Frodo Baggins is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, the main protagonist of The Lord of the Rings. Frodo is a hobbit of the Shire who inherits the One Ring from his cousin Bilbo Baggins and undertakes the quest to destroy it in the fires of Mount Doom, he is mentioned in Tolkien's posthumously published works, The Silmarillion and Unfinished Tales. Frodo did not appear until the third draft of A Long-Expected Party, when he was named Bingo, son of Bilbo Baggins and Primula Brandybuck. In the fourth draft, he was renamed Bingo Bolger-Baggins, son of Rollo Bolger and Primula Brandybuck. Tolkien did not change the name to Frodo until the third phase of writing, when much of the narrative, as far as the hobbits' arrival in Rivendell, had taken shape. Prior to this, the name "Frodo" had been used for the character who became Peregrin Took. Frodo is introduced in The Fellowship of the Ring as the adoptive heir of Bilbo Baggins; the chapter "A Long-expected Party" relates that Frodo's parents Drogo Baggins and Primula Brandybuck had been killed in a boating accident when Frodo was 12.
At the age of 21 he was adopted by his cousin, who brought him to live at Bag End. He and Bilbo shared the same birthday, the 22nd of'September', it was Bilbo who introduced the Elvish languages to Frodo, they shared long walking trips together. Frodo and Meriadoc Brandybuck are first cousins once removed, since Frodo is first cousin to Meriadoc's father, Saradoc Brandybuck, their common ancestors are Mirabella Took Brandybuck. Frodo is moreover third cousin to Meriadoc's mother, Esmeralda Took. Frodo is related to Peregrin Took, being his second and third cousin once removed. Fredegar Bolger is second cousin once removed to Frodo. Frodo shares a close relationship with his gardener Samwise Gamgee although they have no family tie; the Fellowship of the Ring opens as Frodo comes of age and Bilbo leaves the Shire for good on his one hundred and eleventh birthday. Frodo inherited Bag Bilbo's ring, which were both introduced in The Hobbit. Gandalf, at this time, was not certain about the origin of the Ring, so he warned Frodo to avoid using it and to keep it secret.
Frodo kept the Ring hidden for the next 17 years, resulting in it giving him the same longevity of Bilbo, until Gandalf returned to tell him that it was the One Ring of the Dark Lord Sauron, who desired to use it to conquer Middle-earth. Realizing that he was a danger to the Shire as long as he remained there with the Ring, Frodo decided to leave home, at the age of 50, take the Ring to Rivendell, home of Elrond, a mighty Elf lord, he left the Shire with three companions: his gardener Samwise Gamgee and his cousins Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took. They escaped just in time, for Sauron's most powerful servants, the Nine Nazgûl, had entered the Shire as Black Riders, looking for Bilbo and the Ring, they nearly intercepted him. Frodo and his companions escaped the Black Riders by travelling through the Old Forest, but they were misled by the magic of Old Man Willow until they were rescued by Tom Bombadil, who gave them shelter and guided them on their way. After leaving Bombadil, they were caught in fog on the Barrow Downs by Barrow-wights and were entranced under a spell.
Frodo broke loose from the spell, attacked the barrow-wight and summoned Tom Bombadil, who again rescued the hobbits and set them on their way. At the Prancing Pony, an inn in the village of Bree, Frodo received a delayed letter from Gandalf, met Aragorn called Strider, a Ranger of the North; the One Ring slipped onto Frodo's finger inadvertently in the Prancing Pony's common room, turning Frodo invisible. This attracted the attention of Sauron's agents; the group, under Aragorn's guidance fled through the Midgewater Marshes and again escaped the Nazgûl. While encamped at Amon Sûl, they were attacked by five Nazgûl; the chief of the Nazgûl, known as the Witch-king of Angmar, stabbed Frodo with a Morgul-blade, before Aragorn routed all five of them with fire. A piece of this blade remained in Frodo's shoulder and, working its way towards his heart, threatened to turn him into a wraith under the control of the Witch-king. With the help of his companions and Glorfindel, Frodo was able to evade the remaining Ringwraiths and reach Rivendell.
