate, investor and philanthropist who serves as the chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway. He is considered one of the most successful investors in the world and has a net worth of US$82.5 billion as of March 9, 2019, making him the third-wealthiest person in the world. Buffett was born in Nebraska, he developed an interest in business and investing in his youth entering the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in 1947 before transferring and graduating from University of Nebraska at the age of 19. He went on to graduate from Columbia Business School, where he molded his investment philosophy around the concept of value investing, pioneered by Benjamin Graham, he attended New York Institute of Finance to focus his economics background and soon after began various business partnerships, including one with Graham. He created Buffett Partnership, Ltd in 1956 and his firm acquired a textile manufacturing firm called Berkshire Hathaway and assumed its name to create a diversified holding company.
In 1978, Charlie Munger became vice president of the company. Buffett has been the chairman and largest shareholder of Berkshire Hathaway since 1970, he has been referred to as the "Wizard", "Oracle", or "Sage" of Omaha by global media outlets, he is noted for his adherence to value investing and for his personal frugality despite his immense wealth. Research published at the University of Oxford characterizes Buffett's investment methodology as falling within "founder centrism" – defined by a deference to managers with a founder's mindset, an ethical disposition towards the shareholder collective, an intense focus on exponential value creation. Buffett's concentrated investments shelter managers from the short-term pressures of the market. Buffett is a notable philanthropist, having pledged to give away 99 percent of his fortune to philanthropic causes via the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, he founded The Giving Pledge in 2009 with Bill Gates, whereby billionaires pledge to give away at least half of their fortunes.
He endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the 2016 U. S. presidential election. S. President Donald Trump by his results on national safety, economic growth, economic participation. Buffett was born in 1930 in Omaha, the second of three children and the only son of Leila and Congressman Howard Buffett. Buffett began his education at Rose Hill Elementary School. In 1942, his father was elected to the first of four terms in the United States Congress, after moving with his family to Washington, D. C. Warren finished elementary school, attended Alice Deal Junior High School and graduated from Woodrow Wilson High School in 1947, where his senior yearbook picture reads: "likes math. After finishing high school and finding success with his side entrepreneurial and investment ventures, Buffett wanted to skip college to go directly into business, but was overruled by his father. Buffett displayed an interest in investing at a young age, he was inspired by a book he borrowed from the Omaha public library at the age of seven, One Thousand Ways to Make $1000.
Much of Buffett's early childhood years were enlivened with entrepreneurial ventures. In one of his first business ventures Buffett sold chewing gum, Coca-Cola bottles, weekly magazines door to door, he worked in his grandfather's grocery store. While still in high school, he made money delivering newspapers, selling golf balls and stamps, detailing cars, among other means. On his first income tax return in 1944, Buffett took a $35 deduction for the use of his bicycle and watch on his paper route. In 1945, as a high school sophomore, Buffett and a friend spent $25 to purchase a used pinball machine, which they placed in the local barber shop. Within months, they owned several machines in three different barber shops across Omaha; the business was sold in the year for $1,200 to a war veteran. Buffett's interest in the stock market and investing dated to schoolboy days he spent in the customers' lounge of a regional stock brokerage near his father's own brokerage office. On a trip to New York City at age ten, he made a point to visit the New York Stock Exchange.
At 11, he bought three shares of Cities Service Preferred for himself, three for his philanthropic sister Doris Buffett. At the age of 15, Warren made more than $175 monthly delivering Washington Post newspapers. In high school, he invested in a business owned by his father and bought a 40-acre farm worked by a tenant farmer, he bought the land. By the time he finished college, Buffett had accumulated $9,800 in savings. In 1947, Buffett entered the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, he would have preferred to focus on his business ventures. Warren joined the Alpha Sigma Phi fraternity, he transferred to the University of Nebraska where at 19, he graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration. After being rejected by Harvard Business School, Buffett enrolled at Columbia Business School of Columbia University upon learning that Benjamin Graham taught there, he earned a Master of Science in Economics from Columbia in 1951. After graduating, Buffett attended the New York Institute of Finance.
The basic ideas of investing are to look at stocks as business, use the market's fluctuations to your advantage, seek a margin of safety. That's. A hundred years from now they will still be the cornerstones of investing. Buffett worked from 1951 to 1954 at Buffett-Falk & Co. as an inve
The Independent is a British online newspaper. Established in 1986 as a politically independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev in 2010; the last printed edition of The Independent was published on Saturday 26 March 2016, leaving only its digital editions. Nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet, but changed to tabloid format in 2003; until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as "free from party political bias, free from proprietorial influence". It tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues; the daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. In June 2015, it had an average daily circulation of just below 58,000, 85 per cent down from its 1990 peak, while the Sunday edition had a circulation of just over 97,000. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format.
