Rackspace Email is an email hosting service offering paid email accounts for businesses using their own domain name. The Rackspace Email service started in 2001 through the held company, Webmail.us. Webmail.us was acquired by Rackspace in 2007. In 2008 it was re-branded as Mailtrust and Managed Microsoft Exchange was added to the portfolio. In May of 2009, Mailtrust became known as Rackspace Email and Apps. In 2014 the Email and Apps division became known as Rackspace Cloud Office. Rackspace Email includes the following features: Mailbox Size: 25 GB Email attachment limit: 50 MB Supported protocols: POP3, IMAP, SMTP Custom domains Shared calendaring and contacts Webmail Chat Spam and Phishing protection Secure mail access and transfer using SSL/TLS/HTTPS Email aliases and group lists Recover deleted email White-label branding Control panel and REST API for account management Sender authentication using DKIM and DMARC Split domain routing Ad free US and UK based 24x7x365 technical support 100% uptime SLA Free email migrations Rackspace Email Plus is an optional add-on that provides the following additional capabilities: MobileSync for contact and calendar synchronization with iOS and Android devices using ActiveSync.
30 GB Cloud Drive for file storage and backup Desktop file synchronization for Windows and Mac Online document and spreadsheet editors File sharing and collaborative editing Rackspace Email Archiving is an optional add-on that provides an envelope journaling based searchable archive with unlimited storage and unlimited retention. Rackspace Email is capable of working together with Rackspace Hosted Exchange mailboxes on the same domain. Comparison of webmail providers Rackspace Official website Rackspace Email webmail login page Rackspace Email support information
University of Miami
The University of Miami is a private, nonsectarian research university in Coral Gables, United States. As of 2018, the university enrolls 17,331 students in 12 separate colleges/schools, including the Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine in Miami's Health District, a law school on the main campus, the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science focused on the study of oceanography and atmospheric sciences on Virginia Key, with research facilities at the Richmond Facility in southern Miami-Dade County; the university offers 138 undergraduate, 144 master's, 68 doctoral degree programs, of which 64 are research/scholarship and four professional areas of study. Over the years, the university's students have represented all 50 states and close to 150 foreign countries. With more than 15,000 full and part-time faculty and staff, UM is a top 10 employer in Miami-Dade County. UM's main campus in Coral Gables has over 5.7 million square feet of buildings. Research is a component of each academic division, with UM attracting $345.8 million in sponsored research grants in FY 2018.
UM offers a large library system with over 3.9 million volumes and exceptional holdings in Cuban heritage and music. UM offers a wide range of student activities, including fraternities and sororities, a student newspaper and a radio station. UM's intercollegiate athletic teams, collectively known as the Miami Hurricanes, compete in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. UM's football team has won five national championships since 1983 and its baseball team has won four national championships since 1982. A group of citizens chartered the University of Miami in 1925 with the intent to offer "unique opportunities to develop inter-American studies, to further creative work in the arts and letters, to conduct teaching and research programs in tropical studies", they believed. They were overly optimistic about future financial support for UM because the South Florida land boom was at its peak. During the Jim Crow era, there were three large state-funded universities in Florida for white males, white females, black coeds.
The university began in earnest in 1925 when George E. Merrick, the founder of Coral Gables, gave 160 acres and nearly $5 million, to the effort; these contributions were land contracts and mortgages on real estate, sold in the city. The university was chartered on April 1925 by the Circuit Court for Dade County. By the fall of 1926, when the first class of 372 students enrolled at UM, the land boom had collapsed, hopes for a speedy recovery were dashed by a major hurricane. For the next 15 years the university remained solvent; the first building on campus, now known as the Merrick Building, was left half built for over two decades due to economic difficulties. In the meantime, classes were held at the nearby Anastasia Hotel, with partitions separating classrooms, giving the university the early nickname of "Cardboard College."In 1929, founding member William E. Walsh and other members of the Board of Regents resigned in the wake of the collapse of the Florida economy. UM's plight was so severe that students went door to door in Coral Gables collecting funds to keep it open.