Although overcome by his wound, once there he was healed over time by Elrond. In Rivendell, the Council of Elrond met and resolved to destroy the Ring by casting it into Mount Doom in Mordor, the realm of Sauron. Frodo, stepped forward to be the Ring-bearer. A Fellowship of nine companions was formed to guide and protect him: the hobbits, Aragorn, the dwarf Gimli, the elf Legolas of Mirkwood, Boromir, a man of Gondor. Together they set out from Rivendell. Frodo was armed with Sting, Bilbo's Elvish knife, wore Bilbo's coat of Dwarven mail made of mithril; the company, seeking a way over the Misty Mountains, first tried the Pass of Caradhras, but abandoned it in favour of the mines of Moria. In Moria Frodo was stabbed by an Orc-spear
A cairn is a human-made pile of stones. The word cairn comes from the Scottish Gaelic: càrn. Cairns have been and are used for a broad variety of purposes, from prehistoric times to the present. In modern times, cairns are erected as landmarks, a use they have had since ancient times. However, since prehistory, they have been built and used as burial monuments. Cairns are used as trail markers in many parts of the world, in uplands, on moorland, on mountaintops, near waterways and on sea cliffs, as well as in barren deserts and tundra, they vary in size from small stone markers to entire artificial hills, in complexity from loose conical rock piles to delicately balanced sculptures and elaborate feats of megalithic engineering. Cairns may be painted or otherwise decorated, whether for increased visibility or for religious reasons. An ancient example is the inuksuk, used by the Inuit, Kalaallit and other peoples of the Arctic region of North America. Inuksuit are found from Alaska to Greenland; this region, above the Arctic Circle, is dominated by the tundra biome and has areas with few natural landmarks.
Different types of cairns exist from rough piles of stones to interlocking dry stone round cylinders. The most important cairns used around the world are interlocking stone survey cairns constructed around a central survey mark about every 30 km on the tallest peaks across a nation; these physical survey mark cairn systems are the basis for national survey grids to interconnect individual land survey measurements for entire nations. On occasion these permanent interlocking stone cairns are taken down reconstructed to re-mark measurements to increase the accuracy of the national survey grid, they can be used in unpopulated countries as emergency location points. In North America and Northern Europe any type of cairn can be used to mark mountain bike and hiking trail]]s and other cross-country trail blazing in mountain regions at or above the tree line. For example, the extensive trail network maintained by the DNT, the Norwegian Trekking Association, extensively uses cairns in conjunction with T-painted rock faces to mark trails.
Other examples of these can be seen in the lava fields of Volcanoes National Park to mark several hikes. Placed at regular intervals, a series of cairns can be used to indicate a path across stony or barren terrain across glaciers; such cairns are placed at junctions or in places where the trail direction is not obvious. They may be used to indicate an obscured danger such as a sudden drop, or a noteworthy point such as the summit of a mountain. Most trail cairns are small being a foot or less in height. However, they may be built taller so as to protrude through a layer of snow. Hikers passing by add a stone, as a small bit of maintenance to counteract the erosive effects of severe weather. North American trail marks are sometimes called "ducks" or "duckies", because they sometimes have a "beak" pointing in the direction of the route; the expression "two rocks do not make a duck" reminds hikers that just one rock resting upon another could be the result of accident or nature rather than intentional trail marking.
The building of cairns for recreational purposes along trails, to mark one's personal passage through the area, can result in an overabundance of rock piles. This distracts from cairns used as genuine navigational guides, conflicts with the Leave No Trace ethic; this ethic of outdoor practice advocates for leaving the outdoors undisturbed and in its natural condition. Coastal cairns, or "sea marks", are common in the northern latitudes in the island-strewn waters of Scandinavia and eastern Canada. Indicated on navigation charts, they may be painted white or lit as beacons for greater visibility offshore. Modern cairns may be erected for historical or memorial commemoration or for decorative or artistic reasons. One example is a series of many cairns marking British soldiers' mass graves at the site of the Battle of Isandlwana, South Africa. Another is the Matthew Flinders Cairn on the side of Arthur's Seat, a small mountain on the shores of Port Phillip Bay, Australia. A large cairn referred to as "the igloo" by the locals, was built atop a hill next to the I-476 highway in Radnor, Pennsylvania and is a part of a series of large rock sculptures initiated in 1988 to symbolize the township's Welsh heritage and to beautify the visual imagery along the highway.
