Cadishead is a suburb within the City of Salford, in Greater Manchester, England. A profile of the ward conducted by Salford City Council in 2014 recorded a population of 10,739. In Lancashire, Cadishead is the most southwesterly settlement in the city of Salford; the earliest record of Cadishead date to 1212, show that the whole of Cadishead – called Cadewalesate – was rented from King John by Gilbert Notton for four shillings a year, a sum equivalent to about £650 today. The name derives from the Old English words wælla and set, Cada, a personal name; until the early 19th century most of the area was part of the peat bog known as Chat Moss, but by 1805 work had started to reclaim the land. The opening of the Manchester Ship Canal in 1894 had a major effect on the subsequent development of Cadishead. Cadishead is represented in Westminster by Barbara Keeley MP for Eccles South. CouncillorsThe ward is represented on Salford City Council by three councillors: Joan Walsh, Jimmy Hunt, John Walsh.
Indicates seat up for re-election. Cadishead is situated between Irlam and Hollins Green/Rixton, either side of Liverpool Road and adjacent to the Manchester Ship Canal and the M62 motorway, close to the border between Greater Manchester and Warrington; the Northbank Industrial Park dominates the east of Cadishead and the border with Irlam and supplies many jobs to the local area. Notable people from Cadishead include Ray Lowry, a painter and cartoonist with his most famous work being the London Calling album cover for the Clash. Cadishead was once served by its own railway station; the station closed in November 1964 as part of the Beeching cuts which affected many railway stations in the UK at the time. Irlam and Cadishead Local History Society St. Mary the Virgin C of E parish church
A heddle is an integral part of a loom. Each thread in the warp passes through a heddle, used to separate the warp threads for the passage of the weft; the typical heddle is made of cord or wire, is suspended on a shaft of a loom. Each heddle has an eye in the center; as there is one heddle for each thread of the warp, there can be near a thousand heddles used for fine or wide warps. A handwoven tea-towel will have between 300 and 400 warp threads, thus use that many heddles. In weaving, the warp threads are moved down by the shaft; this is achieved. When the shaft is raised the heddles are too, thus the warp threads threaded through the heddles are raised. Heddles can be either or unequally distributed on the shafts, depending on the pattern to be woven. In a plain weave or twill, for example, the heddles are distributed; the warp is threaded through heddles on different shafts in order to obtain different weave structures. For a plain weave on a loom with two shafts, for example, the first thread would go through the first heddle on the first shaft, the next thread through the first heddle on the second shaft.
The third warp thread would be threaded through the second heddle on the first shaft, so on. In this manner the heddles allow for the grouping of the warp threads into two groups, one group, threaded through heddles on the first shaft, the other on the second shaft. While the majority of heddles are as described, this style of heddle has derived from older styles, several of which are still in use. Rigid heddle looms, for example, instead of having one heddle for each thread, have a shaft with the'heddles' fixed, all threads go through every shaft. Within wire heddles there is a large variety in quality. Heddles should have a smooth eye, with no sharp edges to either fray the warp; the warp must be able to slide through the heddle without impairment. The heddle should be light and not bulky. There are three common types of metal heddles: wire, inserted eye, flat steel; the inserted eye are considered to be the best, as they have a smooth eye with no rough ends to catch the warp. Wire heddles are second in quality, followed by the flat steel.
Wire heddles look much like the inserted eye heddles, but where in the inserted eye there is a circle of metal for the eye, the wire ones are twisted at the top and bottom. The flat metal heddles are considered the poorest in quality as they are heavier and bulkier, as well as not being as smooth, they are a flat piece of steel, with the ends rotated so that the flat side is at an angle of 45 degrees to the shaft. The eye is a hole cut in the middle of the piece of metal. Traditional heddles were made of cord. However, cord deteriorates with time and creates friction between the warp and the heddle that can damage the warp. Today, traditional cord heddles are used by historical reenactors. A simple string heddle can be made with a series of five knots in a doubled length of cord, which creates five loops. Of these loops, the important ones are the loop in the center; the loops on the ends are used to stretch the heddle between the top and bottom bars of a shaft and are just large enough for the heddle to slide along the shaft.