A reconstituted ten-member Board was chaired by UM's first president Bowman Foster Ashe. The new board included Merrick, Theodore Dickinson, E. B. Douglas, David Fairchild, James H. Gilman, Richardson Saunders, Frank B. Shutts, Joseph H. Adams, J. C. Penney. In 1930, several faculty members and more than 60 students came to UM when the University of Havana closed due to political unrest. UM filed for bankruptcy in 1932. In July 1934, the University of Miami was reincorporated and a Board of Trustees replaced the Board of Regents. By 1940, community leaders were replacing administration as trustees; the university survived this early turmoil. During Ashe's presidency, the university added the School of Law, the Business School, the School of Education, the Graduate School, the Marine Laboratory, the School of Engineering, the School of Medicine. During World War II, UM was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered students a path to a Navy commission.
One of Ashe's longtime assistants, Jay F. W. Pearson, assumed the presidency in 1952. A charter faculty member and a marine biologist by trade, Pearson retained the position until 1962. During his presidency, UM awarded its first doctorate degrees and saw an increase in enrollment of more than 4,000; the social changes of the 1960s and 1970s were reflected at UM. In 1961, UM began to admit black students. African Americans were allowed full participation in student activities and sports teams. After President Stanford pressed for minority athletes, in December 1966, UM signed Ray Bellamy, an African American football player. With Bellamy, UM became the first major college in the Deep South with a Black football player on scholarship. UM established an Office of Minority Affairs to promote diversity in both undergraduate and professional school admissions. With the start of the 1968 football season, President Henry Stanford barred the playing of "Dixie" by the university's band. UM regulated female student conduct more than men's conduct with a staff under the Dean of Women watching over the women.
UM combined the separate Dean of Men and Dean of Women positions in 1971. In 19
Outlook.com is a web-based suite of webmail, contacts and calendaring services from Microsoft. One of the world's first webmail services, it was founded in 1996 as Hotmail by Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith in Mountain View and headquartered in Sunnyvale. Microsoft acquired Hotmail in 1997 for an estimated $400 million and launched it as MSN Hotmail rebranded to Windows Live Hotmail as part of the Windows Live suite of products. Microsoft released the final version of Hotmail in October 2011 and it was replaced by Outlook.com in 2013. Hotmail service was founded by Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith, was one of the first webmail services on the Internet along with Four11's RocketMail, it was commercially launched on July 4, 1996, symbolizing "freedom" from ISP-based email and the ability to access a user's inbox from anywhere in the world. The name "Hotmail" was chosen out of many possibilities ending in "-mail" as it included the letters HTML, the markup language used to create web pages; the limit for free storage was 2 MB.
Hotmail was backed by venture capital firm Draper Fisher Jurvetson. By December 1997, it reported more than 8.5 million subscribers. Hotmail ran under Solaris for mail services and Apache on FreeBSD for web services, before being converted to Microsoft products, using Windows Services for UNIX in the migration path. Hotmail was sold to Microsoft in December 1997 for a reported $400 million, it joined the MSN group of services. Hotmail gained in popularity as it was localized for different markets around the globe, became the world's largest webmail service with more than 30 million active members reported by February 1999. Hotmail ran on a mixture of FreeBSD and Solaris operating systems. A project was started to move Hotmail to Windows 2000. In June 2001, Microsoft claimed. In 2002 Hotmail still ran its infrastructure on UNIX servers, with only the front-end converted to Windows 2000. Development saw the service tied with Microsoft's web authentication scheme, Microsoft Passport, integration with Microsoft's instant messaging and social networking programs, MSN Messenger and MSN Spaces.
