Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, nonpersonal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are often businesses who wish to promote their products or services, Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser usually pays for and has control over the message. It is differentiated from personal selling in that the message is nonpersonal, the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement or ad. Commercial ads often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, on the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct response advertising. Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations. Non-profit organizations may use free modes of persuasion, such as a service announcement.
Advertising may be used to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful, in 2015, the world spent an estimate of US$592.43 billion on advertising. Its projected distribution for 2017 is 40. 4% on TV,33. 3% on digital, the largest advertising conglomerates are Interpublic, Publicis, and WPP. In Latin, ad vertere means to turn toward, egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient Greece and ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, the tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry of bamboo flutes played to sell candy, advertisement usually takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers.
Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons, the first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in Les Crieries de Paris, a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in newspapers in England. However, false advertising and so-called quack advertisements became a problem, thomas J. Barratt from London has been called the father of modern advertising. Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an advertising campaign for the company products. One of his slogans, Good morning, have you used Pears soap. was famous in its day and into the 20th century. Barratt introduced many of the ideas that lie behind successful advertising
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents. The nature of insurgencies is an ambiguous concept, where a revolt takes the form of armed rebellion, it may not be viewed as an insurgency if a state of belligerency exists between one or more sovereign states and rebel forces. When insurgency is used to describe a movements unlawfulness by virtue of not being authorized by or in accordance with the law of the land, criticisms of widely held ideas and actions about insurgency started to occur in works of the 1960s, they are still common in recent studies. Sometimes there may be one or more simultaneous insurgencies occurring in a country, the Iraq insurgency is one example of a recognized government versus multiple groups of insurgents. Other historic insurgencies, such as the Russian Civil War, have been rather than a straightforward model made up of two sides. During the Angolan Civil War there were two sides, MPLA and UNITA.
At the same time, there was another separatist movement for the independence of the Cabinda region headed up by FLEC, if there is a rebellion against the authority and those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents, the rebellion is an insurgency. However, not all rebellions are insurgencies, as a state of belligerency may exist between one or more states and rebel forces. When insurgency is used to describe a movements unlawfulness by virtue of not being authorized by or in accordance with the law of the land, its use is neutral. The use of the term insurgency recognizes the political motivation of those who participate in an insurgency, if an uprising has little support, such a resistance may be described as brigandry and those who participate as brigands. The distinction on whether an uprising is an insurgency or a belligerency has not been as clearly codified as many other covered by the internationally accepted laws of war for two reasons. The dispute resulted in a compromise wording being included in the Hague Conventions known as the Martens Clause from the diplomat who drafted the clause.
The United States Department of Defense defines it as this, An organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a government through use of subversion. The United States counterinsurgency Field Manual, This definition does not consider the morality of the conflict, or the different viewpoints of the government and it is focused more on the operational aspects of the types of actions taken by the insurgents and the counter-insurgents. The Department of Defenses definition focuses on the type of violence employed towards specified ends and this characterization fails to address the argument from moral relativity that one mans terrorist is another mans freedom fighter. The French expert on Indochina and Vietnam, Bernard Fall, who wrote Street Without Joy, insurgency has been used for years in professional military literature. Under the British, the situation in Malaya as often called the Malayan insurgency or the Troubles in Northern Ireland, each had different specifics but shared the property of an attempt to disrupt the central government by means considered illegal by that government.
North points out, that insurgents today need not be part of an organized movement, Some are networked with only loose objectives
National Weather Service
It is a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration branch of the Department of Commerce, and is headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland. The agency was known as the United States Weather Bureau from 1890 until it adopted its current name in 1970, the NWS performs its primary task through a collection of national and regional centers, and 122 local weather forecast offices. As the NWS is a government agency, most of its products are in the public domain, the agency was placed under the Secretary of War as Congress felt military discipline would probably secure the greatest promptness and accuracy in the required observations. Within the Department of War, it was assigned to the U. S. Army Signal Service under Brigadier General Albert J. Myer, General Myer gave the National Weather Service its first name, The Division of Telegrams and Reports for the Benefit of Commerce. The agency first became an enterprise in 1890, when it became part of the Department of Agriculture. The first Weather Bureau radiosonde was launched in Massachusetts in 1937, the Bureau would be moved to the Department of Commerce in 1940.
