Netscape Navigator was a discontinued proprietary web browser, and the original browser of the Netscape line, from versions 1 to 4.08, and 9. x. It was the product of the Netscape Communications Corp and was the dominant web browser in terms of usage share in the 1990s. The decision came too late for Netscape, however, as Internet Explorer had by become the dominant web browser in Windows, the Netscape Navigator web browser was succeeded by the Netscape Communicator suite in 1997. Netscape Communicators 4. x source code was the base for the Netscape-developed Mozilla Application Suite, Netscapes Mozilla Suite served as the base for a browser-only spinoff called Mozilla Firefox. The Netscape Navigator name returned in 2007 when AOL announced version 9 of the Netscape series of browsers, on 28 December 2007, AOL canceled its development but continued supporting the web browser with security updates until 1 March 2008. AOL allows downloading of archived versions of the Netscape Navigator web browser family, AOL maintains the Netscape website as an Internet portal.
After Andreessen graduated in 1993, he moved to California and there met Jim Clark, Clark believed that the Mosaic browser had great commercial possibilities and provided the seed money. Soon Mosaic Communications Corporation was in business in Mountain View, since the University of Illinois was unhappy with the companys use of the Mosaic name, the company changed its name to Netscape Communications and named its flagship web browser Netscape Navigator. Gone was the notion expressed in the first press release that Navigator would be available in the spirit of Internet software. Some security experts and cryptographers found out that all released Netscape versions had major security problems with crashing the browser with long URLs and 40 bits encryption keys. The first few releases of the product were made available in “commercial” and “evaluation” versions, for example, version “1. 0”, email support was initially free, and remained so for a year or two until the volume of support requests grew too high.
During development, the Netscape browser was known by the code name Mozilla, the Mozilla name was used as the User-Agent in HTTP requests by the browser. Mozilla is now a name for matters related to the open source successor to Netscape Communicator. When the consumer Internet revolution arrived in the mid-to-late 1990s, Netscape was well-positioned to take advantage of it, Internet service providers and computer magazine publishers helped make Navigator readily available. An important innovation that Netscape introduced in 1994 was the display of web pages. Earlier web browsers would not display a page until all graphics on it had been loaded over the network connection and this made the web much more tolerable to the average user. Through the late 1990s, Netscape made sure that Navigator remained the leader among web browsers. Important new features included cookies, proxy auto-config, although those and other innovations eventually became open standards of the W3C and ECMA and were emulated by other browsers, they were often viewed as controversial
A Linux distribution is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system. A typical Linux distribution comprises a Linux kernel, GNU tools and libraries, additional software, documentation, a system, a window manager. Most of the software is free and open-source software made available both as compiled binaries and in source code form, allowing modifications to the original software. Usually, Linux distributions optionally include some proprietary software that may not be available in source code form, the software is usually adapted to the distribution and packaged into software packages by the distributions maintainers. The software packages are available online in so-called repositories, which are storage locations usually distributed around the world, almost six hundred Linux distributions exist, with close to five hundred out of those in active development. There are commercially backed distributions, such as Fedora, openSUSE and Ubuntu, most distributions come ready to use and pre-compiled for a specific instruction set, while some distributions are distributed mostly in source code form and compiled locally during installation.
Linus Torvalds developed the Linux kernel and distributed its first version,0.01, since the installation procedure was complicated, especially in the face of growing amounts of available software, distributions sprang up to simplify this. Early distributions included the following, H. J, the SLS distribution was not well maintained, so in July 1993 a new distribution, called Slackware and based on SLS, was released by Patrick Volkerding. Also dissatisfied with SLS, Ian Murdock set to create a distribution by founding Debian. Most early adopters were familiar with Unix from work or school and they embraced Linux distributions for their low cost, and availability of the source code for most or all of the software included. Originally, the distributions were simply a convenience, but became the usual choice even for Unix or Linux experts. To date, Linux has become popular in server and embedded devices markets than in the desktop market. For example, Linux is used on over 50% of web servers, many Linux distributions provide an installation system akin to that provided with other modern operating systems.
