A website or Web site is a collection of related network web resources, such as web pages, multimedia content, which are identified with a common domain name, published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, amazon.com. Websites can be accessed via a public Internet Protocol network, such as the Internet, or a private local area network, by a uniform resource locator that identifies the site. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's website for its employees, are part of an intranet. Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language, they may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors.
Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which may optionally employ encryption to provide security and privacy for the user. The user's application a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, which starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content; some websites require user subscription to access content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. End users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers and smart TVs; the World Wide Web was created in 1990 by the British CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee.
On 30 April 1993, CERN announced. Before the introduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server; these protocols offer a simple directory structure which the user navigates and where they choose files to download. Documents were most presented as plain text files without formatting, or were encoded in word processor formats. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites can be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose. Any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites, as perceived by the user, can be blurred. Websites are written in, or converted to, HTML and are accessed using a software interface classified as a user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including desktop computers, tablet computers and smartphones.
A website is hosted on a computer system known as a web server called an HTTP server. These terms can refer to the software that runs on these systems which retrieves and delivers the web pages in response to requests from the website's users. Apache is the most used web server software and Microsoft's IIS is commonly used; some alternatives, such as Nginx, Hiawatha or Cherokee, are functional and lightweight. A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the format, sent to a client web browser, it is coded in Hypertext Markup Language. Images are used to effect the desired appearance and as part of the main content. Audio or video might be considered "static" content if it plays automatically or is non-interactive; this type of website displays the same information to all visitors. Similar to handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients, a static website will provide consistent, standard information for an extended period of time. Although the website owner may make updates periodically, it is a manual process to edit the text and other content and may require basic website design skills and software.
Simple forms or marketing examples of websites, such as classic website, a five-page website or a brochure website are static websites, because they present pre-defined, static information to the user. This may include information about a company and its products and services through text, animations, audio/video, navigation menus. Static websites can be edited using four broad categories of software: Text editors, such as Notepad or TextEdit, where content and HTML markup are manipulated directly within the editor program WYSIWYG offline editors, such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver, with which the site is edited using a GUI and the final HTML markup is generated automatically by the editor software WYSIWYG online editors which create media rich online presentation like web pages, intro, blogs, an
In information systems, a tag is a keyword or term assigned to a piece of information. This kind of metadata helps describe an item and allows it to be found again by browsing or searching. Tags are chosen informally and by the item's creator or by its viewer, depending on the system, although they may be chosen from a controlled vocabulary. Tagging was popularized by websites associated with Web 2.0 and is an important feature of many Web 2.0 services. It is now part of other database systems, desktop applications, operating systems. People use tags to aid classification, mark ownership, note boundaries, indicate online identity. Tags may take the form of images, or other identifying marks. An analogous example of tags in the physical world is museum object tagging. People were using textual keywords to classify information and objects long before computers. Computer based. Tagging gained popularity due to the growth of social bookmarking, image sharing, social networking websites; these sites allow users to manage labels that categorize content using simple keywords.
Websites that include tags display collections of tags as tag clouds, as do some desktop applications. On websites that aggregate the tags of all users, an individual user's tags can be useful both to them and to the larger community of the website's users. Tagging systems have sometimes been classified into two kinds: bottom-up. Top-down taxonomies are created by an authorized group of designers, whereas bottom-up taxonomies are created by all users; this definition of "top down" and "bottom up" should not be confused with the distinction between a single hierarchical tree structure versus multiple non-hierarchical sets. Some researchers and applications have experimented with combining hierarchical and non-hierarchical tagging to aid in information retrieval. Others are combining top-down and bottom-up tagging, including in some large library catalogs such as WorldCat; when tags or other taxonomies have further properties such as relationships and attributes, they constitute an ontology. Metadata tags as described in this article should not be confused with the use of the word "tag" in some software to refer to an automatically generated cross-reference.
The use of keywords as part of an identification and classification system long predates computers. Paper data storage devices, notably edge-notched cards, that permitted classification and sorting by multiple criteria were in use prior to the twentieth century, faceted classification has been used by libraries since the 1930s. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Unix text editor Emacs offered a companion software program called Tags that could automatically build a table of cross-references called a tags table that Emacs could use to jump between a function call and that function's definition; this use of the word "tag" did not refer to metadata tags, but was an early use of the word "tag" in software to refer to a word index. Online databases and early websites deployed keyword tags as a way for publishers to help users find content. In the early days of the World Wide Web, the keywords meta element was used by web designers to tell web search engines what the web page was about, but these keywords were only visible in a web page's source code and were not modifiable by users.
