A brand is a name, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes one seller’s product from those of others. Brands are used in business and advertising, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company from competitors, the key components that form a brands toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, and various branding strategies. Brand equity is the totality of a brands worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components. To reach such an invaluable brand prestige requires a commitment to a way of doing business. A corporation who exhibits a strong brand culture is dedicated on producing intangible outputs such as customer satisfaction, reduced price sensitivity and customer loyalty. A brand is in essence a promise to its customers that they can expect long-term security, when a customer is familiar with a brand or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity.
Many companies are beginning to understand there is often little to differentiate between products in the 21st century. Branding remains the last bastion for differentiation, in accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset is often the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. The word ‘brand’ is often used as a referring to the company that is strongly identified with a brand. Marque or make are often used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, a concept brand is a brand that is associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business. A commodity brand is a associated with a commodity. The word, derives from Dutch brand meaning to burn and this product was developed at Dhosi Hill, an extinct volcano in northern India. Roman glassmakers branded their works, with Ennion being the most prominent, the Italians used brands in the form of watermarks on paper in the 13th century. Blind Stamps and silver-makers marks are all types of brand, industrialization moved the production of many household items, such as soap, from local communities to centralized factories.
When shipping their items, the factories would literally brand their logo or insignia on the barrels used, Bass & Company, the British brewery, claims their red-triangle brand as the worlds first trademark. Another example comes from Antiche Fornaci Giorgi in Italy, which has stamped or carved its bricks with the same proto-logo since 1731, cattle-branding has been used since Ancient Egypt. The term, originally meaning an un-branded calf, came from a Texas pioneer rancher, Sam Maverick, use of the word maverick spread among cowboys and came to apply to unbranded calves found wandering alone
Solex is a French manufacturer of carburetors and the powered bicycle VéloSoleX. Solex carburetors were used by many top European automobile marques, such as Rolls-Royce, Citroën, Volkswagen, SAAB and they were licensed, with Japanese maker Mikuni supplying them to Toyota, Suzuki and others. The Solex company was founded by Marcel Mennesson and Maurice Goudard to manufacture vehicle radiators and these were fitted to several makes of early cars including Delaunay-Belleville and buses of the Paris General Omnibus company. After World War I, the business went into decline. The Solex brand is now owned by Magneti Marelli, the original Solex company changed its name in 1994 to Magneti Marelli France and on May 31,2001, Magneti Marelli France partially bought its assets from Magneti Marelli Motopropulsion France S. A. S. Solex manufactured carburetors used by some of the most famous European marques, including Rolls-Royce Motors, Citroën, and Volkswagen. They were employed in performance vehicles by makers such as Porsche, BMW, Alfa Romeo, and Mercedes Benz, domestic automakers and motorcycle manufacturers using Mikuni carburetors include, Toyota Mitsubishi Suzuki Yamaha The Vélosolex has a 49 cc motor mounted above the front wheel.
Power is delivered via a small ceramic roller that rotates directly on the front wheel by friction to the tire. The first prototype of a VeloSolex was created in 1941 and used regular bicycle frames such as those under the Alcyon brand and were powered by a 45 cc engine developed by Solex. VELOSOLEX were produced commercially and sold starting in 1946 with a 45 cc engine without clutch and it was constructed under licence in many countries. Today, the Velosolex is again manufactured in France, the trademark VELOSOLEX is the property of Velosolex America, LLC which markets the Velosolex motorized bicycle worldwide. 1905, The company was created by Maurice Goudard and Marcel Mennesson,1973, the carburetor division is taken over by Matra, and by Magneti Marelli, by Renault and Motobécane in 1974. 1983, Motobécane is bought by Yamaha and becomes MBK,1988, production in France, at Saint-Quentin, ends. Circa 2001 production ceased in China and restarted in France, in June 2004, the mark Solex was bought by the French group CIBIÉ In October 2005 CIBIÉ launches the e-Solex, designed by Pininfarina and produced in China In 2009, CIBLE launches the e-Solex 2.