The center loop is the eye through which a warp thread is passed and is placed in the center of the heddle. String heddles can be crocheted, come in many different forms; some modern hand weavers use machine-crocheted polyester heddles. These synthetic heddles minimize some of the problems with traditional knotted string heddles, they are used as an alternative to metal heddles to lessen the weight of the shafts. Inkle loom heddles are made of string and consist of a simple loop. Alternating warp threads pass through a heddle, as in a rigid heddle loom. Tapestry loom heddles are made of string, they consist of a loop of string with an eye at one end for the warp thread and a loop at the other for attaching to a heddle bar. A repair heddle can be used if a heddle breaks, rare, or when the loom has been warped incorrectly. If the weaver finds a mistake in the pattern, instead of rethreading all of the threads, a repair heddle can be slipped onto the shaft in the correct location, thus repair heddles have a method to open the top loop that holds them onto the shaft.
Repair heddles can save a lot of time in fixing a mistake, however they are bulky, in general, catch on the other heddles. In rigid heddle looms there is a single shaft, with the heddles fixed in place in the shaft; the warp threads pass alternately through a heddle and through a space between the heddles, so that raising the shaft will raise half the threads, lowering the shaft will lower the same threads—the threads passing through the spaces between the heddles remain in place. Rigid heddles are thus different from the heddle in common use, though the single heddle derived from the rigid heddle; the advantage of non-rigid heddles is that the weaver has more freedom, can create a wider variety of fabrics. Rigid heddle looms resemble the standard floor loom in appearance. Single and double heddle looms are a type of rigid heddle loom, in that the heddles are all together. Heddles are suspended above the loom; the weaver operates them by works while seated. Among hand woven African textiles, single-heddle looms are in wide use among weaving regions of Africa.
Mounting position varies according to local custom. Double-heddle looms are used in West Africa, Ethiopia and in Madagascar for the production of lamba cloth.. "Heddle". New Internati
Cob, cobb or clom is a natural building material made from subsoil, fibrous organic material, sometimes lime. The contents of subsoil vary, if it does not contain the right mixture it can be modified with sand or clay. Cob is fireproof, resistant to seismic activity, although it uses low cost materials, it is labour intensive, it can be used to create artistic, sculptural forms, its use has been revived in recent years by the natural building and sustainability movements. In technical building and engineering documents such as the Uniform Building Code, cob may be referred to as an "unburned clay masonry" when used in a structural context, it might be referred to as an "aggregate" in non-structural contexts, such as a "clay and sand aggregate" or more an "organic aggregate," such as where the cob is a filler between post and beam construction. Cob is an English term attested to around the year 1600 for an ancient building material, used for building since prehistoric times; the etymology of cob and cobbing is unclear, but in several senses means to beat or strike, how cob material is applied to a wall.
Some of the oldest man-made structures in Afghanistan are composed of rammed cob. Cobwork was used in the Maghreb and al-Andalus in the 11th and 12th centuries, was described in detail by Ibn Khaldun in the 14th century. Cob material is known by many names including adobe, lump clay, puddled clay, chalk mud, clay daubins, torchis, bauge and cat and clay. Cob structures can be found in a variety of climates across the globe. European examples include: in England, notably in the counties of Devon and Cornwall in the West Country, in East Anglia in the Vale of Glamorgan and Gower Peninsula in Wales in Donegal Bay in Ulster and in Munster, South-West Ireland in Finisterre in Brittany, where many homes have survived over 500 years and are still inhabitedMany old cob buildings can be found in Africa, the Middle East, many parts of the southwestern United States. A number of cob cottages survive from mid-19th-century New Zealand. Traditionally, English cob was made by mixing the clay-based subsoil with sand and water using oxen to trample it.