In 1997, the collaborative portal "A Description of the Equator and Some ØtherLands" produced by documenta X, used the folksonomic term Tag for its co-authors and guest authors on its Upload page. In "The Equator" the term Tag for user-input was described as an abstract literal or keyword to aid the user. However, users defined singular Tags, did not share Tags at that point. In 2003, the social bookmarking website Delicious provided a way for its users to add "tags" to their bookmarks. Within a couple of years, the photo sharing website Flickr allowed its users to add their own text tags to each of their pictures, constructing flexible and easy metadata that made the pictures searchable; the success of Flickr and the influence of Delicious popularized the concept, other social software websites—such as YouTube and Last.fm—also implemented tagging. In 2005, the Atom web syndication standard provided a "category" element for inserting subject categories into web feeds, in 2007 Tim Bray proposed a "tag" URN.
Many blog systems allow authors to add free-form tags to a post, along with placing the post into a predetermined category. For example, a post may display; each of those tags is a web link leading to an index page listing all of the posts associated with that tag. The blog may have a sidebar listing all the tags in use on that blog, with each tag leading to an index page. To reclassify a post, an author edits its list of tags. All connections between posts are automatically updated by the blog software; some desktop applications an
Representational state transfer
Representational State Transfer is a software architectural style that defines a set of constraints to be used for creating Web services. Web services that conform to the REST architectural style, termed RESTful Web services, provide interoperability between computer systems on the Internet. RESTful Web services allow the requesting systems to access and manipulate textual representations of Web resources by using a uniform and predefined set of stateless operations. Other kinds of Web services, such as SOAP Web services, expose their own arbitrary sets of operations."Web resources" were first defined on the World Wide Web as documents or files identified by their URLs. However, today they have a much more generic and abstract definition that encompasses every thing or entity that can be identified, addressed, or handled, in any way whatsoever, on the Web. In a RESTful Web service, requests made to a resource's URI will elicit a response with a payload formatted in HTML, XML, JSON, or some other format.
The response can confirm that some alteration has been made to the stored resource, the response can provide hypertext links to other related resources or collections of resources. When HTTP is used, as is most common, the operations available are GET, HEAD, POST, PUT, PATCH, DELETE, CONNECT, OPTIONS and TRACE. By using a stateless protocol and standard operations, RESTful systems aim for fast performance and the ability to grow, by re-using components that can be managed and updated without affecting the system as a whole while it is running; the term representational state transfer was introduced and defined in 2000 by Roy Fielding in his doctoral dissertation. Fielding's dissertation explained the REST principles that were known as the "HTTP object model" beginning in 1994, were used in designing the HTTP 1.1 and Uniform Resource Identifiers standards. The term is intended to evoke an image of how a well-designed Web application behaves: it is a network of Web resources where the user progresses through the application by selecting resource identifiers such as http://www.example.com/articles/21 and resource operations such as GET or POST, resulting in the next resource's representation being transferred to the end user for their use.
Roy Fielding defined REST in his 2000 PhD dissertation "Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures" at UC Irvine. He developed the REST architectural style in parallel with HTTP 1.1 of 1996–1999, based on the existing design of HTTP 1.0 of 1996. In a retrospective look at the development of REST, Fielding said: The constraints of the REST architectural style affect the following architectural properties: performance in component interactions, which can be the dominant factor in user-perceived performance and network efficiency. Roy Fielding describes REST's effect on scalability. Six guiding constraints define a RESTful system; these constraints restrict the ways that the server can process and respond to client requests so that, by operating within these constraints, the system gains desirable non-functional properties, such as performance, simplicity, visibility and reliability. If a system violates any of the required constraints, it cannot be considered RESTful.
The formal REST constraints are as follows: The principle behind the client–server constraints is the separation of concerns. Separating the user interface concerns from the data storage concerns improves the portability of the user interface across multiple platforms, it improves scalability by simplifying the server components. Most significant to the Web, however, is that the separation allows the components to evolve independently, thus supporting the Internet-scale requirement of multiple organizational domains; the client–server communication is constrained by no client context being stored on the server between requests. Each request from any client contains all the information necessary to service the request, session state is held in the client; the session state can be transferred by the server to another service such as a database to maintain a persistent state for a period and allow authentication. The client begins sending requests. While one or more requests are outstanding, the client is considered to be in transition.
