Consortium is a Latin word, meaning partnership, association or society and derives from consors partner, itself from con- together and sors fate, meaning owner of means or comrade. The Big Ten Academic Alliance and Five Colleges, Inc. along with the Claremont Consortium are among the oldest and most successful higher education consortia in the United States. The Big Ten Academic Alliance, formerly known as the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, the participants in Five Colleges, Inc. are, Amherst College, Hampshire College, Mount Holyoke College, Smith College, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Another example of a successful consortium is the Five Colleges of Ohio of Ohio, Oberlin College, Ohio Wesleyan University, Kenyon College, College of Wooster and Denison University. These consortia have pooled the resources of their colleges and the universities to share human and material assets as well as to link academic. An example of a non-profit consortium is the Appalachian College Association located in Richmond, the association consists of 35 private liberal arts colleges and universities spread across the central Appalachian mountains in Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee and West Virginia.
Collectively these higher education institutions serve approximately 42,500 students, six research universities in the region are affiliated with the ACA. These institutions assist the ACA in reviewing grant and fellowship applications, conducting workshops, the ACA works to serve higher education in the rural regions of these five states. An example of a for-profit consortium is a group of banks that collaborate to make a loan—also known as a syndicate and this type of loan is more commonly known as a syndicated loan. In England it is common for a consortium to buy out financially struggling football clubs in order to them out of liquidation. Hulu, the American video streaming service, is owned by a consortium of media conglomerates including Time Warner, 21st Century Fox, Comcast. Airbus Industries was formed in 1970 as a consortium of aerospace manufacturers, the retention of production and engineering assets by the partner companies in effect made Airbus Industries a sales and marketing company.
This arrangement led to inefficiencies due to the inherent conflicts of interest that the four partner companies faced, the companies collaborated on development of the Airbus range, but guarded the financial details of their own production activities and sought to maximize the transfer prices of their sub-assemblies. In 2001, EADS and BAE Systems transferred their Airbus production assets to a new company, in return, they got 80% and 20% shares respectively. BAE would sell its share to EADS, coopetition is a word coined from cooperation and competition. It is used when companies otherwise competitors collaborate in a consortium to cooperate on areas non-strategic for their core businesses and they prefer to reduce their costs on these non-strategic areas and compete on other areas where they can differentiate better. For example, the GENIVI Alliance is a consortium between different car makers in order to ease building an in-vehicle infotainment system. Another example is the World Wide Web Consortium, which is a consortium that standardizes web technologies like HTML, XML, joint venture This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Charles, ed. passim
Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps has no order, individual random events are by definition unpredictable, but in many cases the frequency of different outcomes over a large number of events is predictable. For example, when throwing two dice, the outcome of any particular roll is unpredictable, but a sum of 7 will occur twice as often as 4. In this view, randomness is a measure of uncertainty of an outcome, rather than haphazardness, and applies to concepts of chance, the fields of mathematics and statistics use formal definitions of randomness. In statistics, a variable is an assignment of a numerical value to each possible outcome of an event space. This association facilitates the identification and the calculation of probabilities of the events, Random variables can appear in random sequences. A random process is a sequence of variables whose outcomes do not follow a deterministic pattern. These and other constructs are extremely useful in probability theory and the applications of randomness.
Randomness is most often used in statistics to signify well-defined statistical properties, Monte Carlo methods, which rely on random input, are important techniques in science, as, for instance, in computational science. By analogy, quasi-Monte Carlo methods use quasirandom number generators, Random selection is a method of selecting items from a population where the probability of choosing a specific item is the proportion of those items in the population. For example, with a bowl containing just 10 red marbles and 90 blue marbles, note that a random selection mechanism that selected 10 marbles from this bowl would not necessarily result in 1 red and 9 blue. In situations where a population consists of items that are distinguishable and that is, if the selection process is such that each member of a population, of say research subjects, has the same probability of being chosen we can say the selection process is random. In ancient history, the concepts of chance and randomness were intertwined with that of fate, many ancient peoples threw dice to determine fate, and this evolved into games of chance.
