In computing, a plug-in is a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing computer program. When a program supports plug-ins, it enables customization. Web browsers have allowed executables as plug-ins, though they are now deprecated. Two plug-in examples are the Adobe Flash Player for playing videos and a Java virtual machine for running applets. A theme or skin is a preset package containing additional or changed graphical appearance details, achieved by the use of a graphical user interface that can be applied to specific software and websites to suit the purpose, topic, or tastes of different users to customize the look and feel of a piece of computer software or an operating system front-end GUI. Applications support plug-ins for many reasons; some of the main reasons include: to enable third-party developers to create abilities which extend an application to support adding new features to reduce the size of an application to separate source code from an application because of incompatible software licenses.
Types of applications and why they use plug-ins: Audio editors use plug-ins to generate, process or analyze sound. Ardour and Audacity are examples of such editors. Digital audio workstations use plug-ins to process it. Examples include ProTools. Email clients use plug-ins to encrypt email. Pretty Good Privacy is an example of such plug-ins. Video game console emulators use plug-ins to modularize the separate subsystems of the devices they seek to emulate. For example, the PCSX2 emulator makes use of video, optical, etc. plug-ins for those respective components of the PlayStation 2. Graphics software use plug-ins to support file formats and process images. Media players use plug-ins to apply filters. Foobar2000, GStreamer, Quintessential, VST, Winamp, XMMS are examples of such media players. Packet sniffers use plug-ins to decode packet formats. OmniPeek is an example of such packet sniffers. Remote sensing applications use plug-ins to process data from different sensor types. Text editors and Integrated development environments use plug-ins to support programming languages or enhance development process e.g. Visual Studio, RAD Studio, IntelliJ IDEA, jEdit and MonoDevelop support plug-ins.
Visual Studio itself can be plugged into other applications via Visual Studio Tools for Office and Visual Studio Tools for Applications. Web browsers have used executables as plug-ins, though they are now deprecated. Examples include Java SE, QuickTime, Microsoft Silverlight and Unity; the host application provides services which the plug-in can use, including a way for plug-ins to register themselves with the host application and a protocol for the exchange of data with plug-ins. Plug-ins depend on the services provided by the host application and do not work by themselves. Conversely, the host application operates independently of the plug-ins, making it possible for end-users to add and update plug-ins dynamically without needing to make changes to the host application. Programmers implement plug-in functionality using shared libraries, which get dynamically loaded at run time, installed in a place prescribed by the host application. HyperCard supported a similar facility, but more included the plug-in code in the HyperCard documents themselves.
Thus the HyperCard stack became a self-contained application in its own right, distributable as a single entity that end-users could run without the need for additional installation-steps. Programs may implement plugins by loading a directory of simple script files written in a scripting language like Python or Lua. In Mozilla Foundation definitions, the words "add-on", "extension" and "plug-in" are not synonyms. "Add-on" can refer to anything. Extensions comprise a subtype, albeit the most powerful one. Mozilla applications come with integrated add-on managers that, similar to package managers, install and manage extensions; the term, "Plug-in", however refers to NPAPI-based web content renderers. Plug-ins are being deprecated. Plug-ins appeared as early as the mid 1970s, when the EDT text editor running on the Unisys VS/9 operating system using the UNIVAC Series 90 mainframe computers provided the ability to run a program from the editor and to allow such a program to access the editor buffer, thus allowing an external program to access an edit session in memory.
The plug-in program could make calls to the editor to have it perform text-editing services upon the buffer that the editor shared with the plug-in. The Waterloo Fortran compiler used this feature to allow interactive compilation of Fortran programs edited by EDT. Early PC software applications to incorporate plug-in functionality included HyperCard and QuarkXPress on the Macintosh, both released in 1987. In 1988, Silicon Beach Software included plug-in functionality in Digital Darkroom and SuperPaint, Ed Bomke coined the term plug-in. Applet Browser extension
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing and hardware. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies, alongside Amazon and Facebook. Google was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph. D. students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock, they incorporated Google as a held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering took place on August 19, 2004, Google moved to its headquarters in Mountain View, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet's leading subsidiary and will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google.
The company's rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine. It offers services designed for work and productivity, email and time management, cloud storage, instant messaging and video chat, language translation and navigation, video sharing, note-taking, photo organizing and editing; the company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, Chrome OS, a lightweight operating system based on the Chrome browser. Google has moved into hardware. Google has experimented with becoming an Internet carrier. Google.com is the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube and Blogger. Google is the most valuable brand in the world as of 2017, but has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, antitrust and search neutrality. Google's mission statement is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful".