Distributions are normally segmented into packages, each package contains a specific application or service. Examples of packages are a library for handling the PNG image format, the package is typically provided as compiled code, with installation and removal of packages handled by a package management system rather than a simple file archiver. Each package intended for such a PMS contains meta-information such as a description, version. Although Linux distributions typically contain much more software than proprietary operating systems, an example would be a newer version of a software application than that supplied with a distribution, or an alternative to that chosen by the distribution. If the additional software is distributed in form, this approach requires local compilation
A web browser is a software application for retrieving and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier that may be a web page, hyperlinks present in resources enable users easily to navigate their browsers to related resources. Although browsers are primarily intended to use the World Wide Web, the most popular web browsers are Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, Safari and Firefox. The first web browser was invented in 1990 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, Berners-Lee is the director of the World Wide Web Consortium, which oversees the Webs continued development, and is the founder of the World Wide Web Foundation. His browser was called WorldWideWeb and renamed Nexus, the first commonly available web browser with a graphical user interface was Erwise. The development of Erwise was initiated by Robert Cailliau, andreesens browser sparked the internet boom of the 1990s. The introduction of Mosaic in 1993 – one of the first graphical web browsers – led to an explosion in web use, Microsoft responded with its Internet Explorer in 1995, heavily influenced by Mosaic, initiating the industrys first browser war.
Bundled with Windows, Internet Explorer gained dominance in the web browser market, Internet Explorer usage share peaked at over 95% by 2002. Opera debuted in 1996, it has never achieved widespread use and it is available on several other embedded systems, including Nintendos Wii video game console. In 1998, Netscape launched what was to become the Mozilla Foundation in an attempt to produce a competitive browser using the open source software model, as of August 2011, Firefox has a 28% usage share. Apples Safari had its first beta release in January 2003, as of April 2011, the most recent major entrant to the browser market is Chrome, first released in September 2008. Chromes take-up has increased year by year, by doubling its usage share from 8% to 16% by August 2011. This increase seems largely to be at the expense of Internet Explorer, in December 2011, Chrome overtook Internet Explorer 8 as the most widely used web browser but still had lower usage than all versions of Internet Explorer combined.
Chromes user-base continued to grow and in May 2012, Chromes usage passed the usage of all versions of Internet Explorer combined, by April 2014, Chromes usage had hit 45%. Internet Explorer was deprecated in Windows 10, with Microsoft Edge replacing it as the web browser. The ways that web browser makers fund their development costs has changed over time, the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, was a research project. In addition to being freeware, Netscape Navigator and Opera were sold commercially, Internet Explorer, on the other hand, was bundled free with the Windows operating system, and therefore it was funded partly by the sales of Windows to computer manufacturers and direct to users. Internet Explorer used to be available for the Mac, in this respect, IE may have contributed to Windows and Microsoft applications sales in another way, through lock-in to Microsofts browser
A website is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server. A website may be accessible via a public Internet Protocol network, such as the Internet, or a local area network. Websites have many functions and can be used in various fashions, a website can be a website, a commercial website for a company. Websites are typically dedicated to a topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents, typically composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language. They may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors, Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which may optionally employ encryption to provide security and privacy for the user.
The users application, often a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, Some websites require user registration or subscription to access content. As of 2016 end users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers, the World Wide Web was created in 1990 by the British CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to use for anyone, before the introduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server. These protocols offer a directory structure which the user navigates and chooses files to download. Documents were most often presented as text files without formatting. Websites have many functions and can be used in various fashions, a website can be a website, a commercial website.
Websites can be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites, as perceived by the user, can be blurred. Websites are written in, or converted to, HTML and are accessed using a software interface classified as a user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including computers, laptops, PDAs. A website is hosted on a system known as a web server. These terms can refer to the software that runs on these systems which retrieves
Courier is a monospaced slab serif typeface designed to resemble the output from a strike-on typewriter. The typeface was designed by Howard Bud Kettler in 1955, because IBM deliberately chose not to seek any copyright, trademark, or design patent protection, the Courier typeface cannot be trademarked or copyrighted and is completely royalty free. As a monospaced font, in the 1990s, it found renewed use in the world in situations where columns of characters must be consistently aligned. It has become a standard for all screenplays to be written in 12-point Courier or a close variant. 12-point Courier New was the U. S. State Departments standard typeface until January 2004, reasons for the change included the desire for a more modern and legible font. Kettler was once quoted about how the name was chosen, the font was nearly released with the name Messenger. After giving it thought, Kettler said, A letter can be just an ordinary messenger, or it can be the courier, which radiates dignity, prestige.
