Garters are articles of clothing: narrow bands of fabric fastened about the leg, used to keep up stockings, sometimes socks. In the eighteenth to twentieth centuries, they were tied just below the knee, where the leg is most slender, to keep the stocking from slipping; the advent of elastic has made them less necessary from this functional standpoint, although they are still worn for fashion. Garters have been worn by men and women, depending on fashion trends. In Elizabethan fashions, men wore garters with their hose, colourful garters were an object of display. In Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, "cross braced" garters, as worn by the character Malvolio, are an object of some derision. In male fashion, a type of garter for holding up socks has continued as a part of male dress up to the present, although its use may be considered somewhat archaic. There is a Western wedding tradition for a bride to wear a garter to her wedding, to be removed towards the end of the reception by the groom; this garter is not used to support stockings.
This practice is interpreted as symbolic of deflowering, though some sources attribute its origin to a superstition that taking an article of the bride's clothing will bring good luck. In the Middle Ages, the groomsmen would rush at the new bride to take her garters as a prize. Today, the practice of removing the bride's garter is traditionally reserved for the groom, who will use either his hands or teeth, toss the garter to the unmarried male guests; this is performed after the tossing of the bouquet, in which the bride tosses her bouquet over her shoulder to be caught by the unwed female guests. According to superstition, the lady who catches the bouquet and the man who catches the garter will be the next man and woman among those in attendance to be married; the ceremony continues with the man who catches the garter obliged to place it on the leg of the lady who caught the bouquet. Traditionally, the pair are obliged to share the next dance. Prom garters were common in the 1960s and 1970s and conferred on the date as a souvenir.
If the date received the garter, it was hung from his rear-view mirror. At least since the mid-2000s, it has become common in US culture for young women attending a high school prom to wear a garter designed to match the style and color of the young woman's dress; the prom garter may be worn throughout the evening and is sometimes given to the young woman's date as a souvenir. A young woman may choose to keep the garter rather than give it away, as a token of her prom night. In some cases, young people may participate in a "garter and tie" dance, during or after which either the young woman herself or the young woman's date removes the garter and exchanges it for the date's tie; when the garter is given early in the evening, the young woman's date may wear it on his arm for the remainder of the evening. In areas where prom garters are common, it has become a tradition for young women to pose for a picture with other female friends before the prom in which they pull up the skirts of their dresses to display their prom garters, which are worn a few inches above the right knee.
The giving or taking of the prom garter may or may not have the same sexual implications that are associated with wedding garters. Suspenders or suspender belts known as "garter belts" in American English, are an undergarment consisting of an elasticated material strip at least 2 to 3 inches in width. Two or three elastic suspender slings are attached on each side, where the material is shaped to the contours of the body; the suspenders are clipped to stockings with metal clips into which a rubber disc is inserted through the stocking material effectively'locking' the stocking in place. These are attached to a length of elastic allowing for adjustment; these clips known as suspender slings, are best attached to stockings with a simple welt that do not have lace, or'hold-ups' with a silicone rubber lining. Suspender belts are worn at the waist or just below to prevent the belt sliding down as it is pulled downward by the stockings; some undergarments such as corselettes or girdles may come with suspender slings attached.
By the late 20th century and into the 21st, pantyhose or tights were more worn than stockings. And some stockings, referred to as hold-ups, have a band of latex rubber molded to the stocking top to keep them up without suspenders, but suspenders continue to be used by people who prefer stockings to tights, doctors may advise patients with a history of thrush or cystitis to avoid tights. People with a latex allergy must avoid hold-ups. While most used for regular stockings, suspender belts can be used for medical support hosiery worn due to varicose veins or poor circulation. Stockings are considered to be sensual or erotic, both in person and in photographs, some people enjoy dressing up for special occasions in attractive suspender belts or basques. Ice hockey players use suspenders for holding up hockey socks; as these socks are woollen tubes, they need to be kept from rolling onto ankles. The socks can be held up by either hockey tape or hockey suspenders, which function like stocking suspenders.