On July 12,1950, bureau chief Francis W, the Weather Bureau became part of the Environmental Science Services Administration when that agency was formed in August 1966. The Environmental Science Services Administration was renamed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration on October 1,1970, at this time, the Weather Bureau became the National Weather Service. NEXRAD, a system of Doppler radars deployed to improve the detection and warning time of local storms, replaced the WSR-57. Bob Glahn has written a history of the first hundred years of the National Weather Service. The NWS, through a variety of sub-organizations, issues different forecast products to users, throughout history, text forecasts have been the means of product dissemination, the NWS has been using more forecast products of a digital, image or other modern format. Each of the 122 Weather Forecast Offices send their graphical forecasts to a server to be compiled in the National Digital Forecast Database. The NDFD is a collection of weather observations used by organizations and the public, including precipitation amount, temperature.
Specific points in the database can be accessed using an XML SOAP service. The National Weather Service issues many products relating to wildfires daily, for example, a Fire Weather Forecast, which have a forecast period covering up to seven days, is issued by local Weather Forecast Offices daily, with updates as needed. The forecasts contain weather information relevant to fire control and smoke management for the next 12 to 48 hours, such as direction and speed. The appropriate crews use this information to plan for staffing and equipment levels, the ability to conduct scheduled controlled burns, and assess the daily fire danger. Once per day, NWS meteorologists issue a coded fire weather forecast for specific United States Forest Service observation sites that are input into the National Fire Danger Rating System
Internet radio is an audio service transmitted via the Internet. Broadcasting on the Internet is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means, Internet radio is distinct from podcasting, which involves downloading rather than streaming. Internet radio services offer news, sports and various genres of music—every format that is available on traditional broadcast radio stations and this has made internet radio particularly suited to and popular among expatriate listeners. Internet radio is suited to listeners with special interests that are not adequately served by local radio stations. Internet radio is listened to on a standard home PC or similar device. In recent years, dedicated devices that resemble and offer the listener a similar experience to a radio receiver have arrived on the market. Streaming technology is used to distribute Internet radio, typically using an audio codec. Streaming audio formats include MP3, Ogg Vorbis, Windows Media Audio, RealAudio, Audio data is continuously transmitted serially over the local network or internet in TCP or UDP packets, reassembled at the receiver and played a second or two later.
The delay is called lag, and is introduced at several stages of audio broadcasting. A local tuner simulation program includes all the radios that can be heard in the air in the city. In 2003, revenue from online streaming radio was US$49 million. By 2006, that rose to US$500 million. A February 21,2007 survey of 3,000 Americans released by consultancy Bridge Ratings & Research found that s much as 19% of U. S. consumers 12, in other words, there were some 57 million weekly listeners of Internet radio programs. More people listen to online radio than to satellite radio, high-definition radio, podcasts, an April 2008 Arbitron survey showed that, in the US, more than one in seven persons aged 25–54 years old listen to online radio each week. In 2008,13 percent of the American population listened to the radio online, Internet radio functionality is built into many dedicated Internet radio devices, which give an FM like receiver user experience. As Internet-radio listening rose among the 13-to-35 age group, listening to AM/FM radio, in the 36-and-older age group, by contrast, Internet radio accounted for just 13 percent of music listening, while AM/FM radio dominated listening methods with a 41 percent share.
Currently, 47% of all Americans ages 12 and older -- an estimated 124 million people -- said they have listened to radio in the last month. These figures are up from 45% and 33%, respectively, in 2013, the average amount of time spent listening increased from 11 hours,56 minutes per week in 2013 to 13 hours 19 minutes in 2014
A blog is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries. Posts are typically displayed in chronological order, so that the most recent post appears first. Until 2009, blogs were usually the work of an individual, occasionally of a small group. In the 2010s, multi-author blogs have developed, with posts written by large numbers of authors, MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, think tanks, advocacy groups, and similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic. The rise of Twitter and other microblogging systems helps integrate MABs, Blog can be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. In the 2010s, the majority are interactive Web 2.0 websites, allowing visitors to leave online comments, in that sense, blogging can be seen as a form of social networking service. Indeed, bloggers do not only produce content to post on their blogs, there are high-readership blogs which do not allow comments.
Many blogs provide commentary on a subject or topic, ranging from politics to sports. Others function as more personal online diaries, and others function more as online brand advertising of an individual or company. A typical blog combines text, digital images, and links to blogs, web pages. The ability of readers to leave publicly viewable comments, and interact with other commenters, is an important contribution to the popularity of many blogs, blog owners or authors often moderate and filter online comments to remove hate speech or other offensive content. Most blogs are primarily textual, although focus on art, videos, music. In education, blogs can be used as instructional resources and these blogs are referred to as edublogs. Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring very short posts, on 16 February 2011, there were over 156 million public blogs in existence. On 20 February 2014, there were around 172 million Tumblr and 75.8 million WordPress blogs in existence worldwide, according to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is the most popular blogging service used today.
