A web browser is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web. Each individual web page and video is identified by a distinct Uniform Resource Locator, enabling browsers to retrieve these resources from a web server and display them on the user's device. A web browser is not the same thing as a search engine, though the two are confused. For a user, a search engine is just a website, such as google.com, that stores searchable data about other websites. But to connect to a website's server and display its web pages, a user needs to have a web browser installed on their device; the most popular browsers are Chrome, Safari, Internet Explorer, Edge. The first web browser, called WorldWideWeb, was invented in 1990 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, he recruited Nicola Pellow to write the Line Mode Browser, which displayed web pages on dumb terminals. 1993 was a landmark year with the release of Mosaic, credited as "the world's first popular browser". Its innovative graphical interface made the World Wide Web system easy to use and thus more accessible to the average person.
This, in turn, sparked the Internet boom of the 1990s when the Web grew at a rapid rate. Marc Andreessen, the leader of the Mosaic team, soon started his own company, which released the Mosaic-influenced Netscape Navigator in 1994. Navigator became the most popular browser. Microsoft debuted Internet Explorer in 1995. Microsoft was able to gain a dominant position for two reasons: it bundled Internet Explorer with its popular Microsoft Windows operating system and did so as freeware with no restrictions on usage; the market share of Internet Explorer peaked at over 95% in 2002. In 1998, desperate to remain competitive, Netscape launched what would become the Mozilla Foundation to create a new browser using the open source software model; this work evolved into Firefox, first released by Mozilla in 2004. Firefox reached a 28% market share in 2011. Apple released its Safari browser in 2003, it remains the dominant browser on Apple platforms. The last major entrant to the browser market was Google, its Chrome browser, which debuted in 2008, has been a huge success.
Once a web page has been retrieved, the browser's rendering engine displays it on the user's device. This includes video formats supported by the browser. Web pages contain hyperlinks to other pages and resources; each link contains a URL, when it is clicked, the browser navigates to the new resource. Thus the process of bringing content to the user begins again. To implement all of this, modern browsers are a combination of numerous software components. Web browsers can be configured with a built-in menu. Depending on the browser, the menu may be named Options, or Preferences; the menu has different types of settings. For example, users can change their home default search engine, they can change default web page colors and fonts. Various network connectivity and privacy settings are usually available. During the course of browsing, cookies received from various websites are stored by the browser; some of them contain login credentials or site preferences. However, others are used for tracking user behavior over long periods of time, so browsers provide settings for removing cookies when exiting the browser.
Finer-grained management of cookies requires a browser extension. The most popular browsers have a number of features in common, they allow users to browse in a private mode. They can be customized with extensions, some of them provide a sync service. Most browsers have these user interface features: Allow the user to open multiple pages at the same time, either in different browser windows or in different tabs of the same window. Back and forward buttons to go back to the previous page forward to the next one. A refresh or reload button to reload the current page. A stop button to cancel loading the page. A home button to return to the user's home page. An address bar to display it. A search bar to input terms into a search engine. There are niche browsers with distinct features. One example is text-only browsers that can benefit people with slow Internet connections or those with visual impairments. Mobile browser List of web browsers Comparison of web browsers Media related to Web browsers at Wikimedia Commons
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers. It is believed. More than half of all Europeans claim to speak at least one language other than their mother tongue. Always useful to traders, multilingualism is advantageous for people wanting to participate in globalization and cultural openness. Owing to the ease of access to information facilitated by the Internet, individuals' exposure to multiple languages is becoming possible. People who speak several languages are called polyglots. Multilingual speakers have acquired and maintained at least one language during childhood, the so-called first language; the first language is acquired without formal education, by mechanisms about which scholars disagree. Children acquiring two languages from these early years are called simultaneous bilinguals. In the case of simultaneous bilinguals, one language is dominant. People who know more than one language have been reported to be more adept at language learning compared to monolinguals.