English soils contain varying amounts of chalk, cob made with significant amounts of chalk are called chalk cob or wychert. The earthen mixture was ladled onto a stone foundation in courses and trodden onto the wall by workers in a process known as cobbing; the construction would progress according to the time required for the prior course to dry. After drying, the walls would be trimmed and the next course built, with lintels for openings such as doors and windows being placed as the wall takes shape; the walls of a cob house are about 24 inches thick, windows were correspondingly deep-set, giving the homes a characteristic internal appearance. The thick walls provided excellent thermal mass, easy to keep warm in winter and cool in summer. Walls with a high thermal mass value act as a thermal buffer inside the home; the material has a long life-span in rainy and/or humid climates, provided a tall foundation and large roof overhang are present. Cob is fireproof, while "fire cob" is a refractory material, has been used to make chimneys, fireplaces and crucibles.
Without fiber, cob loses most of its tensile strength. When Kevin McCabe constructed a two-story, four bedroom cob house in England, UK in 1994, it was reputedly the first cob residence built in the country in 70 years, his techniques remained traditional. From 2002 to 2004, sustainability enthusiast Rob Hopkins initiated the construction of a cob house for his family, the first new one in Ireland in circa one hundred years, it was a community project. The house, located at The Hollies Centre for Practical Sustainability in County Cork, was being rebuilt as of 2010. There are a number of other completed modern cob houses and more are planned, including a public education centre. In 2000-01, a modern, four bedroom cob house in Worcestershire, England, UK, designed by Associated Architects, was sold for £999,000. Cobtun House was erected in 2001 and won the Royal Institute of British Architects' Sustainable Building of the Year award in 2005; the total construction cost was £300,000, but the metre-thick outer cob wall cost only £20,000.
In the Pacific Northwest of the United States there has been a resurgence of cob construction, both as an alternative building practice and one desired for its form and cost effectiveness. Pat Hennebery, Tracy Calvert, Elke Cole, the Cobworks workshops erected more than ten cob houses in the Southern Gulf Islands of British Columbia, Canada. In 2010, Sota Construction Services in Pittsburgh, United States completed construction on its new 7,500 square foot corporate headquarters, which featured exterior cob walls along with other energy saving features like radiant heat flooring, a rooftop solar panel array, daylighting; the cob walls, in conjunction with the other sustainable features, enabled the edifice to earn a LEED Platinum rating in 2012, it received one of the highest scores by percentage of total points earned in any LEED category. In 2007, Ann and Gord Baird began constructing a two-storey cob house in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada for an estimated $210,000 CDN; the home of 2,150 squ
Humidity is the amount of water vapour present in air. Water vapour, the gaseous state of water, is invisible to the human eye. Humidity indicates the likelihood for dew, or fog to be present; the amount of water vapour needed to achieve saturation increases as the temperature increases. As the temperature of a parcel of air decreases it will reach the saturation point without adding or losing water mass; the amount of water vapour contained within a parcel of air can vary significantly. For example, a parcel of air near saturation may contain 28 grams of water per cubic metre of air at 30 °C, but only 8 grams of water per cubic metre of air at 8 °C. Three primary measurements of humidity are employed: absolute and specific. Absolute humidity describes the water content of air and is expressed in either grams per cubic metre or grams per kilogram. Relative humidity, expressed as a percentage, indicates a present state of absolute humidity relative to a maximum humidity given the same temperature.
Specific humidity is the ratio of water vapor mass to total moist air parcel mass. Humidity plays an important role for surface life. For animal life dependent on perspiration to regulate internal body temperature, high humidity impairs heat exchange efficiency by reducing the rate of moisture evaporation from skin surfaces; this effect can be calculated using a heat index table known as a humidex. Absolute humidity is the total mass of water vapor present in mass of air, it does not take temperature into consideration. Absolute humidity in the atmosphere ranges from near zero to 30 grams per cubic metre when the air is saturated at 30 °C. Absolute humidity is the mass of the water vapor, divided by the volume of the air and water vapor mixture, which can be expressed as: A H = m H 2 O V n e t; the absolute humidity changes as air pressure changes, if the volume is not fixed. This makes it unsuitable for chemical engineering calculations, e.g. in drying, where temperature can vary considerably.