Most ancient cultures used various methods of divination to attempt to circumvent randomness, the Chinese of 3000 years ago were perhaps the earliest people to formalize odds and chance. The Greek philosophers discussed randomness at length, but only in non-quantitative forms and it was only in the 16th century that Italian mathematicians began to formalize the odds associated with various games of chance. The invention of the calculus had a impact on the formal study of randomness. The early part of the 20th century saw a growth in the formal analysis of randomness. In the mid- to late-20th century, ideas of information theory introduced new dimensions to the field via the concept of algorithmic randomness
From on, after selecting any text, clicking the bookmarklet performs the search, Greasemonkey iMacros Ubiquity Bookmarklets Boost Web Surfing, PC Magazine, Tara Calishain,4 March 2004
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of universal access to all knowledge. As of October 2016, its collection topped 15 petabytes, in addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains over 150 billion web captures, the Archive oversees one of the worlds largest book digitization projects. Founded by Brewster Kahle in May 1996, the Archive is a 501 nonprofit operating in the United States. It has a budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources, revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, donations. Its headquarters are in San Francisco, where about 30 of its 200 employees work, Most of its staff work in its book-scanning centers. The Archive has data centers in three Californian cities, San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond, the Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium and was officially designated as a library by the State of California in 2007.
Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in 1996 at around the time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet. In October 1996, the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities, the archived content wasnt available to the general public until 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine. In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, Now the Internet Archive includes texts, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of projects, the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It. According to its web site, Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture, without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form, the Archives mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers and scholars. In August 2012, the Archive announced that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for over 1.3 million existing files, on November 6,2013, the Internet Archives headquarters in San Franciscos Richmond District caught fire, destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.
The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $600,000 in damage, in November 2016, Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the archive to be based somewhere in the country of Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build an archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump. Kahle was quoted as saying that on November 9th in America and it was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and it means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions
An identifier is a name that identifies either a unique object or a unique class of objects, where the object or class may be an idea, physical object, or physical substance. The abbreviation ID often refers to identity, identification, or an identifier, an identifier may be a word, letter, symbol, or any combination of those. The words, letters, or symbols may follow a system or they may simply be arbitrary. When an identifier follows a system, it is often referred to as a code or ID code. Identifiers that do not follow any encoding scheme are often said to be arbitrary IDs, ID codes inherently carry metadata along with them. In some cases, even arbitrary identifiers such as serial numbers leak too much information. Opaque identifiers—identifiers designed to avoid leaking even that amount of information—include really opaque pointers. The unique identifier is an identifier refers to only one instance—only one particular object in the universe. A part number is an identifier, but it is not a unique identifier—for that and this is an emic indistinction rather than an etic one.
In metadata, an identifier is a language-independent label, sign or token that uniquely identifies an object within an identification scheme, the suffix identifier is used as a representation term when naming a data element. In computer science, identifiers are tokens that name entities. Identifiers are used extensively in virtually all information processing systems, identifying entities makes it possible to refer to them, which is essential for any kind of symbolic processing. In computer languages, identifiers are tokens which name language entities, some of the kinds of entities an identifier might denote include variables, labels and packages. Which character sequences constitute identifiers depends on the grammar of the language. Later versions of these languages, along many other modern languages support almost all Unicode characters in an identifier. However, a restriction is not to permit whitespace characters and language operators. For example, forbidding + in identifiers means that a+b and a + b can be tokenized the same, while if it were allowed, a+b would be an identifier, not an addition.