Garters in the 18th century could be elaborately decorated and were sometimes embroidered with names, mottoes or humorous phrases. Prior to the invention of elastic, they were fastened by buckles, or threaded with spiral springs to grip
Contemporary Western wedding dress
A contemporary Western wedding dress follows popular fashions in Western wedding gown selection from the year 2000 on. Dresses are white or ivory, follow a pattern for popular silhouettes and gown lengths. Modern bridal fashion is characterised by specific styles of headpieces, lingerie and high heels; some of the most popular contemporary silhouettes include: A-line, above-the-knee, empire, meringue/bouffant, mermaid and trumpet. A-line A dress or skirt silhouette, narrower at the top, flaring wider toward the bottom thereby resembling the letter A. Works well on most figure types. Above-the-knee Can be recognized by their tent-like silhouettes, hemmed short above the knee. Column In fashion, a column, similar to a sheath dress, is a type of dress designed to fit the body, it is made of a light and thin material like cotton or silk, contains any flourishes. Unlike the shorter cocktail dress and the longer ballroom dress, a column dress falls around the knees or lower thighs, can be either strapped or strapless.
Empire A type of dress or top where the waist line is raised above the natural waistline, sometimes as high as right below the bust. Meringue/Bouffant Characterized by a full skirt that begins at the waist and continues to a formal length, it has a cinched waistline that falls into a full skirt. Mermaid The mermaid dress is close fitting through the bodice, down through the hips and to below the knees where the skirt flares out. Princess Designed to hang in close-fitting, unbroken lines from shoulder to flared hem. Trumpet A straight skirt with a hem flounce that flares away from the body at the hem. Popular contemporary necklines types include: asymmetric, halter, off-the-shoulder, scoop, square, sweetheart, v-neck; the neckline refers to the shape of the material at the top of the dress as it falls on the neck and shoulders. Asymmetric Asymmetrical by its definition means there is no symmetry or no balance. So this neckline appears different on either side of the centre front. Bateau Also known as the "Boatneck".
This is a wide, high neckline that follows the curve of the collarbone and ends in points on the shoulder seams. Halter Necklines have a high panel on the front, tied around the neck for support and, may be tied behind the neck or include a clasp, exposing the back and shoulders. Jewel A plain rounded neckline without a collar. Known as the T-shirt neckline, the jewel neckline is round and sits at the base of the throat. Off-the-shoulder This neckline sits below the shoulders, with sleeve-like straps that cover part of the upper arm. Shows off your collarbone and shoulders. Portrait Characterised by a soft scoop from shoulder to shoulder. Scoop Also known as a "ballerina neckline", this U-shaped style is cut low, the scoop will continue on the back of the dress. Sheer A neckline, created by "sheer" or translucent fabric, such as lace or netting, rather than an opaque material or strap. Spaghetti strap This neckline is nearly strapless, except for the presence of delicate straps. Square The neckline is cut straight across the top in between the straps, creating a "square"-like shape to the top of the dress.
Strapless A neckline, discerned by its lack of straps. Sweetheart A neckline with a plunge in the front in the shape of the top of a heart. V-neck A neckline characterized by a plunge in the front shaped like the letter "V". Ankle Characterized by a hemline. Floor Characterized by a hemline. Knee Characterized by a skirt. Mini Characterized by a skirt that falls high on the thigh, the shortest option. Short high on the thigh. Tea Characterized by a skirt length that falls between a knee and ankle length having a hemline at the mid-shin
Only You (2011 TV series)
Only You is a 2011 Hong Kong television drama, aired on Hong Kong's TVB Jade and TVB HD Jade channels. The drama ran for 30 episodes. A Television Broadcasts Limited production, the drama is written by Choi Ting-ting and Wong Yuk-tang, with Amy Wong serving as the executive producer. Only You is set in modern-day Hong Kong and centers on the wedding planners working under Only You Wedding Services and bridal shop agency. Twelve different stories are told in an episode format regarding the agency's clients. An unrelenting and boastful woman, Mandy wants to be a wedding planner after she gets the axe for its simple job nature and attractive income. Sze-tim, an expert in the trade and a person of principles, declines to take her as a student as she sees through Mandy's motive, but Mandy will not yield, she tries her best to please Sze-tim's younger brother, Sze-chai and his wife, Phoebe who employ her as a coordinator in their bridal wear company. Mandy is determined to do something big in her career, but the appearance of photographer, Summer makes her rethink the meaning of life.