The companies unofficial slogan "Don't be evil" was removed from the company's code of conduct around May 2018. Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California. While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships among websites, they called this new technology PageRank. Page and Brin nicknamed their new search engine "BackRub", because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site, they changed the name to Google. The domain name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997, the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998, it was based in the garage of a friend in California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. Google was funded by an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems.
Google received money from three other angel investors in 1998: Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton, entrepreneur Ram Shriram. Between these initial investors and family Google raised around 1 million dollars, what allowed them to open up their original shop in Menlo Park, California After some additional, small investments through the end of 1998 to early 1999, a new $25 million round of funding was announced on June 7, 1999, with major investors including the venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital. In March 1999, the company moved its offices to Palo Alto, home to several prominent Silicon Valley technology start-ups; the next year, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords against Page and Brin's initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine. To maintain an uncluttered page design, advertisements were text-based. In June 2000, it was announced that Google would become the default search engine provider for Yahoo!, one of the most popular websites at the time, replacing Inktomi.
In 2003, after outgrowing two other locations, the company leased an office complex from Silicon Graphics, at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California. The complex became known as the Googleplex, a play on the word googolplex, the number one followed by a googol zeroes. Three years Google bought the property from SGI for $319 million. By that time, the name "Google
Internet privacy involves the right or mandate of personal privacy concerning the storing, provision to third parties, displaying of information pertaining to oneself via the Internet. Internet privacy is a subset of data privacy. Privacy concerns have been articulated from the beginnings of large-scale computer sharing. Privacy can entail either Personally Identifying Information or non-PII information such as a site visitor's behavior on a website. PII refers to any information. For example and physical address alone could identify who an individual is without explicitly disclosing their name, as these two factors are unique enough to identify a specific person typically. Other forms of PII may soon include GPS Tracking Data used by Apps, as the daily commute and routine information can be enough to identify an individual; some experts such as Steve Rambam, a private investigator specializing in Internet privacy cases, believe that privacy no longer exists. In fact, it has been suggested that the "appeal of online services is to broadcast personal information on purpose."
On the other hand, in his essay The Value of Privacy, security expert Bruce Schneier says, "Privacy protects us from abuses by those in power if we're doing nothing wrong at the time of surveillance." Internet and digital privacy are viewed differently from traditional expectations of privacy. Internet privacy is concerned with protecting user information. Law Professor Jerry Kang explains that the term privacy expresses space and information. In terms of space, individuals have an expectation. Privacy within the realm of decision is best illustrated by the landmark case Wade. Lastly, information privacy is in regards to the collection of user information from a variety of sources, which produces great discussion; the 1997 Information Infrastructure Task Force created under President Clinton defined information privacy as "an individual's claim to control the terms under which personal information--information identifiable to the individual--is acquired and used." At the end of the 1990s, with the rise of the Internet, it became clear that the internet and companies would need to abide by new rules to protect individual's privacy.
With the rise of the internet and mobile networks the salience of internet privacy is a daily concern for users. People with only a casual concern for Internet privacy need not achieve total anonymity. Internet users may protect their privacy through controlled disclosure of personal information; the revelation of IP addresses, non-personally-identifiable profiling, similar information might become acceptable trade-offs for the convenience that users could otherwise lose using the workarounds needed to suppress such details rigorously. On the other hand, some people desire much stronger privacy. In that case, they may try to achieve Internet anonymity to ensure privacy — use of the Internet without giving any third parties the ability to link the Internet activities to personally-identifiable information of the Internet user. In order to keep their information private, people need to be careful with what they submit to and look at online; when filling out forms and buying merchandise, that becomes tracked and because the information was not private, some companies are now sending Internet users spam and advertising on similar products.
There are several governmental organizations that protect individual's privacy and anonymity on the Internet, to a point. In an article presented by the FTC, in October 2011, a number of pointers were brought to attention that helps an individual internet user avoid possible identity theft and other cyber-attacks. Preventing or limiting the usage of Social Security numbers online, being wary and respectful of emails including spam messages, being mindful of personal financial details and managing strong passwords, intelligent web-browsing behaviors are recommended, among others. Posting things on the Internet can be harmful or in danger of malicious attack; some information posted on the Internet is permanent, depending on the terms of service, privacy policies of particular services offered online. This can include comments written on blogs and websites, such as Facebook and Twitter, it is absorbed into cyberspace and once it is posted, anyone can find it and access it. Some employers may research a potential employee by searching online for the details of their online behaviors affecting the outcome of the success of the candidate.