Some are places where farmers have collected stones removed from a field. These can be seen in the Catskill Mountains, North America where there is a strong Scottish heritage, may represent places where livestock were lost. In locales exhibiting fantastic rock formations, such as the Grand Canyon, tourists construct simple cairns in reverence of the larger counterparts. By contrast, cairns may have a strong aesthetic purpose, for example in the art of Andy Goldsworthy. Norwegian authorities said in 2015 that illegal cairns are being built each year, to a large degree by tourists to Norway; the building of cairns for various purposes goes back into prehistory in Eurasia, ranging in size from small rock sculptures to substantial man-made hills of stone. The latter are relatively massive Bronze Age or earlier structures which, like kistvaens and dolmens contain burials.
The Cirth is a semi‑artificial script, based on real‑life runic alphabets, invented by J. R. R. Tolkien for the constructed languages he devised and used in his works. Cirth is written with a capital letter. In the fictional history of Middle-earth, the original Certhas Daeron was attributed to the Grey Elf Daeron, was used to write Elvish languages such as Sindarin and Quenya; this script was expanded by the Noldor into what was known as the Angerthas Daeron. Although the Cirth was largely replaced by the Tengwar, it was adopted by Dwarves to write down both their Khuzdul language and the languages of Men. In fact, the straight lines of the Cirth were better suited to carving than the curved strokes of the Tengwar; the Cirth was adapted, in its oldest and simplest form, by various races including Men and Orcs. In the Appendix E of The Return of the King, Tolkien writes that the Sindar of Beleriand first developed an alphabet during the Chaining of Melkor, it was devised to represent only the sounds of their Sindarin language and its letters were made for carving on wood, stone or metal, hence their angular forms and straight lines.
In Sindarin these letters were named cirth, from the Elvish root *kir‑ meaning "to cleave, to cut". The corresponding Quenya word was certar; the form of a certh consisted of a branch. The attachment of the branch was, if on one side only made on the right side; the reverse had no phonetic significance. Two basic principles were followed: adding a stroke to a branch added voice; the original display of Cirth should have been this: The known ancient cirth do not cover all the sounds of Sindarin. There is no certh for ⟨rh⟩, ⟨lh⟩, ⟨mh⟩, ⟨y⟩ or ⟨œ⟩; this system was devised for the Old Sindarin tongue, as many of the above-mentioned sounds did not exist in that language. However, still frequent ⟨ a ⟩ are missing, too; this indicates that some ancient, unknown cirth could have existed, but did not make it to the systems. As for the vowel usage the certh was used for both /u/ and /w/, like Latin ⟨v⟩ and to the certh, used for both /i/ and /j/; the certh for ⟨a⟩ cannot be guessed: it was one of some other cirth that did not survive in systems.
Long vowels were evidently indicated by doubling. In Appendix E, Tolkien writes that the reorganization of the Cirth was attributed to the Elf Daeron and loremaster of king Thingol of Doriath, who added new runes, being somehow influenced by Fëanor's Tengwar; this extension of the Cirth was known as Certhas Daeron. Unlike the previous system, the flipped form of a certh had a phonemic significance: they were lenited versions of the original rune; these lenited versions were needed to represent fricatives that were developed at one point in Sindarin. In archaic Sindarin a certh for ⟨mh⟩ was needed, the most appropriate solution was to flip the certh for ⟨m⟩ to indicate its lenition. But, being the certh horizontally symmetric, it could not be flipped. Therefore, the value ⟨m⟩ was given to, ⟨mh⟩ was given to, the certh assumed the value ⟨hw⟩; the sound /ṽ/ merged with /v/ in Sindarin. Tolkien accredits the Noldor from Eregion for the addition of several more runes to the system and the creation of the Angerthas Daeron sometimes referred to as Angerthas Eregion.
The additional letters were used to represent sounds which do not occur in Sindarin, but are present in the languages of other peoples of Middle-earth. According to Tolkien, the Angerthas Daeron was used for carved inscriptions, as for most other forms of written communication the Tengwar were used after their introduction in Middle-earth. Whereas the Sindarin spelling was adopted to transliterate the previous systems, Tolkien used a peculiar transliteration the Appendix E to represent the sounds of Angerthas; the reason is that this alphabet was meant to cover a much larger set of sounds than the previous ones. Here the Cirth are grouped according to their phonetic features: the cirth #1–7 are labial consonants. According to Tolkien's legendarium, the Dwarves first came to know the runes of the Noldor at the beginning of the Second Age. In the Appendix E, Tolkien highlights how the Dwarves «introduced a number of unsystematic changes in value, as well as certain new cirth», they modified the previous system to suit the specific needs of Khuzdul.