IBM made Courier freely available in Postscript Type 1 format, known as IBM Courier or simply Courier, it is available under the IBM/MIT X Consortium Courier Typefont agreement. Among other IBM specific characters it contains optionally a dotted zero, Courier New is a version produced by Monotype. The font family includes Courier New, Courier New Bold, Courier New Italic, Courier New features higher line space than Courier. Punctuation marks are reworked to make the dots and commas heavier, Courier New was introduced with Windows 3.1, which included raster Courier fonts. The fonts were sold commercially by Ascender Corporation. The Ascender fonts have WGL at the end of the font name, Courier New is used as the default font for monospace/modern generic font family in MS Windows. It is commonly used as the font for plain text email messages, version 2.76 or includes Hebrew and Arabic glyphs, with most of Arabic added on non-italic fonts. The styling of Arabic glyphs is similar to found in Times New Roman.
Courier New has been updated to version 5.00, which includes over 3100 glyphs, because the outlines of Courier New were so thin, a special hack was added for them in ClearType, thickening them in order to make them readable using the new rendering technology. Courier New Baltic, Courier New CE, Courier New Cyr, Courier New Greek and these entries all point to the master font. When an alias YEW font is specified, the character map contains a different character set from the master font
Safari (web browser)
Safari is a web browser developed by Apple based on the WebKit engine. First released in 2003 with Mac OS X Panther, a version has been included in iOS devices since the introduction of the iPhone in 2007. It is the browser on Apple devices. A Windows version, now discontinued, was available from 2007 to 2012, until 1997, Apple Macintosh computers were shipped with the Netscape Navigator and Cyberdog web browsers only. Internet Explorer for Mac was included as the web browser for Mac OS8.1 and onwards. Microsoft ultimately released a Mac OS X edition of Internet Explorer for Mac, on January 7,2003, at Macworld San Francisco, Steve Jobs announced that Apple had developed their own web browser, called Safari. It was based on Apples internal fork of the KHTML rendering engine, Apple released the first beta version for OS X that day. A number of official and unofficial beta versions followed, until version 1.0 was released on June 23,2003. 1.0.3, released on August 13,2004 was the last version to support Mac OS X v10.2, while 1.3.2, however,10.3 received security updates through 2007.
On April 27,2005, he announced that his development version of Safari now passed the test, Safari 2.0 was released on April 29,2005, as the only web browser included with Mac OS X v10.4. This version was touted by Apple as possessing a 1. 8x speed boost over version 1.2.4, Apple eventually released version 2.0.2 of Safari, which included the modifications required to pass Acid2, on October 31,2005. In June 2005, after criticism from KHTML developers over lack of access to change logs, Apple moved the development source code. WebKit itself was released as open source. The source code for non-renderer aspects of the browser, such as its GUI elements, the final stable version of Safari 2, Safari 2.0.4, was released on January 10,2006 for Mac OS X. It was only available as part of Mac OS X Update 10.4.4 and this version addresses layout and CPU usage issues, among others. Safari 2.0.4 was the last version to be released exclusively on Mac OS X until version 6 in 2012, on January 9,2007, at Macworld SF, Jobs announced Apples iPhone, which would use a mobile version of the Safari browser.
On June 11,2007, at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference, Jobs announced Safari 3 for Mac OS X v10.5, Windows XP, and Windows Vista. During the announcement, he ran a benchmark based on the iBench browser test suite comparing the most popular Windows browsers, hence claiming that Safari was the fastest browser
Internet Explorer is a discontinued series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995. It was first released as part of the add-on package Plus. for Windows 95 that year, versions were available as free downloads, or in service packs, and included in the original equipment manufacturer service releases of Windows 95 and versions of Windows. Internet Explorer was one of the most widely used web browsers and this came after Microsoft used bundling to win the first browser war against Netscape, which was the dominant browser in the 1990s. Estimates for Internet Explorers overall market share range from 5. 45% to 27. 38% or by StatCounters numbers ranked 3rd, just after Firefox, as of August 2016. Microsoft spent over US$100 million per year on Internet Explorer in the late 1990s, on March 17,2015, Microsoft announced that Microsoft Edge would replace Internet Explorer as the default browser on its Windows 10 devices.