Companies are hired to watch what websites people visit, use the information, for instance by sending advertising based on one's web browsing history. There are many ways in which people can divulge their personal information, for instance by use of "social media" and by sending bank and credit card information to various websites. Moreover, directly observed behaviour, such as browsing logs, search queries, or contents of the Facebook profile can be automatically processed to infer more intrusive details about an individual, such as sexual orientation and religious views, substance use and personality; those concerned about Internet privacy cite a number of privacy risks — events that can compromise privacy — which may be encountered through Internet use. These range from the gathering of statistics on users to more malicious acts such as the spreading of spyware and the exploitation of various forms of bugs. Several social networking websites try to protect the personal information of their subscribers.
On Facebook, for example, privacy settings are available to all re
Others at the Mozilla Corporation spoke out on their blogs in his favor. Board members wanted him to stay in the company in a different role. On April 3, 2014, Eich resigned from working at Mozilla. Eich is the CEO of Brave Software, an Internet security company which has raised $2.5 million in early funding from angel investors. On January 20, 2016, the company released developer versions of its open-source Brave web browser, which blocked ads and trackers and included a micropayments system to offer users a choice between viewing selected ads or paying websites not to display them. At Brave Software, Eich co-created the Basic Attention Token, a cryptocurrency designed for use in the Brave browser. BAT launched its ICO on May 2017 raising $35 million. Brendan Eich's Blog
Ericsson is a Swedish multinational networking and telecommunications company headquartered in Stockholm. The company offers services and infrastructure in information and communications technology for telecommunications operators, traditional telecommunications and Internet Protocol networking equipment and fixed broadband and business support services, cable television, IPTV, video systems, an extensive services operation. Ericsson had 35% market share in the 2G/3G/4G mobile network infrastructure market in 2012; the company was founded in 1876 by Lars Magnus Ericsson. The company operates in around 180 countries. Ericsson holds over 42,000 granted patents as of December 2016, including many in wireless communications. Lars Magnus Ericsson began his association with telephones in his youth as an instrument maker, he worked for a firm. In 1876, at the age of 30, he started a telegraph repair shop with help from his friend Carl Johan Andersson in central Stockholm and repaired foreign-made telephones.
In 1878 Ericsson began selling his own telephone equipment. His telephones were not technically innovative. In 1878 he made an agreement to supply telephones and switchboards to Sweden's first telecommunications operating company, Stockholms Allmänna Telefonaktiebolag. In 1878, local telephone importer Numa Peterson hired Ericsson to adjust some telephones from the Bell Telephone Company, he analyzed the technology. He was familiar with Bell and Siemens Halske telephones through his firm's repair work for Telegrafverket and Swedish State Railways, he improved these designs to produce a higher-quality instrument to be used by new telephone companies such as Rikstelefon to provide cheaper service than the Bell Group. Ericsson had no patent or royalty problems because Bell had not patented their inventions in Scandinavia, his training as an instrument maker was reflected in the standard of finish and the ornate design of Ericsson telephones of this period. At the end of the year he started to manufacture telephones much like those of Siemens.
Ericsson became a major supplier of telephone equipment to Scandinavia. Its factory could not keep up with demand. Much of its raw materials were imported. Much of the walnut wood used for cabinets was imported from the United States. Stockholm's telephone network expanded that year and the company reformed into a telephone manufacturer; when Bell bought the biggest telephone network in Stockholm, it only allowed its own telephones to be used with it. Ericsson's equipment was sold to free telephone associations in the Swedish countryside and in other Nordic countries; the prices of Bell equipment and services led Henrik Tore Cedergren to form an independent telephone company called Stockholms Allmänna Telefonaktiebolag in 1883. As Bell would not deliver equipment to competitors, he formed a pact with Ericsson to supply the equipment for his new telephone network. In 1918 the companies were merged into Allmänna Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson. In 1884, a multiple-switchboard manual telephone exchange was copied from a design by C. E. Scribner at Western Electric.