Mikuni Velosolex America official web site Magneti Marelli Velosolex collection - technical descriptions Steve McQueen rode a Velosolex SoleXin - a list of SoleX resources
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, manufacturing and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers. It is one of the worlds most important economic sectors by revenue, the term automotive was created from Greek autos, and Latin motivus to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by Elmer Sperry, the automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, at that time the U. S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U. S. produced about 75 percent of auto production. In 1980, the U. S. was overtaken by Japan, in 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U. S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U. S. production, with 10.3 million units, from 1970 over 1998 to 2012, the number of automobile models in the U. S. has grown exponentially.
Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, in the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies there is no risk of damage. Safety in the industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international. The standard ISO26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety. In case of safety issues, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle and this procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.
Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres of gasoline, the automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down. It is expected that this trend will continue, especially as the generations of people no longer want to own a car anymore
Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, usually known under its abbreviation BMW, is a German luxury vehicle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916. It is one of the luxury automakers in the world. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, headquartered in Munich, Bavaria, BMW owns Mini cars and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW was established as a business entity following a restructuring of the Rapp Motorenwerke aircraft manufacturing firm in 1912 named Aerowerke Gustav Otto, after the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft-engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. The company consequently shifted to production as the restrictions of the treaty started to be lifted in 1923. BMWs first significant aircraft engine, and commercial product of any sort, was the BMW IIIa inline-six liquid-cooled engine of 1918, known for good fuel economy, with German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe.
The factory in Munich made ample use of forced labour, foreign civilians, prisoners of war, the few Me 262 A-1b test examples built used the more developed version of the 003 jet, recording an official top speed of 800 km/h. The first-ever four-engine jet aircraft flown were the sixth and eighth prototypes of the Arado Ar 234 jet reconnaissance-bomber. Through 1944 the 003s reliability improved, making it a power plant for air frame designs competing for the Jägernotprogramms light fighter production contract. Which was won by the Heinkel He 162 Spatz design, the BMW003 aviation turbojet was under consideration as the basic starting point for a pioneering turboshaft powerplant for German armored fighting vehicles in 1944–45, as the GT101. Towards the end of the Third Reich, BMW developed some military aircraft projects for the Luftwaffe, the BMW Strahlbomber, the BMW Schnellbomber and the BMW Strahljäger, but none of them were built. By the year 1958, the division of BMW was in financial difficulties.
It was decided to carry on by trying to cash in on the current economy car boom exploited so successfully by German ex-aircraft manufacturers such as Messerschmitt, BMW bought the rights to manufacture the Italian Iso Isetta. BMWs version of the cars were to be powered by a modified form of BMWs motorcycle engine. This was moderately successful and helped the company get back on its feet, since 1959, the controlling majority shareholder of the BMW Aktiengesellschaft has been the Quandt family, which owns about 46% of the stock. The rest is in public float, BMW acquired the Hans Glas company based in Dingolfing, Germany, in 1966. Glas vehicles were badged as BMW until the company was fully absorbed. However, this factory was outmoded and BMWs biggest immediate gain was, according to themselves, the Glas factories continued to build a limited number of their existing models, while adding the manufacture of BMW front and rear axles until they could be closer incorporated into BMW
A barrel, cask, or tun is a hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wooden staves bound by wooden or metal hoops. Traditionally, the barrel was a size of measure referring to a set capacity or weight of a given commodity. For example, in the UK a barrel of beer refers to a quantity of 36 imperial gallons, wine was shipped in barrels of 119 litres. Modern barrels and casks can be made of aluminum, stainless steel, someone who makes barrels is called a barrel maker or cooper. Barrels are only one type of cooperage, other types include, but are not limited to, tubs, butter churns, firkins, kilderkins, rundlets, pipes, butts and breakers. An aging barrel is used to age wine, distilled spirits such as whiskey, brandy, or rum, tabasco sauce, when a wine or spirit ages in a barrel, small amounts of oxygen are introduced as the barrel lets some air in. Oxygen enters a barrel when water or alcohol is lost due to evaporation, in an environment with 100% relative humidity, very little water evaporates and so most of the loss is alcohol, a useful trick if one has a wine with very high proof.
