Space-Men is a 1960 Italian science fiction film directed by Antonio Margheriti. The film stars Rik Van Nutter and co-stars Gabriella Farinon, David Montresor, Archie Savage, Alain Dijon; the film was released in the United States in 1961 by American International Pictures. Space-Men's storyline recounts a mission in the 22nd century aboard an orbiting space station; the mission involves a risky effort by its crew to redirect a malfunctioning spaceship that threatens to destroy the Earth. In 2116, Interplanetary Chronicle of New York reporter Ray Peterson, launches aboard spaceship Bravo Zulu 88, joining the crew of an orbiting space station. Peterson is assigned to write a story about the "infra-radiation flux in Galaxy M12", but soon tension develops between Peterson and the station commander, he believes the reporter is in the way, calling him a "leech", but he has orders to not interfere with Peterson. A complication arises when Lucy, the station botanist and navigator, becomes attracted to both the commander and Peterson.
When the errant Spaceship Alpha Two enters the inner solar system, its photon generators are radiating enough heat to destroy the Earth. In efforts to intercept Alpha Two, crew members Sullivan and space station pilot Al sacrifice themselves in separate but futile attempts to destroy the dangerous spaceship with missiles. With both crew members now dying from their attempts, Peterson uses Space Taxi B91 to get aboard the errant spaceship, his goal: to disarm Alpha Two's photon generators. Once inside, he is directed to shut down all power sources, he soon finds himself trapped inside when the emergency hatch is disabled by the power loss. Despite orders from the high command not to intervene, the commander and his assistant disobey and attempt to intercept the out-of-control Alpha Two and rescue Peterson, they are able to reach the reporter as he is collapsing and bring him back safely. With Alpha Two now safely redirected away from the Earth, Peterson wins Lucy's affection and the commander's respect for his heroic actions.
Antonio Margheriti had read science fiction comic books since a young age, when offered the chance to direct a science fiction film, he seized the opportunity. Space-Men was Margheriti's first full directoral effort, he went on to direct 55 films. Space-Men's script was written by Margheriti and Ennio De Concini.. The film was shot at the same time director Mario Bava was filming Black Sunday on a sound stage next door. Margheriti took over the studio with the miniatures work featured in the film's outer space segments. Space-Men was distributed by Titanus and opened in Rome in August 1960; the film was re-titled Assignment: Outer Space for its release and opened in San Diego on December 13, 1961. In Phil Hardy's book Science Fiction: Complete Film Source Book, Space-Men was described as "... not one of Margheriti's best, the narrative line is unclear and jerky" while noting that "its visual splendours are ample compensation". List of films in the public domain in the United States List of science fiction films of the 1960s List of Italian films of 1960 Assignment: Outer Space on IMDb Assignment: Outer Space Assignment Outer Space at AllMovie Assignment: Outer Space at the TCM Movie Database
Michèle Mercier is a French actress. In the course of her career she has worked with leading directors like François Truffaut, Jean-Pierre Melville, Jacques Deray, Dino Risi, Mario Monicelli, Mario Bava, Peter Collinson and Ken Annakin, her leading men have included Marcello Mastroianni, Vittorio Gassman, Jean-Paul Belmondo, Jean Gabin, Charles Aznavour, Robert Hossein, Charles Bronson, Tony Curtis and Charlton Heston. She has appeared in over fifty films, is best known for her starring role in Angelique, Marquise des Anges; the daughter of a French pharmacist father and an Italian mother, she wanted to be a dancer. The circumstances of war made this difficult and her parents saw it as only a whim, she was soon advanced to soloist in the Nice Opéra. At the age of 15 she met Maurice Chevalier, she moved to Paris aged 17, first joined the troupe of Roland Petit the company of the "Ballets of the Eiffel Tower". Parallel to her career as dancer, Mercier studied acting under Solange Sicard. For her film début her birth name seemed too old-fashioned.
It was suggested she take the name Michèle: this happened to be name of her younger sister, who had died at the age of five from typhoid fever. However, she adopted the name as a tribute to the actress Michèle Morgan. After some romantic comedies and a small role in François Truffaut's Tirez sur le pianiste, she worked in England and made some films in Italy with a small budget and playing women of easy virtue. Mercier needed a role. In 1963, when it was decided to make a movie of the sensational novel Angélique, the Marquise of the Angels, she got her chance. Many actresses were approached to play the role of Angélique. Producer Francis Cosne wanted Brigitte Bardot for the part. Annette Stroyberg was judged not sufficiently well-known. Catherine Deneuve was too pale, Jane Fonda spoke French with an American accent, Virna Lisi was busy in Hollywood; the most serious actress considered was Marina Vlady. She signed a contract, but Mercier won the role after trying out for it: she did not appreciate this much because she was being treated like a beginner at a time when she was well known in Italy.