The Dwarves spread their revised alphabet to Moria, where it came to be known as Angerthas Moria, developed both carved and pen-written forms of these runes. Many cirth here represent sounds not occurring in Khuzdul (at least in published words of Khuzdul: of cou
Middle-earth is the fictional setting of much of British writer J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium; the term is equivalent to the term Midgard of Norse mythology, describing the human-inhabited world, that is, the central continent of the Earth in Tolkien's imagined mythological past. Tolkien's most read works, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, take place in Middle-earth, Middle-earth has become a short-hand to refer to the legendarium and Tolkien's fictional take on the world. Within his stories, Tolkien translated the name "Middle-earth" as Endor and Ennor in the Elvish languages Quenya and Sindarin sometimes referring only to the continent that the stories take place on, with another southern continent called the Dark Land. Middle-earth is the north continent of Earth in an imaginary period of the Earth's past, in the sense of a "secondary or sub-creational reality", its general position is reminiscent of Europe, with the environs of the Shire intended to be reminiscent of England. Tolkien's stories chronicle the struggle to control the world and the continent of Middle-earth: on one side, the angelic Valar, the Elves and their allies among Men.
In ages, after Morgoth's defeat and expulsion from Arda, his place was taken by his lieutenant Sauron. The Valar withdrew from direct involvement in the affairs of Middle-earth after the defeat of Morgoth, but in years they sent the wizards or Istari to help in the struggle against Sauron; the most important wizards were Gandalf the Saruman the White. Gandalf proved crucial in the fight against Sauron. Saruman, became corrupted and sought to establish himself as a rival to Sauron for absolute power in Middle-earth. Other races involved in the struggle against evil were Dwarves and most famously Hobbits; the early stages of the conflict are chronicled in The Silmarillion, while the final stages of the struggle to defeat Sauron are told in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings. Conflict over the possession and control of precious or magical objects is a recurring theme in the stories; the First Age is dominated by the doomed quest of the elf Fëanor and most of his Noldorin clan to recover three precious jewels called the Silmarils that Morgoth stole from them.
The Second and Third Age are dominated by the forging of the Rings of Power, the fate of the One Ring forged by Sauron, which gives its wearer the power to control or influence those wearing the other Rings of Power. In ancient Germanic mythology, the world of Men is known by several names, such as Midgard, Middenheim and Middengeard; the Old English middangeard descends from an earlier Germanic word and so has cognates in languages related to Old English such as the Old Norse word Miðgarðr from Norse mythology, transliterated to modern English as Midgard. The term "Middle-earth", it is found throughout the Modern English period as a development of the Middle English word middel-erde, which developed in turn, through a process of folk etymology, from middanġeard. By the time of the Middle English period, middangeard was being written as middellærd, midden-erde, or middel-erde, indicating that the second element had been reinterpreted, based on its similarity to the word for "earth"; the shift in meaning was not great, however: middangeard properly meant "middle enclosure" instead of "middle-earth".
Tolkien first encountered the term middangeard in an Old English fragment he studied in 1914: Éala éarendel engla beorhtast / ofer middangeard monnum sended. Hail Earendel, brightest of angels / above the middle-earth sent unto men; this quote is from the second of the fragmentary remnants of the Crist poems by Cynewulf. The name Éarendel was the inspiration for Tolkien's mariner Eärendil, who set sail from the lands of Middle-earth to ask for aid from the angelic powers, the Valar. Tolkien's earliest poem about Eärendil, from 1914, the same year he read the Crist poems, refers to "the mid-world's rim"; the concept of middangeard was considered by Tolkien to be the same as a particular usage of the Greek word οἰκουμένη - oikoumenē. In this usage Tolkien says that the oikoumenē is "the abiding place of men". Tolkien wrote: Middle-earth is... not my own invention. It is a modernization or alteration... of an old word for the inhabited world of Men, the oikoumene: middle because thought of vaguely as set amidst the encircling Seas and between ice of the North and the fire of the South.