Most beverages are topped up from other barrels to prevent significant oxidation, although others such as vin jaune, beverages aged in wooden barrels take on some of the compounds in the barrel, such as vanillin and wood tannins. The presence of these depends on many factors, including the place of origin, how the staves were cut and dried. After roughly three years, most of a barrels flavor compounds have been leached out and it is well on its way to becoming neutral, barrels used for aging are typically made of French or American oak, but chestnut and redwood are used. Some Asian beverages use Japanese cedar, which imparts an unusual, in Peru and Chile, a grape distillate named pisco is either aged in oak or in earthenware. Some wines are fermented on barrel, as opposed to in a container like steel or wine-grade HDPE tanks. Wine can be fermented in large tanks, which—when open to the atmosphere—are called open-tops. Other wooden cooperage for storing wine or spirits range from smaller barriques to huge casks, the tastes yielded by French and American species of oak are slightly different, with French oak being subtler, while American oak gives stronger aromas.
To retain the desired measure of oak influence, a winery will replace a certain percentage of its barrels every year, some winemakers use 200% new oak, where the wine is put into new oak barrels twice during the aging process. Bulk wines are more cheaply flavored by soaking oak chips in them instead of being aged in a barrel. Sherry is stored in 600-litre casks made of North American oak, the casks, or butts, are filled five-sixths full, leaving the space of two fists empty at the top to allow flor to develop on top of the wine. NOTE, This section uses both the U. S. –Irish typical spelling whiskey and the British–Canadian typical spelling whisky, laws in several jurisdictions require that whiskey be aged in wooden barrels
Ford Motor Company
The Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16,1903, the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer and Australian performance car manufacturer FPV, in the past, it has produced tractors and automotive components. Ford owns an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom, and it has a number of joint-ventures, one in China, one in Taiwan, one in Thailand, one in Turkey, and one in Russia. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, Fords former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010, in 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, Ford is the second-largest U. S. -based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe, Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants, the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. The Ford Motor Company was launched in a factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on car, assembling it from parts made mostly by supplier companies contracting for Ford.
Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company and it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz, between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, and S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year, in 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the Model A, Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors mid-priced Pontiac, Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. The creation of a laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Automobili Lamborghini S. p. A. is an Italian brand and manufacturer of luxury sports cars and SUVs based in SantAgata Bolognese, Italy. The company is owned by the Volkswagen Group through its subsidiary Audi, Ferruccio Lamborghini, an Italian manufacturing magnate, founded Automobili Ferruccio Lamborghini S. p. A. in 1963 to compete with established marques, including Ferrari. The company gained wide acclaim in 1966 for the Miura sports coupé, Lamborghini grew rapidly during its first decade, but sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis. The firms ownership changed three times after 1973, including a bankruptcy in 1978, American Chrysler Corporation took control of Lamborghini in 1987 and sold it to Malaysian investment group Mycom Setdco and Indonesian group VPower Corporation in 1994. In 1998, Mycom Setdco and VPower sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the groups Audi division, New products and model lines were introduced to the brands portfolio and brought to the market and saw an increased productivity for the brand Lamborghini.
In the late 2000s, during the financial crisis and the subsequent economic crisis, Lamborghinis sales saw a drop of nearly 50 percent. Lamborghini produces sports cars and V12 engines for powerboat racing. Lamborghini currently produces the V12-powered Aventador and the V10-powered Huracán, the companys first models, such as the 350 GT, were released in the mid-1960s and were noted for their refinement and comfort. Lamborghini gained wide acclaim in 1966 for the Miura sports coupé, Lamborghini grew rapidly during its first ten years, but sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis. Ferruccio Lamborghini sold ownership of the company to Georges-Henri Rossetti and René Leimer, the company went bankrupt in 1978, and was placed in the receivership of brothers Jean-Claude and Patrick Mimran in 1980. The Mimrans purchased the company out of receivership by 1984 and invested heavily in the companys expansion, under the Mimrans management, Lamborghinis model line was expanded from the Countach to include the Jalpa sports car and the LM002 high performance off-road vehicle.
The Mimrans sold Lamborghini to the Chrysler Corporation in 1987, in 1998, Mycom Setdco and VPower sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the groups Audi division. New products and model lines were introduced to the portfolio and brought to the market. In the late 2000s, during the financial crisis and the subsequent economic crisis, Lamborghinis sales saw a drop of nearly 50 percent. As of the 2015 model year, Lamborghinis automobile product range consists of two lines, both of which are mid-engine two-seat sports cars. The V12-powered Aventador line consists of the LP 700–4 coupé and roadster, the V10-powered Huracán line currently includes the all-wheel-drive LP 610-4 coupé and roadster, as well as the less powerful rear-wheel-drive LP 580-2 coupé. Lamborghini intends to double its car production by producing as many SUVs by 2018 as sports cars, motori Marini Lamborghini produces a large V12 marine engine block for use in World Offshore Series Class 1 powerboats.