This was legal because the device was not patented in Sweden, although in the United States it had held patent 529421 since 1879. A single switchboard could handle up to 10,000 lines; the following year, LM Ericsson and Cedergren toured the United States, visiting several telephone exchange stations to gather "inspiration". They found U. S. switchboard designs were more advanced but Ericsson telephones were equal to others. In 1884, a technician named Anton Avén at Stockholms Allmänna Telefonaktiebolag combined the earpiece and the mouthpiece of a standard telephone into a handset, it was used by operators in the exchanges where operators needed to have one hand free when talking to customers. Ericsson picked up this invention and incorporated it into Ericsson products, beginning with a telephone named The Dachshund; as production grew in the late 1890s, the Swedish market seemed to be reaching saturation, Ericsson expanded into foreign markets through a number of agents. The UK and Russia were early markets, where factories were established improve the chances of gaining local contracts and to augment the output of the Swedish factory.
In the UK, the National Telephone Company was a major customer. The Nordic countries were Ericsson customers. Other countries and colonies were exposed to Ericsson products through the influence of their parent countries; these included Australia and New Zealand, which by the late 1890s were Ericsson's largest non-European markets. Mass production techniques now established. Despite their successes elsewhere, Ericsson did not make significant sales into the United States; the Bell Group and Automatic Electric dominated the market. Ericsson sold its U. S. assets. Sales in Mexico led to inroads into South American countries. South Africa and China were generating significant sales. With his company now multinational, Lars Ericsson stepped down from the company in 1901. Ericsson ignored the growth of automatic telephony in the United States and concentrated
Signal processing is a subfield of mathematics and electrical engineering that concerns the analysis and modification of signals, which are broadly defined as functions conveying "information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon", such as sound and biological measurements. For example, signal processing techniques are used to improve signal transmission fidelity, storage efficiency, subjective quality, to emphasize or detect components of interest in a measured signal. According to Alan V. Oppenheim and Ronald W. Schafer, the principles of signal processing can be found in the classical numerical analysis techniques of the 17th century. Oppenheim and Schafer further state that the digital refinement of these techniques can be found in the digital control systems of the 1940s and 1950s. Analog signal processing is for signals that have not been digitized, as in legacy radio, telephone and television systems; this involves linear electronic circuits as well as non-linear ones. The former are, for instance, passive filters, active filters, additive mixers and delay lines.
Non-linear circuits include compandors, voltage-controlled filters, voltage-controlled oscillators and phase-locked loops. Continuous-time signal processing is for signals; the methods of signal processing include time domain, frequency domain, complex frequency domain. This technology discusses the modeling of linear time-invariant continuous system, integral of the system's zero-state response, setting up system function and the continuous time filtering of deterministic signals Discrete-time signal processing is for sampled signals, defined only at discrete points in time, as such are quantized in time, but not in magnitude. Analog discrete-time signal processing is a technology based on electronic devices such as sample and hold circuits, analog time-division multiplexers, analog delay lines and analog feedback shift registers; this technology was a predecessor of digital signal processing, is still used in advanced processing of gigahertz signals. The concept of discrete-time signal processing refers to a theoretical discipline that establishes a mathematical basis for digital signal processing, without taking quantization error into consideration.
Digital signal processing is the processing of digitized discrete-time sampled signals. Processing is done by general-purpose computers or by digital circuits such as ASICs, field-programmable gate arrays or specialized digital signal processors. Typical arithmetical operations include fixed-point and floating-point, real-valued and complex-valued and addition. Other typical operations supported by the hardware are circular buffers and lookup tables. Examples of algorithms are the Fast Fourier transform, finite impulse response filter, Infinite impulse response filter, adaptive filters such as the Wiener and Kalman filters. Nonlinear signal processing involves the analysis and processing of signals produced from nonlinear systems and can be in the time, frequency, or spatio-temporal domains. Nonlinear systems can produce complex behaviors including bifurcations, chaos and subharmonics which cannot be produced or analyzed using linear methods. Statistical signal processing is an approach which treats signals as stochastic processes, utilizing their statistical properties to perform signal processing tasks.
Statistical techniques are used in signal processing applications. For example, one can model the probability distribution of noise incurred when photographing an image, construct techniques based on this model to reduce the noise in the resulting image. Audio signal processing – for electrical signals representing sound, such as speech or music Speech signal processing – for processing and interpreting spoken words Image processing – in digital cameras and various imaging systems Video processing – for interpreting moving pictures Wireless communication – waveform generations, filtering, equalization Control systems Array processing – for processing signals from arrays of sensors Process control – a variety of signals are used, including the industry standard 4-20 mA current loop Seismology Financial signal processing – analyzing financial data using signal processing techniques for prediction purposes. Feature extraction, such as image understanding and speech recognition. Quality improvement, such as noise reduction, image enhancement, echo cancellation.