O. English middan-geard, mediaeval E. midden-erd, middle-erd. Many reviewers seem to assume. However, the term "Middle-earth" is not found in Tolkien's earliest writings about Middle-earth, dating from the early 1920s and published in The Book of Lost Tales. Nor is the term used in The Hobbit. Tolkien began to use the term "Middle-earth" in the late 1930s, in place of the earlier terms "Great Lands", "Outer Lands", "Hither Lands"
A palantír is a fictional magical artefact from J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium. A palantír is described as a crystal ball, used for both communication and as a means of seeing events in other parts of the world or in the distant past or in the future; when one looks into a palantír, one can mentally communicate with other such stones and anyone who might be looking into them. Fashioned of a dark crystal, they were indestructible by any means men possessed at the end of the Third Age, they were of various sizes. The Stone of Osgiliath had power over other stones including the ability to eavesdrop; the smaller stones required one to move around them, thereby changing the viewpoint of its vision, whereas the larger stones could be turned on their axis. A wielder of great power such as one of the Maiar like Sauron could dominate a weaker user through the stone, the experience of Peregrin Took and Saruman. According to Gandalf, it is beyond the skill of both Sauron and Saruman to create the palantíri, while Sauron cannot make the palantíri "lie", or create false images, he could show selective images to create a false impression in the viewer.
The stones' gaze can pierce anything except darkness and shadow. A technique called. Knowledge of this technique was lost long ago; the palantíri were made by the Elves of Valinor in the Uttermost West, by the Noldor even Fëanor himself. Many palantíri were made, but only eight are mentioned in Tolkien's published works; the Master Stone was kept in the tower of Avallónë on Tol Eressëa, but no record is made of successful communication from any palantír of Middle-earth to this one. Seven stones were given to the Elf-friends, the Faithful Dúnedain of Númenor as a gift, during the Second Age. Elendil took them with him on his flight to Middle-earth on the nine ships; the stones of Arnor were at Elostirion, Amon Sul, Annuminas. After the destruction of Arnor and its successor states by the Witch-King of Angmar, the stones of Amon Sul and Annuminas were lost in Arvedui's shipwreck in the Bay of Forochel; the stone of Elostirion remained at the Emyn Beraid throughout the Third Age but was aligned only with the Master Stone on Tol Eressëa.
It could only look to the West. The stone of Osgiliath was lost during the Kin-strife when the Dome of the Stars was among the places sacked and burned in the city; the stone was not recovered. As for the other stones of Gondor, Sauron captured the palantír of Minas Ithil in 2002 T. A when the Ring-wraiths took it a second time. Saruman found the palantir of Orthanc when he was given possession of the Angrenost by Beren the Steward; the Anor-stone was used only by the Steward Denethor when he inherited his father's position in Minas Tirith. At the end of the Third Age, the use of palantíri influenced events of The Lord of the Rings. Saruman looked through the Orthanc stone, saw what he thought was an unassailable strength in Mordor, helping to corrupt him; when Pippin touched the Orthanc-stone, he encountered Sauron, attempting to contact Saruman using the Ithil-stone. Sauron thought; when Aragorn, exercising his lawful authority as heir to the Kingdoms of Arnor and Gondor, used the stone, he revealed himself to Sauron and wrenched the stone's power free of Sauron's will.
As a lawful user of the stone, Aragorn used the stone to see many things and most the attack on the Falas, which he intercepted by riding the Paths of the Dead with Rangers of the North. Denethor's constant use of the Anor-stone in Minas Tirith since becoming Steward of Gondor aged him as he battled with Sauron; the images that he saw steered by Sauron in part plus Faramir's mortal wound convinced him that there was no hope for Gondor, which resulted in his attempted murder of Faramir and his own suicide in the tomb of the Stewards off the Rath Dinen, the Silent Way. After the War of the Ring, only the stone of Orthanc remained in the possession of the king of the Reunited Kingdom as the elves took the stone of Elostirion with them into the West; the Ithil-stone had been lost in the fall of Barad-dûr, the Anor-stone would only show burning hands unless one possessed sufficient strength of will to turn its images elsewhere. One Stone, called Elendil's Stone, was placed in the tower of Elostirion in the Tower Hills, just west of the Shire.