The representation of each application state contains links that can be used the next time the client chooses to initiate a new state-transition. As on the World Wide Web and intermediaries can cache responses. Responses must therefore, implicitly or explicitly, define themselves as cacheable or not to prevent clients from getting stale or inappropriate data in response to further requests. Well-managed caching or eliminates some client–server interactions, further improving scalability and performance. A client cannot ordinarily tell whether it is connected directly to the end server, or to an intermediary along the way. Intermediary servers can improve system scalability by enabling load balancing and by providing shared caches, they can enforce security policies. Servers can temporarily extend or customize the functionality of a client by transf
OpenSearch is a collection of technologies that allow publishing of search results in a format suitable for syndication and aggregation. It is a way for websites and search engines to publish search results in a standard and accessible format. OpenSearch was developed by Amazon.com subsidiary A9 and the first version, OpenSearch 1.0, was unveiled by Jeff Bezos at the O'Reilly Emerging Technology Conference in March, 2005. Draft versions of OpenSearch 1.1 were released during September and December 2005. The OpenSearch specification is licensed by A9 under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License. Web browsers that support OpenSearch include Safari, Microsoft Edge and Google Chrome. OpenSearch consists of: OpenSearch Description files: XML files that identify and describe a search engine. OpenSearch Query Syntax: describe where to retrieve the search results OpenSearch RSS or OpenSearch Response: format for providing open search results. OpenSearch Aggregators: Sites that can display OpenSearch results.
OpenSearch "Auto-discovery" to signal the presence of a search plugin link to the user and the link embedded in the header of HTML pagesOpenSearch Description Documents list search result responses for the given website/tool. Version 1.0 of the specification only allowed one response, in RSS format. RSS and Atom are the only ones formally supported by OpenSearch aggregators, however other types, such as HTML are acceptable. Auto-discovery of an OpenSearch Description Document is available from both HTML and Atom or RSS feed documents via Link relations in the form of <atom:link rel="search"... /> for Atom feeds or <link rel="search"... / > for RSS HTML documents. OpenSearch Description Document must be placed on a web server of the same domain. OpenSearch Description Documents must be served with the application/opensearchdescription+xml Internet media type. Representational State Transfer OpenURL Search/Retrieve via URL Z39.50 Official website, including specifications
Metadata is "data that provides information about other data". Many distinct types of metadata exist, among these descriptive metadata, structural metadata, administrative metadata, reference metadata and statistical metadata. Descriptive metadata describes a resource for purposes such as identification, it can include elements such as title, abstract and keywords. Structural metadata is metadata about containers of data and indicates how compound objects are put together, for example, how pages are ordered to form chapters, it describes the types, versions and other characteristics of digital materials. Administrative metadata provides information to help manage a resource, such as when and how it was created, file type and other technical information, who can access it. Reference metadata describes the contents and quality of statistical data Statistical metadata may describe processes that collect, process, or produce statistical data. Metadata was traditionally used in the card catalogs of libraries until the 1980s, when libraries converted their catalog data to digital databases.
In the 2000s, as digital formats were becoming the prevalent way of storing data and information, metadata was used to describe digital data using metadata standards. The first description of "meta data" for computer systems is purportedly noted by MIT's Center for International Studies experts David Griffel and Stuart McIntosh in 1967: "In summary we have statements in an object language about subject descriptions of data and token codes for the data. We have statements in a meta language describing the data relationships and transformations, ought/is relations between norm and data."There are different metadata standards for each different discipline. Describing the contents and context of data or data files increases its usefulness. For example, a web page may include metadata specifying what software language the page is written in, what tools were used to create it, what subjects the page is about, where to find more information about the subject; this metadata can automatically improve the reader's experience and make it easier for users to find the web page online.
A CD may include metadata providing information about the musicians and songwriters whose work appears on the disc. A principal purpose of metadata is to help users discover resources. Metadata helps to organize electronic resources, provide digital identification, support the archiving and preservation of resources. Metadata assists users in resource discovery by "allowing resources to be found by relevant criteria, identifying resources, bringing similar resources together, distinguishing dissimilar resources, giving location information." Metadata of telecommunication activities including Internet traffic is widely collected by various national governmental organizations. This data can be used for mass surveillance. In many countries, the metadata relating to emails, telephone calls, web pages, video traffic, IP connections and cell phone locations are stored by government organizations. Metadata means "data about data". Although the "meta" prefix means "after" or "beyond", it is used to mean "about" in epistemology.
Metadata is defined as the data providing information about one or more aspects of the data. Some examples include:Means of creation of the data Purpose of the data Time and date of creation Creator or author of the data Location on a computer network where the data was created Standards used File size Data quality Source of the data Process used to create the dataFor example, a digital image may include metadata that describes how large the picture is, the color depth, the image resolution, when the image was created, the shutter speed, other data. A text document's metadata may contain information about how long the document is, who the author is, when the document was written, a short summary of the document. Metadata within web pages can contain descriptions of page content, as well as key words linked to the content; these links are called "Metatags", which were used as the primary factor in determining order for a web search until the late 1990s. The reliance of metatags in web searches was decreased in the late 1990s because of "keyword stuffing".