This effectively makes Internet Explorer 11 the last release, Internet Explorer will, remain on some versions of Windows 10 primarily for enterprise purposes. Starting January 12,2016, only Internet Explorer 11 is supported with more security than older versions, support varies based on the operating systems technical capabilities and its support lifecycle. The Internet Explorer project was started in the summer of 1994 by Thomas Reardon, which was an early commercial web browser with formal ties to the pioneering National Center for Supercomputing Applications Mosaic browser. In late 1994, Microsoft licensed Spyglass Mosaic for a fee plus a percentage of Microsofts non-Windows revenues for the software. Although bearing a similar to NCSA Mosaic, Spyglass Mosaic had used the NCSA Mosaic source code sparingly. Microsoft was sued by Synet Inc. in 1996, over the trademark infringement, the first version of Internet Explorer, Microsoft Internet Explorer made its debut on August 16,1995. It was a version of Spyglass Mosaic, which Microsoft licensed from Spyglass Inc. like many other companies initiating browser development.
It was installed as part of the Internet Jumpstart Kit in Microsoft Plus. for Windows 95, the Internet Explorer team began with about six people in early development. Internet Explorer 1.5 was released months for Windows NT. By including it free of charge on their system, they did not have to pay royalties to Spyglass Inc, resulting in a lawsuit. Windows Internet Explorer 9 was released on March 14,2011, development for Internet Explorer 9 began shortly after the release of Internet Explorer 8. At MIX10, Microsoft showed and publicly released the first Platform Preview for Internet Explorer 9, eight platform previews were released. The first public beta was released at an event in San Francisco
Verdana is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Matthew Carter for Microsoft Corporation, with hand-hinting done by Thomas Rickner, at Monotype. Demand for such a typeface was recognized by Virginia Howlett of Microsofts typography group, the name Verdana is based on verdant, and Ana. Bearing similarities to humanist sans-serif typefaces such as Frutiger, Verdana was designed to be readable at small sizes on the computer screens of the period. Like many designs of type, Verdana has a large x-height, with wider proportions. The counters and apertures are wide, to keep strokes clearly separate from one another, the bold weight is thicker than would be normal with fonts for print use, suiting the limitations of onscreen display. Carter has described spacing as an area he worked on during the design process. This is similar to the digit 1 found in Morris Fuller Bentons sans-serif typefaces News Gothic and Franklin Gothic. Released in 1996, Verdana was bundled with subsequent versions of the Windows operating system, as well as their Office and Internet Explorer software on Windows, classic Mac OS, and Mac OS X.
Since at least Mac OS X10.4 it is bundled with macOS itself. sit. hqx files. The downloadable files are available legally from third-party web sites. However, these include only old versions of Verdana and updated versions are not available as a freeware. According to one long-running survey, the availability of Verdana is 99. 70% on Windows,98. 05% on computers running Mac OS, despite this, Verdana was initially used as one of the bundled book-reading fonts on the iPad before an update in 2011. Verdana Ref is a version of Verdana for use with Microsoft Reference. It is used in Microsoft Bookshelf 2000, Encarta Encyclopedia Deluxe 99, Encarta Virtual Globe 99, Office 2000 Premium, MS Reference Sans Serif is a derivative of Verdana Ref with bold and italic fonts. This font family is included with Microsoft Encarta, Tahoma is similar to Verdana but with tighter letter spacing. The Windows Mobile core font Nina is a condensed version of Tahoma. Microsoft licensed rights to Verdana to Font Bureau for a new Verdana Pro release, Verdana Pro adds light, semi-bold and black styles with italics, as well as condensed styles with italics across all weights.