As a result, absolute humidity in chemical engineering may refer to mass of water vapor per unit mass of dry air known as the humidity ratio or mass mixing ratio, better suited for heat and mass balance calculations. Mass of water per unit volume as in the equation above is defined as volumetric humidity; because of the potential confusion, British Standard BS 1339 suggests avoiding the term "absolute humidity". Units should always be checked. Many humidity charts are given in g/kg or kg/kg; the field concerned with the study of physical and thermodynamic properties of gas–vapor mixtures is named psychrometrics. The relative humidity of an air-water mixture is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over a flat surface of pure water at a given temperature: ϕ = p H 2 O p H 2 O ∗ Relative humidity is expressed as a percentage. Relative humidity is an important metric used in weather forecasts and reports, as it is an indicator of the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog.
In hot summer weather, a rise in relative humidity increases the apparent temperature to humans by hindering the evaporation of perspiration from the skin. For example, according to the Heat Index, a relative humidity of 75% at air temperature of 80.0 °F would feel like 83.6 °F ±1.3 °F. Specific humidity is the ratio of the mass of water vapor to the total mass of the moist air parcel. Specific humidity is equal to the mixing ratio, defined as the ratio of the mass of water vapor in an air parcel to the mass of dry air for the same parcel; as temperature decreases, the amount of water vapor needed to reach saturation decreases. As the temperature of a parcel of air becomes lower it will reach the point of saturation without adding or losing water mass. A device used to measure humidity is called a hygrometer. A humidistat is a humidity-triggered switch used to control a dehumidifier. There are various devices used to regulate humidity. Calibration standards for the most accurate measurement include the gravimetric hygrometer, chilled mirror hygrometer, electrolytic hygrometer.
The gravimetric method, while the most accurate, is cumbersome. For fast and accurate measurement the chilled mirror method is effective. For process on-line measurements, the most used sensors nowadays are based on capacitance measurements to measure relative humidity with internal conversions to d
Blackburn is a town in Lancashire, England. It lies to the north of the West Pennine Moors on the southern edge of the Ribble Valley, 9 miles east of Preston, 20.9 miles NNW of Manchester and 9 miles north of the Greater Manchester border. Blackburn is bounded to the south by Darwen, with which it forms the unitary authority of Blackburn with Darwen. At the time of the UK Government's 2001 census, Blackburn had a population of 105,085, whilst the wider borough of Blackburn with Darwen had a population of 140,700. Blackburn had a population of 117,963 in 2011, a massive increase since 2001. A former mill town, textiles have been produced in Blackburn since the middle of the 13th century, when wool was woven in people's houses in the domestic system. Flemish weavers who settled in the area during the 14th century helped to develop the woollen cottage industry. James Hargreaves, inventor of the spinning jenny, was a weaver in Oswaldtwistle near Blackburn, the most rapid period of growth and development in Blackburn's history coincided with the industrialisation and expansion of textile manufacturing.
Blackburn was a boomtown of the Industrial Revolution and amongst the first industrialised towns in the world. Blackburn's textile sector fell into terminal decline from the mid-20th century and subsequently faced similar challenges to other post-industrial northern towns, including deindustrialisation, economic deprivation and housing issues. In recent decades, the town has experienced high levels of immigration, with people of ethnic backgrounds other than white British making up 30.8% of the population, above the regional and national average. Blackburn has had significant investment and redevelopment since 1958 through government funding and the European Regional Development Fund. Blackburn was recorded in the Domesday Book as Blacheborne in 1086; the origins of the name are uncertain. It has been suggested that it may be a combination of an Old English word for bleach, together with a form of the word "burn", meaning stream, may be associated with a bleaching process. Alternatively, the name of the town may mean "black burn", or "black stream".