It was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds. All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwell's ownership. Marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, Whittam Smith took control of the paper; the paper was created at a time of a fundamental change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and defeated them in the Wapping dispute. Production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition; as a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. The Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a moribund market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years, a price war in the market sector. When The Independent launched The Independent on Sunday in 1990, sales were less than anticipated due to the launch of the Sunday Correspondent four months prior, although this direct rival closed at the end of November 1990; some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although the Sunday paper retained a distinct editorial staff. In the 1990s, The Independent was faced with price cutting by the Murdoch titles, started an advertising campaign accusing The Times and The Daily Telegraph of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black, it featured spoofs of the other papers' mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, with The Independent below the main title. Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O'Reilly's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994.
In March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into O'Reilly's Independent News & Media, MGN, Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, in March 1998, O'Reilly bought the other shares of the company for £30 million, assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in My Trade. Boycott left in April 1998 to join the Daily Express, Marr left in May 1998 becoming the BBC's political editor. Simon Kelner was appointed as the editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent to increase circulation, the paper went through several redesigns. While circulation increased, it did not approach the level, achieved in 1989, or restore profitability.
Job cuts and financial controls reduced the quality of the product. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and a key figure at The Sunday Times, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid-2004, the newspaper was losing £5 million per year. A gradual improvement meant. In November 2008, following further staff cuts, production was moved to Northcliffe House, in Kensington High Street, the headquarters of Associated Newspapers; the two newspaper groups' editorial and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, information technology and payroll. On 25 March 2010, Independent News & Media sold the newspaper to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev for a nominal £1 fee and £9.25m over the next 10 months, choosing this option over closing The Independent and The Independent on Sunday, which would have cost £28m and £40m due to long-term contracts. In 2009, Lebedev had bought a controlling stake in the London Evening Standard. Two weeks editor Roger Alton resigned.
In July 2011, The Independent's columnist Johann Hari was stripped of the Orwell Prize he had won in 2008 after claims, to which Hari admitted, of plagiarism and inaccuracy. In January 2012, Chris Blackhurst
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization. In a philosophical context, the "world" is the whole of the physical Universe, or an ontological world. In a theological context, the world is the material or the profane sphere, as opposed to the celestial, transcendent or sacred spheres. "End of the world" scenarios refer to the end of human history in religious contexts. The history of the world is understood as spanning the major geopolitical developments of about five millennia, from the first civilizations to the present. In terms such as world religion, world language, world government, world war, the term world suggests an international or intercontinental scope without implying participation of every part of the world; the world population is the sum of all human populations at any time. Terms such as "world championship", "gross world product", "world flags" imply the sum or combination of all sovereign states; the English word world comes from the Old English weorold, worold, a compound of wer "man" and eld "age," which thus means "Age of Man."
The Old English is a reflex of the Common Germanic *wira-alđiz reflected in Old Saxon werold, Old Dutch werilt, Old High German weralt, Old Frisian warld and Old Norse verǫld. The corresponding word in Latin is mundus "clean, elegant", itself a loan translation of Greek cosmos "orderly arrangement." While the Germanic word thus reflects a mythological notion of a "domain of Man" as opposed to the divine sphere on the one hand and the chthonic sphere of the underworld on the other, the Greco-Latin term expresses a notion of creation as an act of establishing order out of chaos. "World" distinguishes the entire planet or population from any particular country or region: world affairs pertain not just to one place but to the whole world, world history is a field of history that examines events from a global perspective. Earth, on the other hand, refers to the planet as a physical entity, distinguishes it from other planets and physical objects. "World" was classically used to mean the material universe, or the cosmos: "The worlde is an apte frame of heauen and earthe, all other naturall thinges contained in them."
The earth was described as "the center of the world". The term can be used attributively, to mean "global", or "relating to the whole world", forming usages such as world community or world canonical texts. By extension, a world may refer to any planet or heavenly body when it is thought of as inhabited in the context of science fiction or futurology. World, in its original sense, when qualified, can refer to a particular domain of human experience; the world of work describes paid work and the pursuit of a career, in all its social aspects, to distinguish it from home life and academic study. The fashion world describes the environment of the designers, fashion houses and consumers that make up the fashion industry. Historically, the New World vs. the Old World, referring to the parts of the world colonized in the wake of the age of discovery. Now used in zoology and botany, as in New World monkey. In philosophy, the term world has several possible meanings. In some contexts, it refers to everything that makes up the physical universe.