The expanded family was designed for organisations which had extensive use of Verdana due to its availability
Internet Explorer 9
Windows Internet Explorer 9 is a version of the Internet Explorer web browser from Microsoft. It was released to the public on March 14,2011, Microsoft has released Internet Explorer 9 as a major out-of-band version that is not tied to the release schedule of any particular version of Windows, unlike previous versions. The system requirements for Internet Explorer 9 are Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows XP and earlier are not supported. Internet Explorer 9 is the last version of Internet Explorer to be supported on Windows Vista, both IA-32 and x64 builds are available. Internet Explorer 9 supports several CSS3 properties, embedded ICC v2 or v4 color profiles support via Windows Color System and it is the last of the five major web browsers to implement support for Scalable Vector Graphics. Internet Explorer 9 supports the HTML5 video and audio tags, development of Internet Explorer 9 began shortly after Internet Explorer 8 was released. Microsoft began taking features suggestions through Microsoft Connect soon after Internet Explorer 8 was released, Microsoft announced that they had joined the W3Cs SVG Working Group, which sparked speculation that Internet Explorer 9 will support the SVG W3C recommendation.
On November 23,2010, two updates for the Internet Explorer 9 Public Beta were released, kB2448827 brings improvements to reliability and fixes stability issues from the previous beta release. There are not much details of resolved issues disclosed by Microsoft, moreover, KB2452648 resolves the in-built feedback issue with Internet Explorer 9 and the latest version of Windows Live Sign-in Assistant. These updates can be fetched from Windows Update or the Microsoft Download Center website, on the same day, Internet Explorer build 9.0.8027.6000 based on Internet Explorer 9 Platform Preview 7 was leaked. On February 10,2011, the Internet Explorer 9 Release Candidate, the Release Candidate version featured improved performance, a Tracking Protection feature, a refined UI, support for more web standards, and other improvements. The final version of Internet Explorer 9 was publicly released during the South by Southwest Interactive conference in Austin, Internet Explorer 9 includes significant alterations to its user interface when compared with previous versions.
These include, Pinned Sites, Integrates with the Windows 7 taskbar to make web site experience more like an application where users may pin a site, tabs can be torn off which means they can be dragged up and down to be moved from one IE window to another
Cascading Style Sheets
Cascading Style Sheets is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language. It can display the web page differently depending on the size or viewing device. Readers can specify a different style sheet, such as a CSS file stored on their own computer, to override the one the author specified. Changes to the design of a document can be applied quickly and easily, by editing a few lines in the CSS file they use. The CSS specification describes a priority scheme to determine which style rules apply if more than one rule matches against a particular element, in this so-called cascade, priorities are calculated and assigned to rules, so that the results are predictable. The CSS specifications are maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium, Internet media type text/css is registered for use with CSS by RFC2318. The W3C operates a free CSS validation service for CSS documents, CSS has a simple syntax and uses a number of English keywords to specify the names of various style properties. A style sheet consists of a list of rules, each rule or rule-set consists of one or more selectors, and a declaration block.
In CSS, selectors declare which part of the markup a style applies to by matching tags, Selectors may apply to, all elements of a specific type, e. g. Classes and IDs are case-sensitive, start with letters, and can include alphanumeric characters and underscores. A class may apply to any number of instances of any elements, an ID may only be applied to a single element. Pseudo-classes are used in CSS selectors to permit formatting based on information that is not contained in the document tree. One example of a widely used pseudo-class is, which identifies content only when the points to the visible element. It is appended to a selector as in a, hover or #elementid, a pseudo-class classifies document elements, such as, link or, whereas a pseudo-element makes a selection that may consist of partial elements, such as, first-line or, first-letter. Selectors may be combined in ways to achieve great specificity and flexibility. Multiple selectors may be joined in a spaced list to specify elements by location, element type, id, the order of the selectors is important.
For example, div. myClass applies to all elements of class myClass that are inside div elements, the following table provides a summary of selector syntax indicating usage and the version of CSS that introduced it. A declaration block consists of a list of declarations in braces, each declaration itself consists of a property, a colon, and a value. If there are multiple declarations in a block, a semi-colon must be inserted to separate each declaration, properties are specified in the CSS standard
Cursive, is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster. Formal cursive is generally joined, but casual cursive is a combination of joins, the writing style can be further divided as looped, italic, or connected. The cursive method is used with a number of alphabets due to its improved writing speed, in some alphabets, many or all letters in a word are connected sometimes making a word two single complex strokes. Cursive is any style of penmanship in which the symbols of the language are written in a conjoined and/or flowing manner and this writing style is distinct from printscript using block letters, in which the letters of a word are unconnected and in Roman/Gothic letterform rather than joined-up script. Not all cursive copybooks join all letters, formal cursive is generally joined, in the Arabic, Syriac and Cyrillic alphabets, many or all letters in a word are connected, sometimes making a word one single complex stroke.