There is little evidence of prehistoric settlement in the Blakewater valley, in which Blackburn developed. Evidence of activity in the form of two urn burials has been discovered from the Bronze Age in the hills around Blackburn. In 1879, a cinerary urn was discovered at a tumulus at Revidge, north of the town; the presence of a sacred spring—perhaps in use during the Iron Age—provides evidence of prehistoric activity in the town centre, at All Hallows Spring on Railway Road. Blackburn is located; the road linked Bremetennacum Mamucium. The route of the road passed east of Blackburn Cathedral and crossed the river in the Salford neighbourhood just east of the modern town centre, it is not clear. All Hallows Spring was excavated in early archaeology in 1654 and found to contain an inscribed stone commemorating the dedication of a temple to Serapis by Claudius Hieronymus, legate of Legio VI Victrix. Christianity is believed to have come to Blackburn by the end of the 6th century in 596 as there is a record of a "church of Blagbourne" in that year, or 598 AD.
The town was important during the Anglo-Saxon era when the Blackburnshire Hundred came into existence as a territorial division of the kingdom of Northumbria. The name of the town appears in the Domesday Book as Blachebourne, a royal manor during the days of Edward the Confessor and William the Conqueror. Archaeological evidence from the demolition of the medieval parish church on the site of the cathedral in 1820 suggests that a church was built during the late 11th or early 12th century. A market cross was erected nearby in 1101; the manor came into the possession of Henry de Blackburn. One half was granted to the monks of Stanlow Abbey and this moiety was subsequently granted to the monks of Whalley Abbey. During the 12th century, the town's importance declined. In addition to a settlement in the town centre area, there were several other medieval domiciles nearby. Textile manufacturing in Blackburn dates from the mid-13th century, when wool produced locally by farmers was woven in their homes.
Flemish weavers who settled in the area in the 14th century developed the industry. By 1650 the town was known for the manufacture of blue and white "Blackburn checks", "Blackburn greys" became famous not long afterwards. By the first half of the 18th century textile manufacture had become Blackburn's main industry. From the mid-18th to the early 20th century Blackburn evolved from a small market town into "the weaving capital of the world", its population increased from less than 5,000 to over 130,000. John Bartholomew's Gazetteer of the British Isles provides a profile of Blackburn in 1887: Blackburn. Parl. and mun. bor. parish and township, NE. Lancashire, 9 miles E. of Preston and 210 miles NW. of London by rail – par. 48,281 ac. pop. 161,617. 91,958. 104,014. Market-days and Saturday, it is one besides producing calico, muslin, & c. There being over 140 mills at work. There are factories for making cotton machinery and steam-engines. B. has been associated with many improvements in the mfr. of cotton, among, the invention of the "spinni
Theo van Gogh (art dealer)
Theodorus "Theo" van Gogh was a Dutch art dealer. He was the younger brother of Vincent van Gogh, Theo's unfailing financial and emotional support allowed his brother to devote himself to painting. Theo died at the age of 33, six months after his brother died at the age of 37. Theo is known for his influence on his brother. Theodorus "Theo" van Gogh was born on 1 May 1857 in the village Groot-Zundert in the province of North Brabant, Netherlands, he was the son of Anna Cornelia Carbentus. His elder brother was artist Vincent van Gogh. Theo worked for some years at the Dutch office of the Parisian art dealers Goupil & Cie in The Hague. Theo joined the Brussels office on 1 January 1873 as their youngest employee. After Theo was transferred to the London office, he moved to the office in The Hague, where he developed into a successful art dealer. By 1884, he was transferred to the Paris main office. Beginning in the winter of 1880–1881, he sent painting materials as well as monthly financial support to his brother and painter Vincent van Gogh, living in the Netherlands.