Multilingualism in computing can be considered part of a continuum between internationalization and localization. Due to the status of English in computing, software development nearly always uses it. All commercial software is available in an English version, multilingual versions, if any, may be produced as alternative options based on the English original; the definition of multilingualism is a subject of debate in the same way as that of language fluency. On one end of a sort of linguistic continuum, one may define multilingualism as complete competence and mastery in another language; the speaker would have complete knowledge and control over the language so as to sound native. On the opposite end of the spectrum would be people who know enough phrases to get around as a tourist using the alternate language. Since 1992, Vivian Cook has argued that most multilingual speakers fall somewhere between minimal and maximal definitions. Cook calls these people multi-competent. In addition, there is no consistent definition of.
For instance, scholars disagree whether Scots is a language in its own right or a dialect of English. Furthermore, what is considered a language can change for purely political purposes, such as when Serbo-Croatian was created as a standard language on the basis of the Eastern Herzegovinian dialect to function as umbrella for numerous South Slavic dialects, after the breakup of Yugoslavia was split into Serbian, Croatian and Montenegrin, or when Ukrainian was dismissed as a Russian dialect by the Russian tsars to discourage national feelings. Many small independent nations' schoolchildren are today compelled to learn multiple languages because of international interactions. For example, in Finland, all children are required to learn at least two foreign languages: the other national language and one alien language. Many Finnish schoolchildren select further languages, such as German or Russian. In some large nations with multiple languages, such as India, schoolchildren may learn multiple languages based on where they reside in the country.
In major metropolitan areas of Central and Eastern India, many children may be fluent in four languages. Thus, a child of Telugu parents living in Bangalore will end up speaking his or her mother tongue at home and the state language and English in school and life. In many countries, bilingualism occurs through international communications and English being the global lingua franca, which sometimes results in majority bilingualism when the countries have just one domestic official language; this is occurring in Germanic regions such as Scandinavia, the Benelux and among Germanophones, but it is expanding into some non-Germanic countries. Many myths and much prejudice has grown around the notions of bi- and multilingualism in some Western countries where monolingualism is the norm. Researchers from the UK and Poland have listed the most common misconceptions: that bi- or multilinguals are exceptions to the ‘default’ monolingual ‘norm’; that the children would be confused with having the ability to speak two languages and the “tip-of-the-tongue states” For instance, where one knows the meaning and the specific details of a word, but cannot retrieve a word.
Those bilingual individuals tend to have fewer vocabularies and weaker in “verbal fluency tasks” than the monolingual counterpartThese are all harmful convictions which have long been debunked, yet still persist among many parents. One view is that of the linguist Noam Chomsky in what he calls the human language acquisition device—a mechanism which enables an individual to recreate correctly
Haiku Vector Icon Format
Haiku Vector Icon Format is a vector storage format designed to store icons for Haiku. Haiku developers agreed that Haiku could not be released with original BeOS R5 icons. Since Haiku needed its own artwork anyway, it was thought that icons could switch to vectors graphics from traditional BeOS bitmaps. In July 2006 Haiku developer Stephan Aßmus introduced Icon-O-Matic, the icon editor of Haiku, a storage format with a rendering engine based on Anti-Grain Geometry. After a few days of discussion, Aßmus announced a contest to determine an icon theme for Haiku, he stated that there was no guideline that suggested 1 September as deadline. 16 icon sets were rated in the contest, Aßmus' icon set "Stippi" received the award. In early November it was announced that Stephan Aßmus implemented vector icons in OpenTracker. HVIF icons of Stippi set builds. Aimed at fast rendering and small file sizes, HVIF brings the following approaches: Icons have a native size of 64×64 pixels Integer coordinates from −32 to +95 and an eighth bit to indicate non-integer coordinates are used to reduce the size.