In Hebrew cursive and Roman cursive, the letters are not connected, in Maharashtra there is a version of Cursive called Modi In looped cursive penmanship, some ascenders and descenders have loops which provide for joins. Cursive italic penmanship—derived from chancery cursive—uses non-looped joins or no joins, in italic cursive, there are no joins from g, j, q or y, and a few other joins are discouraged. Italic penmanship became popular in the 15th-century Italian Renaissance, the term italic as it relates to handwriting is not to be confused with italic typed letters that slant forward. Many, but not all, letters in the handwriting of the Renaissance were joined, the origins of the cursive method is associated with practical advantages of writing speed and infrequent pen lifting to accommodate the limitations of the quill. Quills are fragile, easily broken, and will spatter unless used properly, steel dip pens followed quills, they were sturdier, but still had some limitations. The individuality of the provenance of a document was a factor also, the term cursive derives from the 18th century Italian corsivo from Medieval Latin cursivus, which literally means running.
This term in turn derives from Latin currere, Modi is a script used to write the Marathi language, which is the primary language spoken in the state of Maharashtra, India. There are at least two different theories concerning its origin, modI was an official script used to write Marathi until the 20th century when the Balbodh style of the Devanagari script was promoted as the standard writing system for Marathi. Although Modi was primarily used to write Marathi, other such as Urdu, Gujarati, Hindi. In Bengali cursive script the letters are more likely to be more curvy in appearance than in standard Bengali handwriting, the horizontal supporting bar on each letter runs continuously through the entire word, unlike in standard handwriting. Roman cursive is a form of handwriting used in ancient Rome and it is customarily divided into old cursive, and new cursive. New Roman cursive, called minuscule cursive or Roman cursive, the Greek alphabet has had several cursive forms in the course of its development.
In antiquity, a form of handwriting was used in writing on papyrus
Times New Roman
Although no longer used by The Times, Times New Roman is still very common in book and general printing. Through distribution as a computer font, it has become one of the most widely used typefaces in history. Times New Romans creation took place through the influence of Stanley Morison of Monotype and this matched a common trend in printing of the period. Morison proposed an older Monotype typeface named Plantin as a basis for the design, in particular, contrast between strokes was enhanced to give a crisper image. The new font was drawn by Victor Lardent, an artist from the department of The Times, with Morison consulting. The new design made its debut in The Times on 3 October 1932, after one year, the design was released for commercial sale. However, all the new fonts have been variants of the original New Roman typeface, in commercial sale, Times New Roman became extremely successful, becoming Monotypes best-selling typeface of all in metal type. Although Morison did not literally draw the design, his influence on its concept was sufficient that he felt that he could take credit for it as my one effort at designing a fount.
In Times New Romans name, Roman is a reference to the style of a conventional serif font, or what is called its roman. Roman type has some roots in Italian printing of the late 15th and early 16th centuries, Times New Roman has a robust colour on the page and influences of European early modern and Baroque printing. The design is slightly condensed, with ascenders and descenders. This style is sometimes categorised as part of the old-style of serif fonts, Morison admired this style for its solid structure and clarity. Other changes from Plantin include a straight-sided M and W with three terminals not Plantins four, both choices that move away from the old-style model. It has, more in common with the eighteenth century, Morison himself told Harry Carter that the italic owes more to Didot than dogma. Morison wrote in a letter of Times New Romans mixed heritage that it has the merit of not looking as if it had been designed by somebody in particular. The development of Times New Roman was relatively involved due to the lack of a specific pre-existing model – or perhaps a surfeit of possible choices.
Walter Tracy, who knew Lardent, suggested in the 1980s that Morison did not begin with a vision of the ultimate type. During the project and The Times examined research on legibility of type, Rhatigan has said that Lardents originals show the spirit of the final type, but not the details