In others, it can mean have a specific ontological sense. While clarifying the concept of world has arguably always been among the basic tasks of Western philosophy, this theme appears to have been raised explicitly only at the start of the twentieth century and has been the subject of continuous debate; the question of what the world is has by no means been settled. The traditional interpretation of Parmenides' work is that he argued that the everyday perception of reality of the physical world is mistaken, that the reality of the world is'One Being': an unchanging, indestructible whole. In his Allegory of the Cave, Plato distinguishes between forms and ideas and imagines two distinct worlds: the sensible world and the intelligible world. In Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's philosophy of history, the expression Weltgeschichte ist Weltgericht is used to assert the view that History is what judges men, their actions and their opinions. Science is born from the desire to transform the World in relation to Man.
The World as Will and Representation is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer. Schopenhauer saw the human will as our one window to the world behind the representation, he believed, that we could gain knowledge about the thing-in-itself, something Kant said was impossible, since the rest of the relationship between representation and thing-in-itself could be understood by analogy to the relationship between human will and human body. Two definitions that were both put forward in the 1920s, suggest the range of available opinion. "The world is everything, the case," wrote Ludwig Wittgenstein in his influential Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, first published in 1921. This definition would serve as the basis of logical positivism, with its assumption that there is one world, consisting of the totality of facts, regardless of the interpretations that individual people may make of them. Martin Heidegger, argued that "the surrounding world is different for each of us, notwithstanding t
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Amancio Ortega Gaona is a Spanish billionaire businessman. He is the founder and former chairman of Inditex fashion group, best known for its chain of Zara clothing and accessories shops; as of late September 2018, Ortega had a net worth of $70 billion, making him the second-wealthiest person in Europe after Bernard Arnault, the sixth-wealthiest in the world. He is the head of the Ortega family. Ortega is the wealthiest retailer in the world; the youngest of four children, Ortega was born in Busdongo de Arbás, León, Spain, to Antonio Ortega Rodríguez and Josefa Gaona Hernández from the province of Valladolid, spent his childhood in León. He left school and moved to A Coruña at the age of 14, due to the job of his father, a railway worker. Shortly after, he found a job as a shop hand for a local shirtmaker called Gala, which still sits on the same corner in downtown A Coruña, learned to make clothes by hand. In 1972, he founded Confecciones Goa to sell quilted bathrobes. In 1975, he opened his first Zara store with his wife Rosalía Mera.
In 2009, Zara was part of the Inditex group, of which Ortega owned 59.29%, aside from over 6,000 stores included the brands Zara, Massimo Dutti, Zara Home, Kiddy's Class, Stradivarius and Bear, Bershka and has more than 92,000 employees. His public appearance in 2000, as part of the warm-up prior to his company's initial public offering on the stock market in 2001, made headlines in the Spanish financial press. However, he has only granted interviews to three journalists. In 2011, Ortega announced his imminent retirement from Inditex, parent company of the Zara chain, stating that he would ask Inditex vice-president and CEO Pablo Isla to take his place as head. In 2012 Ortega donated about €20 million to Caritas Internationalis, a Roman Catholic relief organisation, he purchased the Torre Picasso skyscraper in Madrid. He purchased the Epic Residences and Hotel in Miami, Florida; as of 2016, he owned around 60% of Inditex, the holding company for Zara and related chains. In July 2017, for its second edition of the AEF awards, the Spanish Association of Foundations awarded Amancio Ortega in the 2017 Philanthropic Initiative category.
Private about his personal life, as of 2012 he had only given three interviews to journalists. He married Rosalia Mera in 1966, divorced in 1986. Mera died in August 2013 at the age of 69, he married his second wife Flora in 2001. He has three children; as of 2017, he lived with his wife in A Spain. Ortega keeps a low profile and is known for his preference for a simple lifestyle; until 1999, no photograph of Ortega had been published. He refuses to wear a tie and prefers to wear a simple uniform of a blue blazer, white shirt, gray trousers, none of which are Zara products. List of billionaires List of Spanish billionaires by net worth Xabier. Amancio Ortega, de cero a Zara: El primer libro de investigación sobre el imperio Inditex. Esfera de los Libros. P. 271. ISBN 978-8-497-34167-7. Amancio Ortega Gaona at Forbes Amancio Ortega Gaona at Bloomberg L. P