At the time she was contacted to play Angélique, she had acted in over twenty films. During the next four years she made five sequels; however the role of Angelique was both a curse. It catapulted her to instant stardom, rivalling Brigitte Bardot in celebrity and popularity, but the character overshadowed all other aspects of her career. By the end of the 1960s, the names "Angélique" and Michèle Mercier were synonymous. In 1991 she was a member of the jury at the 17th Moscow International Film Festival. Attempting to break free from the character of Angélique, Mercier played against Jean Gabin in The Thunder of God, directed by Denys de la Patellière, she appeared with Robert Hossein in La Seconde Vérité, directed by Christian-Jaque. After this she left France and tried to restart her career in the United States without much success. After a 14-year layoff, she returned in the 1998 film La Rumbera, directed by Piero Vivarelli. In 1999, having lost several million francs in a business venture, Mercier had serious financial problems.
She planned to sell the famous wedding gown of Angélique. The actress confessed in Nice-Matin: "I am ruined, I'll be obliged to sell part of my paintings, my furniture, my properties, my jewels and the costumes of Angélique". In 2002, at the Cannes Film Festival, she presented her second book of memoirs. Mercier was made a chevalier dans l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres on 6 March 2006, she married the assistant director André Smagghe in 1961. He turned out to be an alcoholic, hospitalized, they divorced in 1965. After a long relationship she married the well-known racing driver Claude Bourillot in 1970, but he disappeared one day with all her jewels and money leaving her penniless, they divorced in 1976. Her other relationships were uniformly disastrous, she claimed that her co-star Vittorio Gassman once tried to rape her, that an Italian, Prince N. refused to marry her after many years of courtship. She was pursued by Bettino Craxi and Silvio Berlusconi. "When people talk with me they always refer to Angélique, but I have played fifty other women.
I have tried for a long time to forget about her. But now I see her as a little sister, always by my side and I have learned to live with her." Mercier, Michèle. Angélique à coeur perdu: autobiographie. Paris: Carrere. ISBN 978-2-86804-540-9. Boyer, Raymond. Michèle Mercier, merveilleuse Angélique. Paris: TF1 Editions. ISBN 978-2-87761-064-3. Mercier, Michèle. Je ne suis pas Angélique. Denoël. ISBN 978-2-207-25329-8. Fansite Michèle Mercier on IMDb The Private Life and Times of Michèle Mercier Michèle Mercier - Cinémathèque française
A spider web, spider's web, or cobweb is a structure created by a spider out of proteinaceous spider silk extruded from its spinnerets meant to catch its prey. Spider webs have existed for at least 100 million years, as witnessed in a rare find of Early Cretaceous amber from Sussex, southern England. Many spiders build webs to catch insects to eat. However, not all spiders catch their prey in webs, some do not build webs at all. "Spider web" is used to refer to a web, still in use, whereas "cobweb" refers to abandoned webs. However, the word "cobweb" is used by biologists to describe the tangled three-dimensional web of some spiders of the Theridiidae family. While this large family is known as the cobweb spiders, they have a huge range of web architectures; when spiders moved from the water to the land in the Early Devonian period, they started making silk to protect their bodies and their eggs. Spiders started using silk for hunting purposes, first as guide lines and signal lines as ground or bush webs, as the aerial webs that are familiar today.
Spiders produce silk from their spinneret glands located at the tip of their abdomen. Each gland produces a thread for a special purpose – for example a trailed safety line, sticky silk for trapping prey or fine silk for wrapping it. Spiders use different gland types to produce different silks, some spiders are capable of producing up to eight different silks during their lifetime. Most spiders have three pairs of spinnerets, each having its own function – there are spiders with just one pair and others with as many as four pairs. Webs allow a spider to catch prey without having to expend energy by running it down, thus it is an efficient method of gathering food. However, constructing the web is in itself an energetically costly process because of the large amount of protein required, in the form of silk. In addition, after a time the silk will lose its stickiness and thus become inefficient at capturing prey, it is common for spiders to eat their own web daily to recoup some of the energy used in spinning.
The silk proteins are thus recycled. The tensile strength of spider silk is greater than the same weight of steel and has much greater elasticity, its microstructure is under investigation for potential applications in industry, including bullet-proof vests and artificial tendons. Researchers have used genetically modified mammals to produce the proteins needed to make this material. There are a few types of spider webs found in the wild, many spiders are classified by the webs they weave. Different types of spider webs include: Spiral orb webs, associated with the family Araneidae, as well as Tetragnathidae and Uloboridae Tangle webs or cobwebs, associated with the family Theridiidae Funnel webs, with associations divided into primitive and modern Tubular webs, which run up the bases of trees or along the ground Sheet websSeveral different types of silk may be used in web construction, including a "sticky" capture silk and "fluffy" capture silk, depending on the type of spider. Webs may be at any angle in between.