Some languages do allow spaces in identifiers, such as ALGOL68 and some ALGOL variants – for example, the following is a statement, real half pi
Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud
A user can create and terminate server-instances as needed, paying by the hour for active servers – hence the term elastic. EC2 provides users with control over the location of instances that allows for latency optimization. In November 2010, Amazon switched its own website to use EC2. Amazon announced a public beta test of EC2 on August 25,2006, offering access on a first-come. Amazon added two new instance types on October 16,2007, on May 29,2008, two more types were added, High-CPU Medium and High-CPU Extra Large. There are twelve types of instances available, Amazon added three new features on March 27,2008, static IP addresses, availability zones, and user selectable kernels. On August 20,2008, Amazon added Elastic Block Store This provides persistent storage, Amazon EC2 went into full production when it dropped the beta label on October 23,2008. These features were added on May 18,2009. Amazon EC2 was developed mostly by a team in Cape Town, the ec2 compute unit was introduced by Amazon EC2 as an abstraction of computer resources.
Amazons definition of an ECU notes that the company use several benchmarks and tests to manage the consistency, one EC2 Compute Unit provides the equivalent CPU capacity of a 1. 0-1.2 GHz 2007 Opteron or 2007 Xeon processor. The Amazon Elastic Block Store provides raw block devices that can be attached to Amazon EC2 instances and these block devices can be used like any raw block device. In a typical use case, this would include formatting the device with a filesystem, in addition, EBS supports a number of advanced storage features, including snapshotting and cloning. EBS volumes can be up to 1TB in size, EBS volumes are built on replicated storage, so that the failure of a single component will not cause data loss. EBS was introduced to the public by Amazon in August 2008. Each virtual machine, called an instance, functions as a private server. Amazon sizes instances based on Elastic Compute Units, the performance of otherwise identical virtual machines may vary. As of December 2012, the following types were offered, On-demand.
Reserved, rent instances with one-time payment receiving discounts on the hourly charge, bid-based service, runs the jobs only if the spot price is below the bid specified by bidder
Quality control, or QC for short, is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. ISO9000 defines quality control as A part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality requirements, controls include product inspection, where every product is examined visually, and often using a stereo microscope for fine detail before the product is sold into the external market. Inspectors will be provided with lists and descriptions of product defects such as cracks or surface blemishes for example. The quality of the outputs is at risk if any of three aspects is deficient in any way. For contract work, particularly work awarded by government agencies, quality issues are among the top reasons for not renewing a contract. In practice, projects typically have a quality control team which focuses on this area. The Control of Quality in Manufacturing, New York, Ronald Press Co, OCLC1701274, retrieved 2013-11-16 Shewhart, Walter A. Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product, New York, D.
Van Nostrand Co. Inc. OCLC1045408 Juran, Joseph M. Quality-Control Handbook, New York, McGraw-Hill, OCLC1220529 Western Electric Company, Statistical Quality Control Handbook, Indiana, total Quality Control, New York, McGraw-Hill, OCLC567344 ASTM quality control standards
University of Toronto
The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Canada on the grounds that surround Queens Park. It was founded by charter in 1827 as Kings College. Originally controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution, as a collegiate university, it comprises twelve colleges, which differ in character and history, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. It has two campuses in Scarborough and Mississauga. Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, by a significant margin, it receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university. It is one of two members of the Association of American Universities outside the United States, the other being McGill University, the Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with long and storied ties to gridiron football and ice hockey.
The universitys Hart House is an example of the North American student centre. The founding of a college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe. As an Oxford-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, the Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 a college be established in York, the colonial capital. On March 15,1827, a charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming from this time one College, with the style. For the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, the granting of the charter was largely the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the colleges first president. The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queens Park, under Strachans stewardship, Kings College was a religious institution closely aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact.
Reformist politicians opposed the control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary, University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, while the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843, medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887, when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile, the university continued to set examinations and confer medical degrees, the university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888, when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884, over the next two decades, a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges, including Strachans Trinity College in 1904.