In 1999, hackers revealed a security flaw in Hotmail that permitted anybody to log in to any Hotmail account using the password'eh'. At the time it was called "the most widespread security incident in the history of the Web". In 2001, the Hotmail service was compromised again by computer hackers who discovered that anyone could log in to their Hotmail account and pull messages from any other Hotmail account by crafting a URL with the second account's username and a valid message number, it was such a simple attack that by the time the patch was made, dozens of newspapers and hundreds of web sites published exact descriptions allowing tens of thousands of hackers to run rampant across Hotmail. The exploitable vulnerability exposed millions of accounts to tampering between August 7, 2001 and August 31, 2001. In 2004, Google announced Gmail. Featuring greater storage space and interface flexibility, this new competitor spurred a wave of innovation in webmail; the main industry heavyweights – Hotmail and Yahoo!
Mail – introduced upgraded versions of their email services with greater speed and advanced features. Microsoft's new email system was announced on November 1, 2005, under the codename "Kahuna", a beta version was released to a few thousand testers. Other webmail enthusiasts wanting to try the beta version could request an invitation granting access; the new service was built from scratch and emphasized three main concepts of being "faster and safer". New versions of the beta service were rolled out over the development period, by the end of 2006 the number of beta testers had reached the millions; the Hotmail brand was planned to be phased-out when Microsoft announced that the new mail system would be called Windows Live Mail, but the developers soon backtracked after beta-testers were confused with the name change and preferred the well-known Hotmail name, decided on Windows Live Hotmail. After a period of beta testing, it was released to new and existing users in the Netherlands on November 9, 2006, as a pilot market.
Development of the beta was finished in April 2007, Windows Live Hotmail was released to new registrations on May 7, 2007, as the 260 million MSN Hotmail accounts worldwide gained access to the new system. The old MSN Hotmail interface was accessible only by users who registered before the Windows Live Hotmail release date and had not chosen to update to the new service; the roll-out to all existing users was completed in October 2007. Windows Live Hotmail was awarded PC Magazine's Editor's Choice Award in February 2007, March 2007, February 2011. In 2008 it was announced that the service would be updated with focus on improving the speed, increasing the storage space, better user experience and usability features, that sign-in and email access speeds would be up to 70 percent faster; the classic and full versions of Windows Live Hotmail were combined in the new release. As a result of user feedback, Hotmail was updated so that scrolling works for users who have the reading pane turned off, it was expected that Hotmail team would be moving the advertisement from the top of page to the side, adding more themes, increasing the number of messages on each page and adding the ability to send instant messages from the user's inbox in future release
A web server is server software, or hardware dedicated to running said software, that can satisfy World Wide Web client requests. A web server can, in general, contain one or more websites. A web server processes incoming network requests over several other related protocols; the primary function of a web server is to store and deliver web pages to clients. The communication between client and server takes place using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol. Pages delivered are most HTML documents, which may include images, style sheets and scripts in addition to the text content. A user agent a web browser or web crawler, initiates communication by making a request for a specific resource using HTTP and the server responds with the content of that resource or an error message if unable to do so; the resource is a real file on the server's secondary storage, but this is not the case and depends on how the web server is implemented. While the primary function is to serve content, a full implementation of HTTP includes ways of receiving content from clients.
This feature is used for submitting web forms, including uploading of files. Many generic web servers support server-side scripting using Active Server Pages, PHP, or other scripting languages; this means that the behaviour of the web server can be scripted in separate files, while the actual server software remains unchanged. This function is used to generate HTML documents dynamically as opposed to returning static documents; the former is used for retrieving or modifying information from databases. The latter is much faster and more cached but cannot deliver dynamic content. Web servers can be found embedded in devices such as printers, routers and serving only a local network; the web server may be used as a part of a system for monitoring or administering the device in question. This means that no additional software has to be installed on the client computer since only a web browser is required. In March 1989 Sir Tim Berners-Lee proposed a new project to his employer CERN, with the goal of easing the exchange of information between scientists by using a hypertext system.