Including audio compression, image compression, video compression. Genomics, Genomic signal processing In communication systems, signal processing may occur at: OSI layer 1 in the seven layer OSI model, the Physical Layer. Filters – for example analog or digital Samplers and analog-to-digital converters for signal acquisition and reconstruction, which involves measuring a physical signal, storing or transferring it as digital signal, later rebuilding the original signal or an approximation thereof. Signal compressors Digital signal processors Differential equations Recurrence relation Transform theory Time-frequency analysis – for processing non-stationary signals Spectral estimation – for determining the spectral content of a
A mobile app or mobile application is a computer program or software application designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone/tablet or watch. Apps were intended for productivity assistance such as Email and contact databases, but the public demand for apps caused rapid expansion into other areas such as mobile games, factory automation, GPS and location-based services, order-tracking, ticket purchases, so that there are now millions of apps available. Apps are downloaded from application distribution platforms which are operated by the owner of the mobile operating system, such as the App Store or Google Play Store; some apps are free, others have a price, with the profit being split between the application's creator and the distribution platform. Mobile applications stand in contrast to desktop applications which are designed to run on desktop computers, web applications which run in mobile web browsers rather than directly on the mobile device. In 2009, technology columnist David Pogue said that newer smartphones could be nicknamed "app phones" to distinguish them from earlier less-sophisticated smartphones.
The term "app", short for "software application", has since become popular. Most mobile devices are sold with several apps bundled as pre-installed software, such as a web browser, email client, mapping program, an app for buying music, other media, or more apps; some pre-installed apps can be removed by an ordinary uninstall process, thus leaving more storage space for desired ones. Where the software does not allow this, some devices can be rooted to eliminate the undesired apps. Apps that are not preinstalled are available through distribution platforms called app stores, they began appearing in 2008 and are operated by the owner of the mobile operating system, such as the Apple App Store, Google Play, Windows Phone Store, BlackBerry App World. However, there are independent app stores, such as GetJar and F-Droid; some apps are free. They are downloaded from the platform to a target device, but sometimes they can be downloaded to laptops or desktop computers. For apps with a price a percentage, 20-30%, goes to the distribution provider, the rest goes to the producer of the app.
The same app can, cost a different price depending on the mobile platform. Apps can be installed manually, for example by running an Android application package on Android devices. Mobile apps were offered for general productivity and information retrieval, including email, contacts, the stock market and weather information. However, public demand and the availability of developer tools drove rapid expansion into other categories, such as those handled by desktop application software packages; as with other software, the explosion in number and variety of apps made discovery a challenge, which in turn led to the creation of a wide range of review and curation sources, including blogs and dedicated online app-discovery services. In 2014 government regulatory agencies began trying to regulate and curate apps medical apps; some companies offer apps as an alternative method to deliver content with certain advantages over an official website. With a growing number of mobile applications available at app stores and the improved capabilities of smartphones, people are downloading more applications to their devices.
Usage of mobile apps has become prevalent across mobile phone users. A May 2012 comScore study reported that during the previous quarter, more mobile subscribers used apps than browsed the web on their devices: 51.1% vs. 49.8% respectively. Researchers found that usage of mobile apps correlates with user context and depends on user's location and time of the day. Mobile apps are playing an ever-increasing role within healthcare and when designed and integrated can yield many benefits. Market research firm Gartner predicted that 102 billion apps would be downloaded in 2013, which would generate $26 billion in the US, up 44.4% on 2012's US$18 billion. By Q2 2015, the Google Play and Apple stores alone generated $5 billion. An analyst report estimates that the app economy creates revenues of more than €10 billion per year within the European Union, while over 529,000 jobs have been created in 28 EU states due to the growth of the app market. There are three kinds of apps — native and web-based. All apps targeted towards particular mobile platforms are known as native apps.
Therefore, an app meant for Apple device will never open in Android devices. This is. While developing native apps, professionals incorporate best-in-class user interface modules; this accounts for better performance and good user experience. Users benefit from wider access to APIs and make limitless use of all apps from the particular device. Further, they switch over from one app to another effortlessly; the main purpose behind creating such apps is to ensure best performance for specific mobile operating system. Concept of hybrid apps is a mix of web-based apps. Apps developed using Xamarin, React Native, Sencha Touch and other similar technology fall within this category; these are made to support web and native technologies across multiple platforms, hence the name hybrid. Moreover, these apps are faster to develop, it involves use of single code. Despite such advantages, hybrid apps are slower in performance. Apps fail to bear the same look n feel in different mobile op