The university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991, the University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canadas first academic publishing house
A web page is a document that is suitable for the World Wide Web and web browsers. A web browser displays a web page on a monitor or mobile device, the web page is what displays, but the term refers to a computer file, usually written in HTML or comparable markup language. Web browsers coordinate the various web resource elements for the web page, such as style sheets, scripts. Typical web pages provide hypertext that includes a bar or a sidebar menu to other web pages via hyperlinks. On a network, a web browser can retrieve a web page from a web server. On a higher level, the web server may restrict access to only a network such as a corporate intranet or it provides access to the World Wide Web. On a lower level, the web browser uses the Hypertext Transfer Protocol to make such requests, dynamic website pages help the browser to enhance the web page through user input to the server. Web pages usually include information as to the colors of text and backgrounds, an HTTP1.1 web server will maintain a connection with the browser until all related resources have been requested and provided.
Web browsers usually render images along with the text and other material on the web page. These scripts may run on the client computer, if the user allows, a web browser can have a Graphical User Interface, like Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, and Opera, or can be text-based, like Lynx or Links. Web users with disabilities often use assistive technologies and adaptive strategies to access web pages and able-bodied users may disable the download and viewing of images and other media, to save time, network bandwidth or merely to simplify their browsing experience. Users of mobile devices often have restricted displays and bandwidth, anyone may prefer not to use the fonts, font sizes and color schemes selected by the web page designer and may apply their own CSS styling to the page. The World Wide Web Consortium and Web Accessibility Initiative recommend that all web pages should be designed with all of options in mind. Non-textual information, Static images may be raster graphics, typically GIF, JPEG or PNG, Animated images typically Animated GIF and SVG, but may be Flash, Shockwave, or Java applet.
Audio, typically MP3, Ogg or various proprietary formats, video, WMV, RM, FLV, MPG, MOV Interactive information, see interactive media. For on page interaction, Interactive text, see DHTML, Interactive illustrations, ranging from click to play images to games, typically using script orchestration, Java applets, SVG, or Shockwave. Buttons, forms providing an interface, typically for use with script orchestration. For between pages interaction, standard change page reactivity, providing more interaction with the server and server-side databases
Google is an American multinational technology company specializing in Internet-related services and products. These include online advertising technologies, cloud computing, Google was founded in 1996 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph. D. students at Stanford University, in California. Together, they own about 14 percent of its shares, and they incorporated Google as a privately held company on September 4,1998. An initial public offering took place on August 19,2004, in August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google, Alphabets leading subsidiary, will continue to be the company for Alphabets Internet interests. Upon completion of the restructure, Sundar Pichai became CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page, rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products and partnerships beyond Googles core search engine. The company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, and Chrome OS, the new hardware chief, Rick Osterloh, stated, a lot of the innovation that we want to do now ends up requiring controlling the end-to-end user experience.
Google has experimented with becoming an Internet carrier, alexa, a company that monitors commercial web traffic, lists Google. com as the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube, Googles mission statement, from the outset, was to organize the worlds information and make it universally accessible and useful, and its unofficial slogan was Dont be evil. In October 2015, the motto was replaced in the Alphabet corporate code of conduct by the phrase Do the right thing, Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California. They called this new technology PageRank, it determined a websites relevance by the number of pages, and the importance of those pages and Brin originally nicknamed their new search engine BackRub, because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site. Originally, Google ran under Stanford Universitys website, with the domains google. stanford.
edu, the domain name for Google was registered on September 15,1997, and the company was incorporated on September 4,1998. It was based in the garage of a friend in Menlo Park, craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. The first funding for Google was an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, given before Google was incorporated. At least three other investors invested in 1998, Amazon. com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton. Author Ken Auletta claims that each invested $250,000, early in 1999, Brin and Page decided they wanted to sell Google to Excite. They went to Excite CEO George Bell and offered to sell it to him for $1 million, vinod Khosla, one of Excites venture capitalists, talked the duo down to $750,000, but Bell still rejected it. Googles initial public offering took place five years later, on August 19,2004, at that time Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Eric Schmidt agreed to work together at Google for 20 years, until the year 2024