However, Blogger does not offer public statistics, Technorati lists 1.3 million blogs as of February 22,2014. The term weblog was coined by Jorn Barger on 17 December 1997, the short form, was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme. com in April or May 1999. Shortly thereafter, Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used blog as both a noun and verb and devised the term blogger in connection with Pyra Labs Blogger product, in the 1990s, Internet forum software, created running conversations with threads
Alexa Internet, Inc. is a California-based company that provides commercial web traffic data and analytics. It is an owned subsidiary of Amazon. com. Founded as an independent company in 1996, Alexa was acquired by Amazon in 1999 and its toolbar collects data on browsing behavior and transmits them to the Alexa website, where they are stored and analyzed. This is the basis for the web traffic reporting. According to its website, Alexa provides traffic data, global rankings, as of 2015, its website has been visited by over 6.5 million people monthly. Alexa Internet was founded in April 1996 by American web entrepreneurs Brewster Kahle, Alexa initially offered a toolbar that gave Internet users suggestions on where to go next, based on the traffic patterns of its user community. The company offered context for each site visited, to whom it was registered, how many pages it had, how other sites pointed to it. Alexas operations grew to include archiving of web pages as they are crawled and this database served as the basis for the creation of the Internet Archive accessible through the Wayback Machine.
In 1998, the company donated a copy of the archive, Alexa continues to supply the Internet Archive with Web crawls. In 1999, as the company moved away from its vision of providing an intelligent search engine. Alexa began a partnership with Google in early 2002, and with the web directory DMOZ in January 2003, in May 2006, replaced Google with Bing as a provider of search results. In December 2006, Amazon released Alexa Image Search, built in-house, it was the first major application built on the companys Web platform. In December 2005, Alexa opened its extensive search index and Web-crawling facilities to third-party programs through a set of Web services. These could be used, for instance, to construct vertical search engines that could run on Alexas own servers or elsewhere. In May 2007, Alexa changed their API to limit comparisons to three websites, reduce the size of embedded graphs in Flash, and add mandatory embedded BritePic advertisements. In April 2007, the company filed a lawsuit, Alexa v.
Hornbaker, in the lawsuit, Alexa alleged that Ron Hornbaker was stealing traffic graphs for profit, and that the primary purpose of his site was to display graphs that were generated by Alexas servers. Hornbaker removed the term Alexa from his name on March 19,2007. Thereafter, Alexa became a purely analytics-focused company, on March 31,2009, Alexa launched a major website redesign
IPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. They run Apples iOS mobile operating system, the first generation iPhone was released on June 29,2007, the most recent iPhone model is the iPhone 7, which was unveiled at a special event on September 7,2016. The user interface is built around the devices multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard, the iPhone has Wi-Fi and can connect to cellular networks. Other functionality, such as games, reference works, and social networking. As of January 2017, Apples App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone, Apple has released ten generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the ten major releases of the iOS operating system. The iPhone 5 featured a taller, 4-inch display and Apples newly introduced Lightning connector, in 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, and the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal.
They were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7 and 5. 5-inch displays.5 mm headphone jack found on previous phones. The iPhones commercial success has been credited with reshaping the smartphone industry, the original iPhone was one of the first phones to use a design featuring a slate format with a touchscreen interface. Almost all modern smartphones have replicated this style of design, in the US, the iPhone holds the largest share of the smartphone market. As of late 2015, the iPhone had a 43. 6% market share, followed by Samsung, LG, Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet and towards a phone. Apple created the device during a collaboration with Cingular Wireless at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months. Apple rejected the design by committee approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1s firmware limited storage to only 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apples iPod nano.
Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9,2007, the passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media dubbing it the Jesus phone. Following this successful release in the US, the first generation iPhone was made available in the UK, and Germany in November 2007, on July 11,2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G in twenty-two countries, including the original six. Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty countries and territories. Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8,2009, along with plans to release it in June, many would-be users objected to the iPhones cost, and 40% of users had household incomes over US$100,000. The back of the original first generation iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent, the iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal. The iPhone 3G was available in an 8 GB black model, the iPhone 3GS was available in both colors, regardless of storage capacity
The measurements taken include temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, and precipitation amounts. Wind measurements are taken with as few other obstructions as possible, while temperature and humidity measurements are kept free from direct solar radiation, manual observations are taken at least once daily, while automated measurements are taken at least once an hour. Weather conditions out at sea are taken by ships and buoys, which slightly different meteorological quantities such as sea surface temperature, wave height. Drifting weather buoys outnumber their moored versions by a significant amount, the instrumentation may be specialized to allow for periodic recording otherwise significant manual labour is required for record keeping. Automatic transmission of data, in a such as METAR, is desirable as many weather stations data is required for weather forecasting. A personal weather station is a set of measuring instruments operated by a private individual, association.