There are three basic path types: path with commands, path with straight lines only and path with curves only. There are four different path commands introduced for icon creating: horizontal line, vertical line and cubic curve. Since a great precision is not needed, it uses its own floating point format for storing transformation matrices, resulting a matrix size of 18 bytes, smaller than the transformation matrix size of 24 or 48 bytes in other formats. There are two types of style: gradient. Flags are used to specify what aspects of the objects should be stored in the file, so that unused sections don't take up space. HVIF data consists of three sections: The first one encodes styles, the second the paths and the third the shapes. Styles and paths are global to an icon with a maximum number of 256 for each, so that they can be reused by different shapes by referring to them with one byte; the icons have an average size of 500–700 bytes, smaller than used bitmap or vector graphics icons. Because of their small size, icons can be stored within inode of files.
Therefore, the name, the size, the date and the icon of a file can be read by Tracker within a single disk operation. Unlike other vector graphics formats, the icons are rendered in a single pass except for some cases like transparency, causing no visible seams between shapes. Haiku Vector graphics Haiku Icons by zuMi Haiku icons in Haiku source repository Icon-O-Matic article in Haiku user guide
The BeOS API called the Be API after Be Inc. is the application programming interface required to write graphical native applications on BeOS, hence its derivatives such as ZETA and Haiku. The API is divided into a number of "kits", which collect related classes together and bear some relation to the library which contains the supporting code, it is entirely C++, with third-party bindings for most classes in Python and a tiny subset of classes Storage kit related, in Perl. Application KitThe Application kit contains the basic classes required to launch a BeOS application, as well as support for the global clipboard, inter-application and internal messaging, timers and other functions seen as required to support any graphical application. Application kit classes are supported by libbe.so Storage KitThe Storage kit provides methods for manipulating files from creating and managing symlinks all the way to the file open/save panels for graphical applications, as well as dealing with Be File System attributes.
Storage kit classes are in libtracker.so, Tracker being the native file manager on the OS. Interface KitThe Interface kit provides a large collection of widgets for building graphical applications from the main window class down to dialogue boxes, including font handling and rendering control; the majority of libbe.so comprises this kit. Kernel KitThe Kernel kit provides threading and the ability to access system information, is in libbe.so Support KitThe Support kit provides more advanced functions which do not fall into another kit, such as assisted memory allocation and list support. Network KitThe Network kit provides either a rudimentary or complete implementation of Berkeley sockets and BIND as well as "native" functions based on the Nettle C++ networking library. Libnet.so provides the Berkeley sockets on R5 replaced by the more common libsocket/libbind.so nomenclature. Mail KitThe Mail kit provides a native email format as well as a way to use the system to fetch and receive email using standard protocols.
The Mail kit is supported in libmail.so Translation KitThe Translation kit provides a method whereby both images and plain text formats are handled by addons allowing applications to support only one format, a native intermediate one, save/load to any addon-supported format. The API allows video and audio translation through the library, although this was superseded by BeOS R4 and disabled; the Translation kit is supported in libtranslation.so Media KitThe Media kit provides an audio and video input/output abstraction layer based on pluggable addons, as well as handling sound mixing and video format translation and other media related functions. Media kit functions are supported by libmedia.so MIDI KitThe MIDI kit provides MIDI hardware input and output abstraction as well as a software synthesiser. Libmidi.so provides the old, BeOS R3 era MIDI API, libmidi2.so provides the R4+ API. Game KitThe Game kit provides a number of sound formats suited to computer game audio output, as well as the ability to run full-screen applications and use video overlays.
OpenGL KitThe OpenGL kit provides an implementation of OpenGL as well as supporting classes to allow its use in native applications. In BeOS R5, the supported OpenGL version was 1.1, was software accelerated, although the kit was hardware-neutral, in fact outperformed many hardware implementations that were running on competing platforms which could not deliver similar latency/bandwidth performance due to underlying inefficiencies in their design or implementation. Device KitThe Device kit provides platform-abstracted direct hardware access to serial and parallel ports, as well as the BeBoxs infamous GeekPort. Locale KitThe Locale Kit provides classes to localize applications to different languages, number formatting conventions etc; the kit is only found in the Haiku implementation of the BeOS API. Services KitThe Services Kit provides a lightweight direct connection to web services; the kit is only found in the Haiku implementation of the BeOS API. Web KitThe Web Kit is a fork of the Apple's Webkit.