It is hypothesized. As insects are spiders' main prey, it is that they would impose strong selectional forces on the foraging behavior of spiders. Most found in the sheet-web spider families, some webs will have loose, irregular tangles of silk above them; these tangled obstacle courses serve to disorient and knock down flying insects, making them more vulnerable to being trapped on the web below. They may help to protect the spider from predators such as birds and wasps. Most orb weavers construct webs in a vertical plane, although there are exceptions, such as Uloborus diversus, which builds a horizontal web. During the process of making an orb web, the spider will use its own body for measurements. Many webs span gaps between objects; this is done by first producing a fine adhesive thread to drift on a faint breeze across a gap. When it sticks to a surface at the far end, the spider feels the change in the vibration; the spider reels in and tightens the first strand carefully walks along it and strengthens it with a second thread.
This process is repeated. After strengthening the first thread, the spider continues to make a Y-shaped netting; the first three radials of the web are now constructed. More radials are added, making sure that the distance between each radial and the next is small enough to cross; this means that the number of radials in a web directly depends on the size of the spider plus the size of the web. It is common for a web to be about 20 times the size of the spider building it. After the radials are complete, the spider fortifies the center of the web with about five circular threads, it makes a spiral of non-sticky spaced threads to enable it to move around its own web during construction, working from the inside outward. Beginning from the outside and moving inward, the spider methodically replaces this spiral with a more spaced one made of adhesive threads, it uses the initial radiating lines as well as the non-sticky spirals as guide lines. The spaces between each spiral and the next are directly proportional to the distance from the tip of its back legs to its spinners.
This is one way. While the sticky spirals are formed, the non-adhesive
And God Said to Cain
And God Said to Cain is a 1970 Western film directed by Antonio Margheriti and starring Klaus Kinski. Gary Hamilton is granted a free pardon from a prison work camp and heads out after the men who framed him; the film is set at a stormy night in town. Klaus Kinski as Gary Hamilton Peter Carsten as Acombar Marcella Michelangeli as Maria Guido Lollobrigida as Miguel Santamaria Antonio Cantafora as Dick Acombar Giuliano Raffaelli as Doctor Luciano Pigozzi as Francesco Santamaria Lucio De Santis María Luisa Sala as Rosy Joaquín Blanco Giacomo Furia Furio Meniconi as Mike Luigi Bonos as Uncle Jonathan Marco Morelli Franco Gulà Osiride Pevarello as Pedro Pedro Mendiconi And God Said to Cain was released in Italy on 5 February 1970 and in West Germany on 5 February 1971, and God Said to Cain on IMDb
Hercules, Prisoner of Evil
Hercules, Prisoner of Evil is a 1964 Italian peplum film directed by Antonio Margheriti and an uncredited Ruggero Deodato. Deodato, the official assistant director, replaced Margheriti as he was busy with the completion of the film The Fall of Rome. Deodato directed most of the film in actuality but Margheriti was credited as the director; the film is filled with a variety of horrific themes and elements, featuring a killer werewolf, is as much a horror film as it is a peplum. The mighty Ursus is given a potion to drink that transforms him on certain nights into a murderous werewolf. Ursus kills several innocent people in the forest in this unusual film before realizing that he himself is the creature the local villagers are seeking to destroy. Ursus is referred to as Hercules in the English-dubbed prints. Reg Park: Ursus Mireille Granelli: Aniko Ettore Manni: Ido Furio Meniconi: Zereteli Maria Teresa Orsini: Kato Lilly Mantovani: slave Serafino Fuscagni: Mico Ugo Carboni Claudio Scarchilli Gaetano Quartararo Giulio Maculani Hercules, Prisoner of Evil was released in Italy on July 31, 1964.
Hercules, Prisoner of Evil on IMDb
Mr. Superinvisible is a 1970 Italian fantasy-comedy film directed by Antonio Margheriti; the film was released in the United States as the first film of the K-Tel company. Dean Jones as Peter Gastone Moschin as Koko Ingeborg Schöner as Irene Peter Carsten as Pomerantz Alan Collins as Raimondo Roberto Camardiel as Beithel Giacomo Furia Liana Del Balzo Luigi Bonos In a contemporary review, the Monthly Film Bulletin stated that the film adds little innovation done by films such as The Invisible Man; the review noted an "uninventive" script. The film did praise the special effects as "competently handled" while "tiresome dubbing detracts from hardworking performances" Mr. Superinvisible on IMDb
The lira was the currency of Italy between 1861 and 2002 and of the Albanian Kingdom between 1941 and 1943. Between 1999 and 2002, the Italian lira was a national subunit of the euro. However, cash payments could be made in lira only, as euro notes were not yet available; the lira was the currency of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy between 1807 and 1814. The term originates from the value of a pound weight of high purity silver and as such is a direct cognate of the British pound sterling. "L", sometimes in a double-crossed script form, was the symbol most used. Until the Second World War, it was subdivided into 100 centesimi, which translates to "hundredths" or "cents"; the lira was established at 290.322 milligrams of gold. This was a direct continuation of the Sardinian lira. Other currencies replaced by the Italian lira included the Lombardy-Venetia pound, the Two Sicilies piastra, the Tuscan fiorino, the Papal States scudo and the Parman lira. In 1865, Italy formed part of the Latin Monetary Union in which the lira was set as equal to, among others, the French and Swiss francs: in fact, in various Gallo-Italic languages in north-western Italy, the lira was outright called "franc".