A Lamborghini branded marine engine displaces approximately 8,171 cc, in the mid-1980s, Lamborghini produced a limited-production run of a 1,000 cc sports motorcycle
Kerosene, known as paraffin, lamp oil and coal oil, is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum, widely used as a fuel in industry as well as households. Its name derives from Greek, κηρός meaning wax, and was registered as a trademark by Abraham Gesner in 1854 before evolving into a genericized trademark and it is sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage. Liquid paraffin is a more viscous and highly refined product which is used as a laxative, paraffin wax is a waxy solid extracted from petroleum. Kerosene is widely used to power jet engines of aircraft and some rocket engines, in parts of Asia, where the price of kerosene is subsidized, it fuels outboard motors on small fishing boats. World total kerosene consumption for all purposes is equivalent to about 1.2 million barrels per day, to prevent confusion between kerosene and the much more flammable and volatile gasoline, some jurisdictions regulate markings or colorings for containers used to store or dispense kerosene.
For example, in the United States, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania requires that portable containers used at retail service stations be colored blue and it is miscible in petroleum solvents but immiscible in water. The American Society for Testing and Materials standard specification D-3699-78 recognizes two grades of kerosene, grades 1-K and 2-K, regardless of crude oil source or processing history, kerosenes major components are branched and straight chain alkanes and naphthenes, which normally account for at least 70% by volume. Aromatic hydrocarbons in this range, such as alkylbenzenes and alkylnaphthalenes. Olefins are usually not present at more than 5% by volume, the flash point of kerosene is between 37 and 65 °C, and its autoignition temperature is 220 °C. The pour point of kerosene depends on grade, with aviation fuel standardized at −47 °C. 1-K grade kerosene freezes around -40 °C, heat of combustion of kerosene is similar to that of diesel fuel, its lower heating value is 43.1 MJ/kg, and its higher heating value is 46.2 MJ/kg.
In the United Kingdom, two grades of heating oil are defined, BS2869 Class C1 is the lightest grade used for lanterns, camping stoves, wick heaters, and mixed with gasoline in some vintage combustion engines as a substitute for tractor vaporising oil. BS2869 Class C2 is a heavier distillate, which is used as heating oil. Premium kerosene is sold in 5 or 20 liter containers from hardware, camping. Standard kerosene is usually dispensed in bulk by a tanker and is undyed and international standards define the properties of several grades of kerosene used for jet fuel. Flash point and freezing point properties are of particular interest for operation and safety, the process of distilling crude oil/petroleum into kerosene, as well as other hydrocarbon compounds, was first written about in the 9th century by the Persian scholar Rāzi. In his Kitab al-Asrar, the physician and chemist Razi described two methods for the production of kerosene, termed naft abyad, using an apparatus called an alembic, one method used clay as an absorbent, whereas the other method used ammonium chloride.
The distillation process was repeated until all most of the volatile hydrocarbon fractions had been removed, Kerosene was produced during the same period from oil shale and bitumen by heating the rock to extract the oil, which was distilled
Edoardo Weber was an Italian engineer and businessman, famous for creating the Weber carburetor. He was born in Torino to a Swiss father and mother from Piemonte, after graduating in mechanical engineering from the Università degli Studi di Torino he moved to Bologna to work for Fiat. He was a tutor to Amédée Gordini and, at Mugello and his work to remedy high gasoline prices resulted in the first Weber carburetor, a sidedraft, twin-choke. Bolted to a Weber designed overhead-valve/supercharger conversion for the 501 Fiat, Weber was with the Italian Fascist Party. In 1937 he received the Order of the Crown of Italy, Bologna was liberated on April 21 of 1945 by Italian Co-belligerent Army. Three weeks later, on May 17,1945, Weber was picked up from his office early in the morning by civilians who came to the factory in Via Del Timavo 18 and he was never seen since, assumedly executed by the Italian resistance movement. After his disappearance in May 1945, Fiat eventually assumed control of the company in 1952, in the Certosa di Bologna there is an empty tomb.