The project resulted in Berners-Lee writing two programs in 1990: A Web browser called WorldWideWeb The world's first web server known as CERN httpd, which ran on NeXTSTEPBetween 1991 and 1994, the simplicity and effectiveness of early technologies used to surf and exchange data through the World Wide Web helped to port them to many different operating systems and spread their use among scientific organizations and universities, subsequently to the industry. In 1994 Berners-Lee decided to constitute the World Wide Web Consortium to regulate the further development of the many technologies involved through a standardization process. Web servers are able to map the path component of a Uniform Resource Locator into: A local file system resource An internal or external program name For a static request the URL path specified by the client is relative to the web server's root directory. Consider the following URL as it would be requested by a client over HTTP: http://www.example.com/path/file.html The client's user agent will translate it into a connection to www.example.com with the following HTTP 1.1 request: GET /path/file.html HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com The web server on www.example.com will append the given path to the path of its root directory.
On an Apache server, this is /home/www. The result is the local file system resource: /home/www/path/file.html The web server reads the file, if it exists, sends a response to the client's web browser. The response will describe the content of the file and contain the file itself or an error message will return saying that the file does not exist or is unavailable. A web server can be either incorporated in user space. Web servers that run in user-mode have to ask the system for permission to use more memory or more CPU resources. Not only do these requests to the kernel take time, but they are not always satisfied because the system reserves resources for its own usage and has the responsibility to share hardware resources with all the other running applications. Executing in user mode can mean useless buffer copies which are another handicap for user-mode web servers. A web server has defined load limits, because it can handle only a limited number of concurrent client connections per IP address and it can serve only a certain maximum number of requests per second depending on: its own settings, the HTTP request type, whether the content is static or dynamic, whether the content is cached, the hardware and software limitations of the OS of the computer on which the web server runs.
When a web server is near to or over its limit, it becomes unresponsive. At any time web servers can be overloaded due to: Excess legitimate web traffic. Thousands or millions of clients connecting to the web site in a short interval, e.g. Slashdot effect. A denial-of-service attack or distributed denial-of-service attack is an attempt to make a computer or network resource unavailable to its intended users.
CRS4 known as Center for Advanced Studies and Development in Sardinia, is an interdisciplinary research center, founded by the Sardinia Autonomous Region on November 30, 1990. Since 2003, the center is located in the Comune of Pula. Several companies and research groups have chosen to establish their activities on this campus, giving rise to a thriving R&D community. CRS4 is a private research center; the center headed by the Nobel Prize in Physics Carlo Rubbia, has had the following Presidents: Nicola Cabibbo, Carlo Rubbia, Paolo Zanella, Luigi Filippini, Annalisa Bonfiglio. CRS4 made the first Italian Website in August 1993, collaborated to the creation of the first European web newspaper in 1994 and to one of the first and largest internet providers. In this sense CRS4 has been crucial for the development of the Internet and Web in Sardinia and Italy. Today about 150 researchers are working at CRS4 and the 6 main strategic research sectors are: Biosciences Data-Intensive Computing Energy and Environment High Performance Computing and Networks Information Society Visual ComputingCRS4 is one of the major Italian Computing Centers and is equipped with the first Genotyping and massive DNA Sequencing Platform in Italy and with a state-of-the-art Visual Computing laboratory.
Sardegna Ricerche CRS4
Web hosting service
A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to make their website accessible via the World Wide Web. Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server owned or leased for use by clients, as well as providing Internet connectivity in a data center. Web hosts can provide data center space and connectivity to the Internet for other servers located in their data center, called colocation known as Housing in Latin America or France; until 1991, the Internet was restricted to use only...for research and education in the sciences and engineering... and was used for email, telnet, FTP and USENET traffic - but only a tiny number of web pages. The World Wide Web protocols had only just been written and not until the end of 1993 would there be a graphical web browser for Mac or Windows computers. After there was some opening up of internet access, the situation was confused until 1995. To host a website on the internet, an individual or company would need their own server.