The kit is only found in the Haiku implementation of the BeOS API. Package KitThe Package Kit provides the means of package management; the kit is only found in the Haiku implementation of the BeOS API. The majority of the Be API has been reimplemented by Haiku for their open-source BeOS replacement, although in an effort to catch up with the intervening years since BeOS R5 some additional functionality has been added, ranging from large changes to the Mail kit to support IMAP, encrypted connections and multiple accounts, a move to OpenGL 1.5 support via Mesa 3D. Alternative systems have attempted to draw some inspiration from the BeOS API, but are not making attempts to provide a base to port applications. A private port of much of the API to Microsoft Windows and Linux was done by Gobe Software to enable them to port their Gobe Productive office suite to these platforms from BeOS, where it had been developed; the entire API, as it was at the stage of BeOS Revision 3, was documented in two paper books - the Be Developer Guide and Be Advanced Topics, released by O'Reilly Media under a Be, Inc imprint in 1997/8.
In addition, a digital representation of this was updated with BeOS itself. In 2007, ACCESS Co Ltd, the owners of Be, Inc's intellectual property, released the text of this under a Creative Commons licence
OSNews is a computing news website that focused on operating systems and their related technologies that launched in 1997, but is now aggregating consumer electronics news. The content is managed by a group of the owner; as of 2014, its managing editor is Thom Holwerda, who joined in 2005. OSnews has been referenced by TIME, Ars Technica, ComputerWorld, LifeHacker, Linux.com, OMG! Ubuntu!, lwn.net. Wired described OSnews as "an alternative operating system Web magazine", in 2011 Holwerda noted that "while the alternative operating systems scene might no longer be the prime focus of OSNews due to a lack of activity in that field, it's still where our heart lies.". Thom Holwerda, who resides in the Netherlands, is managing editor. David Adams is regular contributor. Eugenia Loli-Queru, the former editor-in-chief of OSNews, resigned in June 2005. Version 2 of OSNews was written by Eugenia in August 2001 when she resurrected the site after long periods of inactivity, she took on a more passive role in recent years as senior editor.
She started the original GnomeFiles.org. Adam Scheinberg is the webmaster, he wrote version 3 of the site in 2005, which added user registration, version 4, a complete and total rewrite of the codebase. Jon Jensen is the systems administrator, dealing with site availability and DNS. Besides its main site, OSNews detects hundreds of mobile browsers and handsets and redirects them to a specially formatted cHTML version of the website at mobile.osnews.com. Eugenia Loli-Queru, the author of this script, open sourced it in 2008; the editors contribute original articles and manage the submissions of news bits, editorial comments and reviews that are submitted by readers. OSNews serves daily 275,000 page views on average. Like other technology news sites such as Slashdot, it has a free user/subscription model, allows viewers to add commentary to articles. In 2005, OSNews published version 3 of its website. Instead of reporting comments to moderators, this system now relies on votes. Readers can vote comments up or down, readers can set a score threshold, which can eliminate the down-voted comments from view.
In late 2007, version 4 was launched, which overhauled the backend of the website, was followed by version 4.1 which added a brand new theme and look to the website. On February 12, 2007, managing editor Thom Holwerda published the 1.0 version of the OSNews Style Guide. This style guide is licensed under a Creative Commons license so that other websites and publications can use and adapt the guide to their liking. OSNews is one of the few sites of its kind with such a style guide. In January 2008, Thom Holwerda launched Focus Shift, a webcomic based on the various news items OSNews carries. Focus Shift was updated tri-weekly, until it was discontinued in mid-2008. OSNews WAP-only version of OSNews Thom Holwerda David Adams Eugenia Loli-Queru Adam Scheinberg
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
C++ is a general-purpose programming language, developed by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension of the C language, or "C with Classes". It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while providing facilities for low-level memory manipulation, it is always implemented as a compiled language, many vendors provide C++ compilers, including the Free Software Foundation, Intel, IBM, so it is available on many platforms. C++ was designed with a bias toward system programming and embedded, resource-constrained software and large systems, with performance and flexibility of use as its design highlights. C++ has been found useful in many other contexts, with key strengths being software infrastructure and resource-constrained applications, including desktop applications and performance-critical applications. C++ is standardized by the International Organization for Standardization, with the latest standard version ratified and published by ISO in December 2017 as ISO/IEC 14882:2017.