The quality, number of instruments, and placement of personal weather stations can vary widely, making the determination of which stations collect accurate, personal weather stations typically involve a digital console that provides readouts of the data being collected. These consoles may interface to a computer where data can be displayed, stored. Personal weather stations may be operated solely for the enjoyment and education of the owner, however some owners share their results with others and they do this by either by manually compiling data and distributing it, distributing data over the internet internet, or sharing data via amateur radio. The Citizen Weather Observer Program is a service which facilitates the sharing of information from weather stations. This data is submitted through use of software, a personal computer, each weather station submitting data to CWOP will have an individual Web page that depicts the data submitted by that station. The Weather Underground Internet site is popular destination for the submittal.
As with CWOP, each station submitting data to The Weather Underground has a unique Web page displaying their submitted data, the UK Met Offices Weather Observations Website allows such data to be shared and displayed. A weather ship was a ship stationed in the ocean as a platform for surface and it was meant to aid in search and rescue operations and to support transatlantic flights. The establishment of weather ships proved to be so useful during World War II that the International Civil Aviation Organization established a network of 13 weather ships in 1948. Of the 12 left in operation in 1996, nine were located in the northern Atlantic ocean while three were located in the northern Pacific ocean, the agreement of the weather ships ended in 1990. Weather ship observations proved to be helpful in wind and wave studies, the last weather ship was MS Polarfront, known as weather station M at 66°N, 02°E, run by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute. MS Polarfront was removed from service January 1,2010, since the 1960s this role has been largely superseded by satellites, long range aircraft and weather buoys
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
NOAA Weather Radio
NOAA Weather Radio broadcasts National Weather Service warnings, forecasts, weather observations and other hazard information 24 hours a day. It broadcasts alerts of non-weather emergencies such as security, environmental. Known as The Voice of NOAAs National Weather Service, NOAA Weather Radio is provided as a service by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The radio service continuously transmits weather and marine forecasts and other related information, in addition, NWR works in cooperation with the FCCs Emergency Alert System, providing comprehensive severe weather alerts and civil emergency information. For example, a receiver that only tunes in standard FM or AM broadcast stations will not suffice, the seven FM channels, reserved by the U. S. In the wake of the Palm Sunday Tornado Outbreak of 1965, starting in 1966, the Environmental Science Services Administration started a nationwide program known as ESSA VHF Weather Radio Network. In the early 1970s, this would be changed to NOAA Weather Radio, the original frequency was 162.550 MHz, with 163.275 MHz recommended as a backup.
However, this frequency was dropped due to issues with other federal agencies, and 162.400 MHz was added in 1970. Honolulu NWR station KBA99 transmitted on 169.075 MHz for twelve years until it was moved to 162.550 in 1975, many basic weather band receivers manufactured and sold from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s were configured to only receive the three main weather channels. However, for much of period, four additional intermediate channels existed to accommodate anticipated expansion. Over the years, a proliferation of stations meant to ensure near-complete geographical coverage, in addition, more mainstream consumer electronics, such as clock radios, portable multi-band receivers and two-way radios, now feature the ability to receive NWR channels. Many of the devices incorporate alerting capabilities. There are two different channel numbering systems used by various radio manufacturers. The first is the sequence that the radio frequencies were allocated to the service, 1=162.550, 2=162.400, 3=162.475, 4=162.425, 5=162.450, 6=162.500.
The second is in simple increasing radio frequency sequence, 1=162.400, 2=162.425, 3=162.450, 4=162.475, 5=162.500, 6=162.525, 7=162.550. The NWS suggests that users determine which frequency is intended for their location so that they are assured of receiving correct. Government time, and are operated by Department of Commerces National Institute of Standards, according to NOAA, reliable signal reception typically extends in about a 40-mile radius from a full-power transmitter, assuming level terrain. However, signal blockages can occur, especially in mountainous areas, as of 2016, there are over a thousand NWR transmitters across the United States, covering 95% of the population