Mandy and Summer have met all kinds of people at work, from couples in quarrel to couples in distress, neurotic brides to lovers with disabilities. Every couple has a unique love story to tell. Although Mandy and Summer love each other, their different outlook on life begins to tear them apart. Should lovers stand firm with principles or let go for love? Hard on the Sister-in-law My Despicable Ex-boyfriend Ex-convict's Wedding Amazing Love I Have a Dream Perfection of Deformity Her Husband is a Boss A Wealthy Family's Wedding Mom, I'm Getting Married My Indian Father-in-law The Last Wedding Dreams of the Closing Year Louise Lee as Chong Sze-tim, Only You's matchmaker. Yoyo Mung as Mandy "Ah Man" Mak, Only You's assistant coordinator. Kevin Cheng as Summer Ha, Only You's photographer. Kristal Tin as Phoebe Szeto, the co-owner of Only You. Mak Cheung-ching as Chong Sze-chai, Phoebe's husband and co-owner of Only You. Nominated: Best Drama Nominated: Best Actress Nominated: Best Actress Nominated: My Favourite Female Character Nominated: My Favourite Female Character Nominated: Most Improved Male Artiste Nominated: Most Improved Male Artiste Official TVB Website K for TVB English Synopsis
Western dress codes
Western dress codes are dress codes in Western culture about what clothes are worn in what setting. Classifications are traditionally divided into formal attire, semi-formal attire, informal attire, with the first two sometimes in turn divided into day and evening wear. A level below these are sometimes referred to as casual attire in combinations such as "smart casual" or "business casual" in order to indicate higher expectation than none at all; the more formal traditional Western dress code interpretations -, formal i.e. "white tie" and semi-formal i.e. "black tie" - have remained codified for men with fixed definitions unchanged since the 20th century with roots in 19th century customs. For women, changes in fashion have been more dynamic. Yet, although casual inventions and reinterpretations of the classifications have occurred and fluctuated, the general formal traditions have persisted for more than a century. Dress codes are sometimes expected by peer pressure, or followed intuitively.
As with other cultures, versions of ceremonial dresses, military uniforms, religious clothing, academic dresses, national dresses appropriate to the formality level are permitted and worn as exceptions to the uniformity in the form of headgear. Conversely, since most cultures have at least intuitively applied some level equivalent to the more formal ones in Western dress code traditions, the latter's versatile framework open to amalgation of international and local customs have influenced its competitiveness as international standard range from formal to casual; the background of traditional contemporary Western dress codes as fixed in 20th century relied on several steps of replacement of preexisting formal wear, while in turn increasing the formality levels of the less formal alternatives. Thus was the case with the ceasing of the justacorps, extensively worn from the 1660s until the 1790s, followed by the same fate of the 18th century frock, in turn followed by the frock coat. Before the modern system of formal, semi-formal, informal was consolidated in the 20th century, the terms were looser.
In the 19th century, during the Victorian and Edwardian periods, the principal classifications of clothing were full dress and undress, less the intermediate half dress. Full dress covered the most formal option: frock coat for day attire, dress coat for evening attire; when morning dress became common, it was considered less formal than a frock coat, when the frock coat was phased out, morning dress never achieved full dress status. Therefore, in the 21st century, full dress refers to white tie only. Today's semi-formal black tie was described as informal attire, while the "lounge suit," now standard business attire, was considered casual attire. Half dress, when used, was variously applied at different times, but was used to cover modern morning dress. Undress in turn was loose in meaning, corresponding to anything from a dressing gown to a lounge suit or its evening equivalent of dinner clothes; the table below summarises the traditional Western dress codes: Please note that the definitions listed above are the strict, traditional definitions, which may not be followed in common use.