This practice has ended with the introduction of the euro in 2002. World War I resulted in prices rising severalfold in Italy. Inflation was curbed somewhat by Mussolini, who, on August 18, 1926, declared that the exchange rate between lira and pound would be £1 = 90 lire—the so-called Quota 90, although the free exchange rate had been closer to 140–150 lire per pound, causing a temporary deflation and widespread problems in the real economy. In 1927, the lira was pegged to the U. S. dollar at a rate of 1 dollar = 19 lire. This rate lasted until 1934, with a separate "tourist" rate of US$1 = 24.89 lire being established in 1936. In 1939, the "official" rate was 19.8 lire. After the Allied invasion of Italy, an exchange rate was set at US$1 = 120 lire in June 1943, reduced to 100 lire the following month. In German occupied areas, the exchange rate was set at 1 Reichsmark = 10 lire. After the war, the value of the lira fluctuated, before Italy set a peg of US$1 = 575 lire within the Bretton Woods System in November 1947.
Following the devaluation of the pound, Italy devalued to US$1 = 625 lire on 21 September 1949. This rate was maintained until the end of the Bretton Woods System in the early 1970s. Several episodes of high inflation followed; the lira was the official unit of currency in Italy until January 1, 1999, when it was replaced by the euro. Old lira denominated currency ceased to be legal tender on February 28, 2002; the conversion rate is 1,936.27 lire to the euro. All lira banknotes in use before the introduction of the euro, all post-World War II coins, were exchanged by the Bank of Italy up to 6 December 2011. Italy's central bank pledged to redeem Italian coins and banknotes until 29 February 2012, but this was brought forward to 6 December 2011. Although Italian price displays and calculations became unwieldy because of the large number of zeros, efforts were unsuccessful for political reasons until the introduction of the euro which had the effect of lopping off excessive zeros; the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy issued coins between 1807 and 1813 in denominations of 1 and 3 centesimi and 1 soldo in copper, 10 centesimi in 20% silver alloy, 5, 10 and 15 soldi, 1, 2 and 5 lire in 90% silver and 20 and 40 lire in 90% gold.
All except the 10 centesimi bore a portrait of Napoleon, with the denominations below 1 lira showing a radiate crown and the higher denominations, a shield representing the various constituent territories of the Kingdom. In 1861, coins were minted in Florence, Milan and Turin in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 50 centesimi, 1 lira, 2, 5, 10 and 20 lire, with the lowest four in copper, the highest two in gold and the remainder in silver. In 1863, silver coins below 5 lire were debased from 90% to 83.5% and silver 20-centesimi coins were introduced. Minting switched to Rome in the 1870s. Apart from the introduction in 1894 of cupro-nickel 20-centesimi coins and of nickel 25-centesimi pieces in 1902, the coinage remained unaltered until the First World War. In 1919, with a purchase power of the lira reduced to one fifth of that of 1914, the production of all earlier coin types except for the nickel 20 centesimi halted, smaller, copper 5- and 10-centesimi and nickel 50-centesimi coins were introduced, followed by nickel 1- and 2-lira pieces in 1922 and 1923, respectively.
In 1926, silver 5- and 10-lira coins were introduced, equal in size and composition to the earlier 1- and 2-lira coins. Silver 20-lira coins were added in 1927. In 1936, the last substantial issue of silver coins was made, whilst, in 1939, moves to reduce the cost of the coinage led to copper being replaced by aluminium bronze and nickel by stainless steel. All issuance of coinage came to a halt in 1943. In 1943 the AM-lira was issued, in circulation in Italy after the landing in Sicily on the night between 9 and 10 July 1943. After 1946, the AM-lira ceased to be the currency of employment and was used along with normal notes, until June 3, 1950. Between 1947 and 1954, zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste used the Triestine lira. In 1946 coin production was resumed, although only in 1948, with the purchasing power of the lira reduced to 2% of that of 1939, did nu