Its location was only known to a few and it remained hidden there until it was taken back to the West with the three Elven Rings. It was unique among the stones brought to Middle-earth, in that it did not communicate with the others and would only look west along the Straight Road to the Master-stone of Avallónë; the palantír of Amon Sûl, most powerful of the three in Arnor, was kept for centuries in the Watchtower of Amon Sûl. When Arnor was divided into three kingdoms, all of them claimed Amon Sûl because of the palantír. Just before Angmar captured and destroyed the Watchtower in T. A. 1409, the Stone was taken to Fornost. It remained there, it w
Aragorn II, son of Arathorn is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, he is one of the main protagonists of The Lord of the Rings. Aragorn was a Ranger of the North, first introduced with the name Strider at Bree, as the Hobbits continued to call him throughout The Lord of the Rings, he was revealed to be the heir of Isildur and rightful claimant to the thrones of Arnor and Gondor. He was a confidant of Gandalf and an integral part of the quest to destroy the One Ring and defeat the Dark Lord Sauron. Aragorn led the Fellowship of the Ring following the loss of Gandalf in the Mines of Moria while fighting the Balrog; when the Fellowship was broken, he tracked the hobbits Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took with the help of Legolas the elf and Gimli the dwarf to Fangorn Forest. He fought in the battle at Helm's Deep and the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. After defeating Sauron's forces in Gondor, he led an army of Gondor and Rohan against the Black Gate of Mordor to distract Sauron's attention so that Frodo Baggins and Samwise Gamgee could have a chance to destroy the One Ring.
At the end of The Lord of the Rings, Aragorn was crowned King Elessar Telcontar of Gondor. He married Elrond's daughter and assumed the Sceptre of Annúminas as King of Arnor, uniting the two kingdoms for the first time since the reign of Isildur; the son of Arathorn II and his wife Gilraen, Aragorn was born on 1'March', T. A. 2931. Through his ancestor Elendil Aragorn was a descendant of the first king of Númenor, Elros Tar-Minyatur; when Aragorn was two years old, his father was killed while pursuing orcs. Aragorn was afterwards fostered in Rivendell by Elrond. At the bidding of Elrond, his lineage was kept secret, as Elrond feared he would be killed like his father and grandfather if his true identity as Isildur's heir became known. Aragorn was renamed Estel to hide his existence from his servants, he was not told about his heritage until he came of age in 2951. Elrond revealed to Aragorn his true name and ancestry, delivered to him the shards of Elendil's sword Narsil, the Ring of Barahir, he withheld the Sceptre of Annúminas from him.
Aragorn met and fell in love with Arwen, Elrond's daughter, when she returned from Lórien, her mother's homeland. Aragorn thereafter assumed his role as the sixteenth Chieftain of the Dúnedain, the Rangers of the North, went into the wild, living with the remnants of his people, whose kingdom had been destroyed through civil and regional wars centuries before. Aragorn met Gandalf the Grey in 2956, they became close friends; the Rangers help to guard the Shire, inhabited by the agrarian Hobbits. In the areas around the Shire and Bree he became known as "Strider". From 2957 to 2980, Aragorn undertook great journeys, serving in the armies of King Thengel of Rohan and of Steward Ecthelion II of Gondor, his tasks helped to raise morale in the West and to counter the growing threat of Sauron and his allies, he acquired experience that he would put to use in the War of the Ring. Aragorn served his lords during that time under the name Thorongil. With a small squadron of ships from Gondor, he led an assault on Umbar in 2980, burning many of the Corsairs' ships and slaying their lord during the Battle of the Havens.
After the victory at Umbar, "Thorongil" left the field, to the dismay of his men, went East. Aragorn travelled through the Dwarves' mines of Moria and to Rhûn and Harad, where "the stars are strange". In 2980, he visited Lórien, there again met Arwen, he gave her an heirloom of his House, the Ring of Barahir, and, on the hill of Cerin Amroth, Arwen pledged her hand to him in marriage, renouncing her Elvish lineage and accepting mortality, the "Gift of Men". Elrond withheld from Aragorn permission to marry his daughter until such time as his foster son should be king of Gondor and Arnor reunited. To marry a mortal, Arwen would be required to choose mortality and thus separate the immortal Elrond from his daughter. Gandalf grew suspicious of the ring belonging to the hobbit Bilbo Baggins, discovered to be Sauron's One Ring. Gandalf asked Aragorn to track Gollum, who had possessed the Ring; this hunt led Aragorn across Rhovanion, he captured Gollum in the Dead Marshes northwest of Mordor and brought him captive to King Thranduil’s halls in Mirkwood, where Gandalf questioned him.