As not all companies had the budget or expertise to do this, web hosting services began to offer to host users' websites on their own servers, without the client needing to own the necessary infrastructure required to operate the website. The owners of the websites called webmasters, would be able to create a website that would be hosted on the web hosting service's server and published to the web by the web hosting service; as the number of users on the World Wide Web grew, the pressure for companies, both large and small, to have an online presence grew. By 1995, companies such as GeoCities and Tripod were offering free hosting; the most basic is web page and small-scale file hosting, where files can be uploaded via File Transfer Protocol or a Web interface. The files are delivered to the Web "as is" or with minimal processing. Many Internet service providers offer this service free to subscribers. Individuals and organizations may obtain Web page hosting from alternative service providers.
Free web hosting service is offered by different companies with limited services, sometimes supported by advertisements, limited when compared to paid hosting. Single page hosting is sufficient for personal web pages. Personal web site hosting is free, advertisement-sponsored, or inexpensive. Business web site hosting has a higher expense depending upon the size and type of the site. Many large companies that are not Internet service providers need to be permanently connected to the web to send email, etc. to other sites. The company may use the computer as a website host to provide details of their goods and services and facilities for online orders. A complex site calls for a more comprehensive package that provides database support and application development platforms; these facilities allow customers to write or install scripts for applications like forums and content management. Secure Sockets Layer is used for websites that wish to keep the data transmitted more secure. Internet hosting services can run Web servers.
The scope of web hosting services varies greatly. One's website is placed on the same server as many other sites, ranging from a few sites to hundreds of websites. All domains may share a common pool of server resources, such as RAM and the CPU; the features available with this type of service can be quite basic and not flexible in terms of software and updates. Resellers sell shared web hosting and web companies have reseller accounts to provide hosting for clients. Allows clients to become web hosts themselves. Resellers could function, for individual domains, under any combination of these listed types of hosting, depending on who they are affiliated with as a reseller. Resellers' accounts may vary tremendously in size: they may have their own virtual dedicated server to a colocated server. Many resellers provide a nearly identical service to their provider's shared hosting plan and provide the technical support themselves. Known as a Virtual Private Server, divides server resources into virtual servers, where resources can be allocated in a way that does not directly reflect the underlying hardware.
VPS will be allocated resources based on a one server to many VPSs relationship, however virtualisation may be done for a number of reasons, including the ability to move a VPS container between servers. The users may have root access to their own virtual space. Customers are sometimes responsible for patching and maintaining the server or the VPS provider may provide server admin tasks for the customer; the user gains full control over it. One type of dedicated hosting is unmanaged; this is the least expensive for dedicated plans. The user has full administrative access to the server, which means the client is responsible for the security and maintenance of his own dedicated server; the user is not allowed full control over it. The user is disallowed full control so that the provider can guarantee quality of service by not allowing the user to modify the server or create configuration problems; the user does not own the server. The server is leased to the client. Similar to the dedicated web hosting service.
Wi-Fi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. Wi‑Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance, which restricts the use of the term Wi-Fi Certified to products that complete after many years of testing the 802.11 committee interoperability certification testing. Devices that can use Wi-Fi technologies include, among others and laptops, video game consoles and tablets, smart TVs, digital audio players, digital cameras and drones. Wi-Fi compatible devices can connect to the Internet via a wireless access point; such an access point has a range of about 20 meters indoors and a greater range outdoors. Hotspot coverage can be as small as a single room with walls that block radio waves, or as large as many square kilometres achieved by using multiple overlapping access points. Different versions of Wi-Fi exist, with radio bands and speeds. Wi-Fi most uses the 2.4 gigahertz UHF and 5 gigahertz SHF ISM radio bands. Each channel can be time-shared by multiple networks.