In Paris, Theo met his sister Johanna. He married Johanna in Amsterdam on 17 April 1889 and they moved to Paris, their son Vincent Willem was born in Paris on 31 January 1890. On 8 June, the family visited Vincent, living near Paris in Auvers-sur-Oise. Vincent died in July 1890 at age 37. Theo suffered from dementia paralytica, an infection of the brain, his health declined after Vincent's death. Weak and unable to come to terms with Vincent's absence, he died six months at age 33 in Den Dolder. Theo's great-grandson named Theo van Gogh, was the controversial film director, murdered on the streets of Amsterdam in 2004 by an Islamic extremist after making a short film critical of Islam. Theo admired his elder brother Vincent for his whole life, but communicating with him proved to be difficult before Vincent opted to follow his artistic vocation; the communication between both brothers suffered from diverging definitions of standards, it was evidently Theo who kept on writing letters. Vincent is known to have not kept the letters Theo sent.
Therefore Vincent's answers survived and few of Theo's. Theo was concerned about Vincent's mental condition and he was amongst the few who understood his brother, it is known. He helped Vincent pursue his life as an artist through his unwavering emotional support and love; the majority of Theo's letters and communications with Vincent are filled with praise and encouragement. Vincent would send Theo sketches and ideas for paintings, along with accounts of his day to day experiences, to the delight and eager attention of Theo. While it is true that Theo is best known for being the brother of Vincent van Gogh and that one of the major roles of Theo van Gogh's life was his influence on Vincent's career, Theo himself made many important contributions within his lifetime. Theo's work as an art dealer and the important effect he had on the art world are overshadowed because of his relation to Vincent, but Theo played a vital role in the introduction of contemporary Dutch and French art to the public.
Theo was instrumental in the popularity of Impressionist artists such as Claude Monet and Edgar Degas by persuading his employers, Goupil & Cie, to exhibit and buy their works. In 1886, Theo invited Vincent to come and live with him in Paris, from March they shared an apartment in Montmartre. Theo introduced Vincent to Paul Gauguin, Paul Cézanne, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri Rousseau, Camille Pissarro and Georges Seurat, in 1888 he persuaded Gauguin to join Vincent, who had moved to Arles in the meantime; the two brothers maintained an intensive correspondence, with Theo encouraging his depressed brother. Theo was one of the few people who Vincent could confide in; these letters are one of the main and only sources of information about Vincent's life, providing many detailed accounts of not only the occurrences but the thoughts and feelings in Vincent's life. Over three-quarters of the more than 800 letters Vincent wrote during his life were to Theo, including his first and his last letters.
It is thanks to Theo and his wife that these letters are available today. Hardly any of Theo's letters remain; the letters have been published in book form as The Letters of Vincent van Gogh. The relationship between the two brothers was the subject of the movie Vincent & Theo, directed by Robert Altman, it formed an important part of the film Lust for Life, directed by Vincente Minnelli. Theo was played by the British actor James Vincent by the Hollywood star Kirk Douglas. Theo's health deteriorated in the months after the death of his brother, he was admitted to the Willem Arntz Hospital, a psychiatric hospital, in Den Dolder on 18 November 1890. He had been diagnosed in Paris as suffering from a general paralysis. Initial examination confirmed this diagnosis. By 1 December his medical notes confirmed he presented all the symptoms of dementia paralytica, a disease of the brain, he died on 25 January 1891. The cause of death was listed as dementia paralytica caused by "heredity, chronic disease, sadness".
In 1914, Theo's body was exhume
Macclesfield is a market town and civil parish in Cheshire, England. The population of Macclesfield at the 2011 census was 52,044. A person from Macclesfield is sometimes referred to as a "Maxonian". Macclesfield, like many other areas in Cheshire, is a affluent town. Situated in the ancient Hundred of Hamestan, the town is recorded in the Domesday Book as "Maclesfeld" and in 1183 it was referred to as "Makeslesfeld"; the English Place-Name Society gives its name as being derived from the Old English name and field, yielding the meaning "Maccel's open country". Although "Silk Town" seems to be its preferred nickname, the traditional nickname of Macclesfield is "Treacle Town"; this refers to an historical incident when a horse-drawn wagon overturned and split its load of treacle onto the street, after which the poor scooped the treacle off the road. Macclesfield was granted a borough charter by Earl Ranulf III of Chester, in the early 13th century, a second charter was granted by the future King Edward I, in 1261.