The C++ programming language was standardized in 1998 as ISO/IEC 14882:1998, amended by the C++03, C++11 and C++14 standards. The current C++ 17 standard supersedes these with an enlarged standard library. Before the initial standardization in 1998, C++ was developed by Danish computer scientist Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs since 1979 as an extension of the C language. C++20 is the next planned standard, keeping with the current trend of a new version every three years. In 1979, Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish computer scientist, began work on "C with Classes", the predecessor to C++; the motivation for creating a new language originated from Stroustrup's experience in programming for his Ph. D. thesis. Stroustrup found that Simula had features that were helpful for large software development, but the language was too slow for practical use, while BCPL was fast but too low-level to be suitable for large software development; when Stroustrup started working in AT&T Bell Labs, he had the problem of analyzing the UNIX kernel with respect to distributed computing.
Remembering his Ph. D. experience, Stroustrup set out to enhance the C language with Simula-like features. C was chosen because it was general-purpose, fast and used; as well as C and Simula's influences, other languages influenced C++, including ALGOL 68, Ada, CLU and ML. Stroustrup's "C with Classes" added features to the C compiler, including classes, derived classes, strong typing and default arguments. In 1983, "C with Classes" was renamed to "C++", adding new features that included virtual functions, function name and operator overloading, constants, type-safe free-store memory allocation, improved type checking, BCPL style single-line comments with two forward slashes. Furthermore, it included the development of a standalone compiler for Cfront. In 1985, the first edition of The C++ Programming Language was released, which became the definitive reference for the language, as there was not yet an official standard; the first commercial implementation of C++ was released in October of the same year.
In 1989, C++ 2.0 was released, followed by the updated second edition of The C++ Programming Language in 1991. New features in 2.0 included multiple inheritance, abstract classes, static member functions, const member functions, protected members. In 1990, The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was published; this work became the basis for the future standard. Feature additions included templates, namespaces, new casts, a boolean type. After the 2.0 update, C++ evolved slowly until, in 2011, the C++11 standard was released, adding numerous new features, enlarging the standard library further, providing more facilities to C++ programmers. After a minor C++14 update released in December 2014, various new additions were introduced in C++17, further changes planned for 2020; as of 2017, C++ remains the third most popular programming language, behind Java and C. On January 3, 2018, Stroustrup was announced as the 2018 winner of the Charles Stark Draper Prize for Engineering, "for conceptualizing and developing the C++ programming language".
According to Stroustrup: "the name signifies the evolutionary nature of the changes from C". This name is credited to Rick Mascitti and was first used in December 1983; when Mascitti was questioned informally in 1992 about the naming, he indicated that it was given in a tongue-in-cheek spirit. The name comes from C's ++ operator and a common naming convention of using "+" to indicate an enhanced computer program. During C++'s development period, the language had been referred to as "new C" and "C with Classes" before acquiring its final name. Throughout C++'s life, its development and evolution has been guided by a set of principles: It must be driven by actual problems and its features should be useful in real world programs; every feature should be implementable. Programmers should be free to pick their own programming style, that style should be supported by C++. Allowing a useful feature is more important than preventing every possible misuse of C++, it should provide facilities for organising programs into separate, well-defined parts, provide facilities for combining separately developed parts.
No implicit violations of the type system (but allow explicit violations.