Metatags were being misused to trick search engines into thinking some websites had more relevance in the search than they did. Metadata can be stored and managed in a database called a metadata registry or metadata repository. However, without context and a point of reference, it might be impossible to identify metadata just by looking at it. For example: by itself, a database containing several numbers, all 13 digits long could be the results of calculations or a list of numbers to plug into an equation - without any other context, the numbers themselves can be perceived as the data, but if given the context that this database is a log of a book collection, those 13-digit numbers may now be identified as ISBNs - information that refers to the book, but is not itself the information within the book. The term "metadata" was coined in 1968 by Philip Bagley, in his book "Extension of Programming Language Concepts" where it is clear that he uses the term in the ISO 11179 "traditional" sense, "structural metadata" i.e. "data about the containers of data".
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
Video search engine
A video search engine is a web-based search engine which crawls the web for video content. Some video search engines parse externally hosted content while others allow content to be uploaded and hosted on their own servers; some engines allow users to search by video format type and by length of the clip. The video search results are accompanied by a thumbnail view of the video. Video search engines are computer programs designed to find videos stored on digital devices, either through Internet servers or in storage units from the same computer; these searches can be made through audiovisual indexing, which can extract information from audiovisual material and record it as metadata, which will be tracked by search engines. The main use of these search engines is the increasing creation of audiovisual content and the need to manage it properly; the digitization of audiovisual archives and the establishment of the Internet, has led to large quantities of video files stored in big databases, whose recovery can be difficult because of the huge volumes of data and the existence of a semantic gap.
The search criterion used by each search engine depends on its purpose of the searches. Metadata is information about facts, it could be information about, the author of the video, creation date and all the information that could be extracted and included in the same files. Internet is used in a language called XML to encode metadata, which works well through the web and is readable by people. Thus, through this information contained in these files is the easiest way to find data of interest to us. In the videos there are two types of metadata, that we can integrate in the video code itself and external metadata from the page where the video is. In both cases we optimize them to make them ideal. All video formats incorporate their own metadata; the title, coding quality or transcription of the content are possible. To review these data exist programs like FLV MetaData Injector, Sorenson Squeeze or Castfire; each one has special specifications. Keep in mind that converting from one format to another can lose much of this data, so check that the new format information is correct.
It is therefore advisable to have the video in lots of formats, so that all search robots will be able to find and index. In most cases the same mechanisms must be applied as in the positioning of an text content, they are the most important factors when positioning a video, because they contain most of the necessary information. The titles have to be descriptive and should be removed every word or phrase, not useful, it should be descriptive, including keywords that describe the video with no need to see their title or description. Ideally, separate the words by dashes "-". On the page where the video is, it should be a list of keywords linked to the microformat "rel-tag"; these words will be used by search engines as a basis for organizing information. Although not standard, there are two formats that store information in a temporal component, specified, one for subtitles and another for transcripts, which can be used for subtitles; the formats are TTXT for transcripts. Speech recognition consists of a transcript of the speech of the audio track of the videos, creating a text file.
In this way and with the help of a phrase extractor can search if the video content is of interest. Some search engines apart from using speech recognition to search for videos use it to find the specific point of a multimedia file in which a specific word or phrase is located and so go directly to this point. Gaudi, a project developed by Google Labs, uses voice recognition technology to locate the exact moment that one or more words have been spoken within an audio, allowing the user to go directly to exact moment that the words were spoken. If the search query matches some videos from YouTube, the positions are indicated by yellow markers, must pass the mouse over to read the transcribed text; the text recognition can be useful to recognize characters in the videos through "chyrons". As with speech recognizers, there are search engines that allow to play a video from a particular point. TalkMiner, an example of search of specific fragments from videos by text recognition, analyzes each video once per second looking for identifier signs of a slide, such as its shape and static nature, captures the image of the slide and uses Optical Character Recognition to detect the words on the slides.
These words are indexed in the search engine of TalkMiner, which offers to users more than 20,000 videos from institutions such as Stanford University, the University of California at Berkeley, TED. Through the visual descriptors we can analyze the frames of a video and extract information that can be scored as metadata. Descriptions are generated automatically and can describe different aspects of the frames, such as color, shape and the situation; the usefulness of a search engine depends on the relevance of the result set returned. While there may be millions of videos that include a particular word or phrase, some videos may be more relevant, popular or have more authority than others; this arrangement has a lot to do with search engine optimization. Most search engines use different methods to classify the results and provide the best video in the first results. However, most programs allow sorting the results by several criteria; this criterion is more ambiguous and less objective, but sometimes it is the closest to what we want.
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