These wavelengths work best for line-of-sight. Many common materials absorb or reflect them, which further restricts range, but can tend to help minimise interference between different networks in crowded environments. At close range, some versions of Wi-Fi, running on suitable hardware, can achieve speeds of over 1 Gbit/s. Anyone within range with a wireless network interface controller can attempt to access a network. Wi-Fi Protected Access is a family of technologies created to protect information moving across Wi-Fi networks and includes solutions for personal and enterprise networks. Security features of WPA have included stronger protections and new security practices as the security landscape has changed over time. In 1971, ALOHAnet connected the Hawaiian Islands with a UHF wireless packet network. ALOHAnet and the ALOHA protocol were early forerunners to Ethernet, the IEEE 802.11 protocols, respectively. A 1985 ruling by the U. S. Federal Communications Commission released the ISM band for unlicensed use.
These frequency bands are the same ones used by equipment such as microwave ovens and are subject to interference. In 1991, NCR Corporation with AT&T Corporation invented the precursor to 802.11, intended for use in cashier systems, under the name WaveLAN. The Australian radio-astronomer Dr John O'Sullivan with his colleagues Terence Percival, Graham Daniels, Diet Ostry, John Deane developed a key patent used in Wi-Fi as a by-product of a Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation research project, "a failed experiment to detect exploding mini black holes the size of an atomic particle". Dr O'Sullivan and his colleagues are credited with inventing Wi-Fi. In 1992 and 1996, CSIRO obtained patents for a method used in Wi-Fi to "unsmear" the signal; the first version of the 802.11 protocol was released in 1997, provided up to 2 Mbit/s link speeds. This was updated in 1999 with 802.11b to permit 11 Mbit/s link speeds, this proved to be popular. In 1999, the Wi-Fi Alliance formed as a trade association to hold the Wi-Fi trademark under which most products are sold.
Wi-Fi uses a large number of patents held by many different organizations. In April 2009, 14 technology companies agreed to pay CSIRO $1 billion for infringements on CSIRO patents; this led to Australia labeling Wi-Fi as an Australian invention, though this has been the subject of some controversy. CSIRO won a further $220 million settlement for Wi-Fi patent-infringements in 2012 with global firms in the United States required to pay the CSIRO licensing rights estimated to be worth an additional $1 billion in royalties. In 2016, the wireless local area network Test Bed was chosen as Australia's contribution to the exhibition A History of the World in 100 Objects held in the National Museum of Australia; the name Wi-Fi, commercially used at least as early as August 1999, was coined by the brand-consulting firm Interbrand. The Wi-Fi Alliance had hired Interbrand to create a name, "a little catchier than'IEEE 802.11b Direct Sequence'." Phil Belanger, a founding member of the Wi-Fi Alliance who presided over the selection of the name "Wi-Fi", has stated that Interbrand invented Wi-Fi as a pun on the word hi-fi, a term for high-quality audio technology.
Interbrand created the Wi-Fi logo. The yin-yang Wi-Fi logo indicates the certification of a product for interoperability; the Wi-Fi Alliance used the advertising slogan "The Standard for Wireless Fidelity" for a short time after the brand name was created. While inspired by the term hi-fi, the name was never "Wireless Fidelity"; the Wi-Fi Alliance was called the "Wireless Fidelity Alliance Inc" in some publications. Non-Wi-Fi technologies intended for fixed points, such as Motorola Canopy, are described as fixed wireless. Alternative wireless technologies include mobile phone standards, such as 2G, 3G, 4G, LTE; the name is sometimes written as WiFi, Wifi, or wifi, but these are not approved by the Wi-Fi Alliance. IEEE is a separate, but related organization and their website has stated "WiFi is a short name for Wireless Fidelity". To connect to a Wi-Fi LAN, a computer has to be equipped with a wireless network interface controller; the combination of computer and interface controllers is called a station.
A service set is the set of all the devices associated with a particular Wi-Fi network. The service set can be local, extended or mesh; each service set has an associated identifier, the 32-byte Service Set Identifier, which identifies the partic