The parish church of All Saints was built in 1278, an extension of a chapel built in 1220. The borough had a weekly market and two annual fairs: the Barnaby fair, was on St Barnabas day, the other on the feast of All Saints. In recent years the Barnaby fair has been reinvented as the Barnaby Festival, a cultural festival in mid-June; the weekly market no longer happens but on the last Sunday of each month the Treacle Market is held, a large market selling locally produced food and handmade items such as clothing, handmade goods and pottery. Macclesfield was the administrative centre of the Hundred of Macclesfield, which occupied most of east Cheshire; the Earl of Chester's manor of Macclesfield was large, its boundary extended to Disley. The manor house was on the west of the town; the Earls of Chester established the Forest of Macclesfield, much larger than its present-day namesake. It was used for hunting deer and pasturing sheep and cattle. By the end of the 13th century, large areas of the forest had been ploughed because of the pressure of population growth.
In 1356, two trees from the forest were given to archer William Jauderell to repair his home. Macclesfield Castle was a fortified town house built by John de Macclesfield in the Middle Ages. Construction began in 1398. Contrary to what some believe, no proof exists of Macclesfield being a walled town; when the settlement was first established and for some centuries afterwards there would have been some sort of ditch and palisade round the western side of the town, not defended. This was necessary in order to keep out stray animals. No physical trace of a ditch remains though measurements and the shape of certain streets suggest where such a ditch could have been and most of the medieval building were within this area, it is unlikely that the ditch and palisade were succeeded by a wall for no record has been found of a murage tax, which would have been levied to keep the wall in repair. The suffix "Gate" in the names of several Macclesfield streets has been taken to indicate the former presence of a gate in the sense of a guarded opening in a wall, this is unlikely as the term'gate' is derived from'gata', Scandinavian for road, which became gate in Middle English.
Therefore, Chester Gate, the Jordan Gate and the Church Wall Gate, are referring to the road to/from Chester or the road leading from the church to the well. These names are preserved in the names of three streets in the town, Chestergate and Back Wallgate. During the Civil War, in 1642 the town was occupied for the King by a Royalist. In the Jacobite Rising of 1745, Charles Stuart and his army marched through Macclesfield as they attempted to reach London; the mayor was forced to welcome the prince, the event is commemorated in one of the town's silk tapestries. Armoury Towers was completed in 1858 and the Bridge Street drill hall was completed in 1871. Macclesfield was once the world's biggest producer of finished silk. There were 71 silk mills operating in 1832. Paradise Mill is a working mill museum which demonstrates the art of silk throwing and Jacquard weaving to the public; the four Macclesfield Museums display a range of information and products from that period. Macclesfield is the original home of Hovis breadmakers, produced in Publicity Works Mill on the canal close to Buxton Road.
It was founded by a baker from Stoke-on-Trent. Hovis is said to derive from the Latin "homo-vitalis" as a way of providing a cheap and nutritious food for poor mill workers and was a dry and dense wholemeal loaf different from the modern version. Between 1826 and 1831 the Macclesfield Canal was constructed, linking Macclesfield to Marple to the north and Kidsgrove to the south; the canal was surveyed for its Act of Parliament by the canal and roads engineer Thomas Telford, built by William Crosley, the Macclesfield Canal Company's engineer. It was the last narrow canal to be completed and had only limited success because within ten years much of the coal and other potential cargo was being transported by rail. Waters Green was once home to a nationally known horse market which features in the legend of the Wizard of Alderley Edge. Waters Green and an area opposite Arighi Bianchi, now hidden under the Silk Road held a sheep and cattle market until the 1980s. Macclesfield is said to be the only mill town left unbombed in World War II.
Macclesfield was first represented in Parliament after the Reform Act of 1832, when it was granted two members o