His widow Anna wrote a biography in 1972
The terminology can be used to describe forms of competition of two-wheeled motorised vehicles under the banner of motorcycle racing, and includes off-road racing such as motocross. Four- wheeled motorsport competition is governed by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. In 1894, a French newspaper organised a race from Paris to Rouen and back, in 1900, the Gordon Bennett Cup was established. Closed circuit racing arose as open road racing, on roads, was banned. Brooklands was the first dedicated motor racing track in the United Kingdom, following World War I, European countries organised Grand Prix races over closed courses. In the United States, dirt track racing became popular, after World War II, the Grand Prix circuit became more formally organised. In the United States, stock car racing and drag racing became firmly established, motorsports ultimately became divided by types of motor vehicles into racing events, and their appropriate organisations. Open-wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, with their wheels outside of.
However, in North America, the IndyCar series is their pinnacle open-wheeled racing series, more recently, new open-wheeled series have been created, originating in Europe, which omit the Formula moniker, such as GP2 and GP3. Former Formula series include Formula 5000 and Formula Two, the formula regulations contain a very strict set of rules which govern vehicle power and size. In the United States, Indy Car is a class of single seat paved track racing and its premier race is the Indianapolis 500. Enclosed wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, where the wheels are primarily enclosed inside the bodywork of the vehicle, sports car racing is a set of classes of vehicles, over a closed course track, including sports cars, and specialised racing types. The premiere race is the 24 Hours of Le Mans which takes place annually in France during the month of June, sports car racing rules and specifications differentiate in North America from established international sanctioning bodies. Stock car racing is a set of vehicles, that race over a speedway track, while once stock cars, the vehicles are now purpose built, but resemble the body design and shape of production cars. NASCAR was organised in 1947, to flat track oval racing of production cars.
Daytona Beach and Road Course was founded where land speed records were set on the beach, touring car racing is a set of vehicles, modified street cars, that race over closed purpose built race tracks and street courses. Motorsport was an event at the 1900 Summer Olympics
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization. In a philosophical context, the world is the whole of the physical Universe, in a theological context, the world is the material or the profane sphere, as opposed to the celestial, transcendent or sacred. The end of the world refers to scenarios of the end of human history. World history is understood as spanning the major geopolitical developments of about five millennia. World population is the sum of all human populations at any time, world economy is the sum of the economies of all societies or countries, terms like world championship, gross world product, world flags imply the sum or combination of all current-day sovereign states. The English word world comes from the Old English weorold, worold, a compound of wer man and eld age, which thus means roughly Age of Man. The Old English is a reflex of the Common Germanic *wira-alđiz, reflected in Old Saxon werold, Old High German weralt, the corresponding word in Latin is mundus, literally clean, itself a loan translation of Greek cosmos orderly arrangement.
Earth, on the hand, refers to the planet as a physical entity. World was used to mean the material universe, or the cosmos, The worlde is an apte frame of heauen and earthe. The earth was often described as the center of the world, World can be used attributively, to mean global, relating to the whole world, forming usages such as world community or world canonical texts. By extension, a world may refer to any planet or heavenly body, especially when it is thought of as inhabited, World, in its original sense, when qualified, can refer to a particular domain of human experience. The world of work describes paid work and the pursuit of a career, in all its aspects, to distinguish it from home life. The fashion world describes the environment of the designers, fashion houses, the New World vs. the Old World, referring to the parts of the world colonized in the wake of the age of discovery. Now mostly used in zoology and botany, as in New World monkey, in philosophy, the term world has several possible meanings.
In some contexts, it refers to everything that makes up reality or the physical universe, in others, it can mean have a specific ontological sense. The question of what the world is has by no means been settled, in his Allegory of the Cave, Plato distinguishes between forms and ideas and imagines two distinct worlds, the sensible world and the intelligible world. In Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegels philosophy of history, the expression Weltgeschichte ist Weltgericht is used to assert the view that History is what judges men, their actions, science is born from the desire to transform the World in relation to Man, its final end is technical application. The World as Will and Representation is the work of Arthur Schopenhauer