In The Fellowship of the Ring, Aragorn joined Frodo Baggins, Bilbo's adopted heir, three of Frodo's friends at the Inn of the Prancing Pony in Bree. The four hobbits had set out from the Shire to bring the One Ring to Rivendell. Aragorn, going by the nickname "Strider", was aged 87, nearing the prime of life for one of royal Númenórean descent. With Aragorn's help the Hobbits reached Rivendell. There Frodo volunteered to destroy the Ring in the fires of Mount Doom, Aragorn was chosen as a member of the Fellowship of the Ring to accompany him, along with Gandalf, Legolas the elf, Gimli the dwarf, Boromir of Gondor, the hobbits Pippin and Frodo's faithful gardener Samwise Gamgee. Elven-smiths reforged the shards of Narsil into a new sword, setting into the design of the blade seven stars and a crescent moon, as well as many runes. Aragorn renamed the sword Andúril, it was said to have shone with the light of the
Angmar is a fictional kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkien's continent of Middle-earth, at the north end of the Misty Mountains, it was used by the Lord of the Ringwraiths as a base from which to attack the kingdoms of the Dúnedain in the North, all of which were destroyed. Angmar itself was subsequently destroyed by combined armies of men and elves shortly thereafter. Angmar was founded ca T. A. 1300 in the far north of the Misty Mountains by the Lord of the Ringwraiths, who became known as the "Witch-king of Angmar". The Witch-king came north to attack the Dúnedain of Arnor, whose disunity made them an easier target than Gondor at that time. Angmar straddled the northern reaches of the Misty Mountains, where many evil men gathered on both sides of the mountains; the chief fortress of Angmar was Carn Dûm. Soon after Angmar was founded, it waged war against the divided Dúnedain realms of Arthedain and Rhudaur; the Witch-king subverted Rhudaur, the weakest of Arnor's successor kingdoms, replaced its Dúnedain king with one of the native Hillmen.
Now under the Witch-king's control, Rhudaur invaded Arthedain in T. A. 1356, Arthedain's King Argeleb I was slain. However, with the aid of the armies of Cardolan, Arthedain managed to maintain a line of defence along the Weather Hills. In T. A. 1409 Angmar attacked Cardolan. At this time, Rhudaur disappeared, leaving Arthedain as the last remaining Dúnedain kingdom in Arnor. With help from Lindon, Arthedain struggled on for another 500 years; the end came in T. A. 1974. Angmar took Fornost, the capital of Arthedain, destroyed the last kingdom of the Dúnedain in the North. King Arvedui of Arthedain fled north; the following summer, Prince Eärnur of Gondor arrived to aid Arthedain. His army, along with the remaining Dúnedain, the elves of Lindon, a company of hobbit archers, elves led by Glorfindel from Rivendell, utterly defeated the forces of Angmar in the Battle of Fornost; the Witch-king, was not slain: he escaped and fled to Mordor. It was after this battle that Glorfindel made the famous prophecy that the Witch-king would be killed by no man.
The Witch-king had achieved his master's wishes: the power of the Dúnedain of the north was destroyed until the reign of Aragorn as King Elessar in the Fourth Age. Following this defeat of Angmar, its forces west of the Misty Mountains were shattered and it ceased to exist; the parts of it extending to the east of the Misty Mountains were wiped out by the ancestors of the Rohirrim, who settled in this northern territory under Frumgar. At the end of the Third Age, Frodo Baggins, Meriadoc Brandybuck, Samwise Gamgee, Peregrin Took were captured at the Barrow-downs on their journey to Rivendell; when rescued by Tom Bombadil, Merry thought he had been stabbed by one of the men of Carn Dûm, but realized this was a dream. In The Lord of the Rings Online: Shadows of Angmar, the remains of Angmar consist of a mountainous, barren wasteland populated by hillmen and a large army of the Witch-king amassed to conquer Eriador. At the northern edge of Angmar are the ruins of Carn Dûm, which have been rebuilt and populated with the Witch-king's forces, overseen by Mordirith, the steward of Angmar.
Players can venture into Angmar to perform quests and fight the creatures there, as well as entering several instanced dungeons. In The Battle for Middle-earth II's expansion pack The Rise of the Witch-king the campaign tells the story of the Kingdom of Angmar and the fall of Arnor. Angmar is added as a seventh faction to the game. A campaign for the Angmar faction was created, showing the Witch King's Rise to Power and Conquest of Arnor. In The Lord of the Rings: War in the North, the final mission of the game takes place in Carn Dûm, corrupted by the power of Agandaur and set in mountainous and rugged terrain. In The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies, it is stated that Sauron is attempting to capture the Lonely Mountain because controlling its location will give him a strategic advantage and allow him to restore Angmar. "Angmar". Encyclopedia of Arda