For example, formal is used to mean any of the first three, informal to indicate what is classified here as casual. Typical events: Weddings, state dinners and affairs, formal balls, royal events, etc. Note that the use of white tie and morning dress has become rare in some countries, where black tie or a lounge suit is worn to the above events. Typical events: Theatre opening nights, charity balls, etc. There is some variation in style depending on whether it is winter. See black tie and stroller for more details. In the last few decades, in place of the traditional white tie or morning dress, black tie has been seen in the United States at formal day wedding; however and clothing experts continue to discourage or condemn the wearing of black tie as too informal for weddings, or any event before 7 p.m. such as by Emily Post and Amy Vanderbilt, the latter arguing that "no man should be caught in a church in a tuxedo." Typical events: Diplomatic and business meetings, many social occasions, everyday wear Business wear is included in the informal category consisting of a business suit and tie.
Informal dress code encompasses all suits, but not all suits are considered business appropriate in fabric, cut, or color. Casual attire, although not traditionally part of Western dress codes, are sometimes applied colloquially. Related to this category is smart casual, etc.. Western dress codes portal Military uniform School uniform Sondag, Glen. Anything Other Than Naked. London Street Press. Pp. 200 pages. ISBN 1-936183-83-8
An engagement party is a party held to celebrate a couple's recent engagement and to help future wedding guests to get to know one another. Traditionally, the bride's parents host the engagement party, but many modern couples host their own celebration. Engagement parties had the appearance of normal parties at which the father of the bride-to-be made a surprise announcement of the engagement to his guests; the engagement party had the purpose of sharing the engagement news with family friends. Therefore, it was not a traditional gift-giving occasion, as none of the guests were supposed to be aware of the engagement until after their arrival. In ancient Greece, an engagement party was a commercial transaction, it was an oral contract, made between the man who gave the woman in marriage and the groom. The bride was not present. A Jewish engagement party is known as a vort. Breaking a ceramic plate at a vort is customary, symbolizing the permanence of marriage and mirroring the breaking of a glass at a Jewish wedding.
In the Scottish Gaelic tradition, a rèiteach was a betrothal ritual which ended in a dance party for the whole community. In modern times, an engagement party may celebrate a publicized engagement, it is a party like any other, except that toasts or speeches are made to announce the upcoming wedding. While it varies, an engagement party takes place at the beginning of the process of planning a wedding, it is thrown at the couple's home or at the home of a close friend or relative of the couple. Gifts are never obligatory, if one is brought, it should be small and less expensive than a typical wedding gift. In the United States, engagement parties are a more common practice in the Northeast in the New York area, though they are becoming more common in the Southeast as well. In most other parts of the country few couples have them. Unlike publishing the banns of marriage, an engagement party has never been required. In Africa, what is now known as an engagement party may in fact be the last remnant of the traditional, pre-colonial marriage ceremony itself.
Such is the case with the Yoruba people and their bride-price rites and the Nguni people and their lobola practices. Bachelor party Bachelorette party Bridal shower Stag and doe
Formal wear, formal attire or full dress is the traditional Western dress code category applicable for the most formal occasions, such as weddings, confirmations, funerals and Christmas traditions, in addition to certain audiences and horse racing events. Formal attire is traditionally divided into formal evening attire. Permitted other alternatives, are the most formal versions of ceremonial dresses, full dress uniforms, religious clothing, national costumes, most frock coats. In addition, formal attire may be instructed to be worn with official medals. With background in the 19th century, the protocol indicating men's formal attire have remained unchanged since the early 20th century, remains observed so in certain settings influenced by Western culture: notably around Europe, the Americas, Australia, as well as Japan. For women, although fundamental customs for ball gowns apply, changes in fashion have been more dynamic. Optional conventional headgear for men is the top hat, for women picture hats etc. of a range of interpretations.
"Formal attire" being the most formal dress code, it is followed by semi-formal attire, equivalently based around daytime stroller, evening black tie i.e. dinner suit, evening gown for women. The lounge suit and cocktail dress in turn only comes after this level, associated with informal attire. Notably, if a level of flexibility is indicated, the host tend to wear the most formal interpretation of that dress code in order to save guests the embarrassment of out-dressing. Since the most formal versions of national costumes are permitted as exceptions to the uniformity in Western formal dress code, since most cultures have at least intuitively applied some equivalent level of formality, the versatile framework of Western formal dress codes open to amalgation of international and local customs have influenced its competitiveness as international standard. From these social conventions derive in turn the variants worn on related occasions of varying solemnity, such as formal political and academic events, as well as certain parties including award ceremonies, high school proms, dance events, fraternal orders, etc.
The dress codes counted as formal wear are the formal dress codes of morning dress for daytime and white tie for evenings. Although some consider strollers for daytime and black tie for the evening as formal, they are traditionally considered semi-formal attires, sartorially speaking below in formality level; the clothes dictated by these dress codes. For many uniforms, the official clothing is unisex. Examples of this are court dress, academic dress, military full dress uniform. Morning dress is the daytime formal dress code, consisting chiefly for men of a morning coat and striped trousers, an appropriate dress for women; the required clothing for men, in the evening, is the following: Formal trousers, with stripes on leg seams White piqué front or plain stiff-fronted shirt with a detachable wing collar, cuff links and shirt studs White piqué bow tie White piqué vest A tailcoat Black patent leather court shoes AccessoriesWomen wear a variety of dresses. See ball gowns, evening gowns, wedding dresses.
Business attire for women has a developmental history of its own and looks different from formal dress for social occasions. Many invitations to white tie events, like the last published edition of the British Lord Chamberlain's Guide to Dress at Court, explictely state that national costume or national dress may be substituted for white tie. In general, each of the supplementary alternatives apply for both day attire, evening attire. Including court dresses, diplomatic uniforms, academic dresses. Prior to World War II formal style of military dress referred to as full dress uniform, was restricted to the British, British Empire and United States armed forces. In the U. S. Army, evening mess uniform, in either blue or white, is considered the appropriate military uniform for white-tie occasions; the blue mess and white mess uniforms are black tie equivalents, although the Army Service Uniform with bow tie are accepted for non-commissioned officers and newly commissioned officers. For white tie occasions, of which there are none in the United States outside the national capital region for U.
S. Army, an officer must wear a wing-collar shirt with white vest. For black tie occasions, officers must wear a turndown collar with black cummerbund; the only outer coat prescribed for both black- and white-tie events is the army blue cape with branch color lining. Certain clergy wear, in place of white tie outfits, a cassock with ferraiolone, a light-weight ankle-length cape intended to be worn indoors; the colour and fabric of the ferraiolone is determined by the rank of the cleric and can be scarlet watered silk, purple silk, black silk or black wool. For outerwear the black cape known as a choir cape, is most traditional, it is a long black woollen cloak fastened with a clasp at the neck and has a hood. Cardinals and bishops may wear a black plush hat or, less formally, a biretta. In practice, the
Handfasting is a rural folkloric and neopagan custom found in western European countries, in which a couple hold a commitment ceremony. The commitment may be seen as temporary and secular, or of a longer, spiritual variety, depending on the context. Handfasting is a history term for "betrothal" or "wedding". In the Early Modern history of Scotland in the Hebrides, the term could refer to a temporary marriage; the verb to handfast in the sense of "to formally promise, to make a contract" is recorded for Late Old English in the context of a contract of marriage. The derived handfasting is for a ceremony of engagement or betrothal is recorded in Early Modern English; the term was loaned into English from Old Norse handfesta "to strike a bargain by joining hands". The term is derived from the verb to handfast, used in Middle to Early Modern English for the making of a contract; the term "handfasting" or "hand-fasting" has been in use in Celtic neopaganism and Wicca for wedding ceremonies from at least the late 1960s first used in print by Hans Holzer.
Handfasting was mentioned in the 1980 Jim Morrison biography No One Here Gets Out Alive and again in the 1991 film The Doors, where a version of the real 1970 handfasting ceremony of Morrison and Patricia Kennealy-Morrison was depicted. The term has entered the English-speaking mainstream, most from neopagan wedding ceremonies during the early 2000s erroneously being described as "pre-Christian" by wedding planners. Evidence that the term "handfasting" had been re-interpreted as describing this ceremony is found in the 2000s, e.g. "handfasting—the blessed marriage rite in which the hands of you and your beloved are wrapped in ribbon as you'tie the knot.'" By the 2010s, "handfasting ceremonies" were on offer by commercial wedding organizers and had lost their neopagan association. The term "handfasting ribbon" appears from about 2005. Historical handfasting Handfasting Information – facts and beliefs The History of Handfasting