National Register of Historic Places listings in Culpeper County, Virginia
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Culpeper County, Virginia. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Culpeper County, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in an online map. There are 27 districts listed on the National Register in the county; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted March 29, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Virginia National Register of Historic Places listings in Virginia
National Register of Historic Places listings in Appomattox County, Virginia
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Appomattox County, Virginia. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Appomattox County, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in an online map. There are 7 districts listed on the National Register in the county; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted March 29, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Virginia National Register of Historic Places listings in Virginia
William Penn was the son of Sir William Penn, was an English nobleman, early Quaker, founder of the English North American colony the Province of Pennsylvania. He was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Native Americans. Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was developed. In 1681, King Charles II handed over a large piece of his American land holdings to Penn to pay the debts the king owed to Penn's father; this land included present-day Delaware. Penn set sail and took his first step on American soil in New Castle in 1682 after his trans-Atlantic journey. On this occasion, the colonists pledged allegiance to Penn as their new proprietor, the first general assembly was held in the colony. Afterward, Penn founded Philadelphia. However, Penn's Quaker government was not viewed favorably by the Dutch and English settlers in what is now Delaware, they had no "historical" allegiance to Pennsylvania, so they immediately began petitioning for their own assembly.
In 1704 they achieved their goal when the three southernmost counties of Pennsylvania were permitted to split off and become the new semi-autonomous colony of Lower Delaware. As the most prominent and influential "city" in the new colony, New Castle became the capital; as one of the earlier supporters of colonial unification, Penn wrote and urged for a union of all the English colonies in what was to become the United States of America. The democratic principles that he set forth in the Pennsylvania Frame of Government served as an inspiration for the United States Constitution; as a pacifist Quaker, Penn considered the problems of peace deeply. He developed a forward-looking project for a United States of Europe through the creation of a European Assembly made of deputies who could discuss and adjudicate controversies peacefully, he is therefore considered the first thinker to suggest the creation of a European Parliament. A man of deep religious convictions, Penn wrote numerous works in which he exhorted believers to adhere to the spirit of Primitive Christianity.
He was imprisoned several times in the Tower of London due to his faith, his book No Cross, No Crown, which he wrote while in prison, has become a Christian classic. William Penn was born in 1644 at Tower Hill, the son of English Admiral Sir William Penn, Margaret Jasper, from a Dutch family the widow of a Dutch captain, the daughter of a rich merchant from Rotterdam. William Penn, Sr. served in the Commonwealth Navy during the English Civil War and was rewarded by Oliver Cromwell with estates in Ireland. The lands were seized from Irish Catholics in retaliation for the failed Irish Rebellion of 1641. Admiral Penn took part in the restoration of Charles II and was knighted and served in the Royal Navy. At the time of his son's birth, Captain Penn was twenty-three and an ambitious naval officer in charge of quelling Irish Catholic unrest and blockading Irish ports. William Penn grew up during the rule of Oliver Cromwell, who succeeded in leading a Puritan rebellion against King Charles I. Penn's father was at sea.
Little William caught smallpox at a young age, losing all his hair, prompting his parents to move from the suburbs to an estate in Essex. The country life made a lasting impression on young Penn, kindled in him a love of horticulture, their neighbor was famed diarist Samuel Pepys, friendly at first but secretly hostile to the Admiral embittered in part by his failed seductions of both Penn's mother and his sister Peggy. Penn was educated first at Chigwell School, by private tutors whilst in Ireland, at Christ Church, Oxford. At that time, there were no state schools and nearly all educational institutions were affiliated with the Anglican Church. Children from poor families had to have a wealthy sponsor to get an education. Penn's education leaned on the classical authors and "no novelties or conceited modern writers" were allowed including William Shakespeare. Foot racing was Penn's favorite sport, he would run the more than three-mile distance from his home to the school; the school itself was cast in an Anglican mode – strict and somber – and teachers had to be pillars of virtue and provide sterling examples to their charges.
Though opposing Anglicanism on religious grounds, Penn absorbed many Puritan behaviors, was known for his serious demeanor, strict behavior and lack of humor. After a failed mission to the Caribbean, Admiral Penn and his family were exiled to his lands in Ireland, it was during this period, when Penn was about fifteen, that he met Thomas Loe, a Quaker missionary, maligned by both Catholics and Protestants. Loe was admitted to the Penn household and during his discourses on the "Inner Light", young Penn recalled that "the Lord visited me and gave me divine Impressions of Himself."A year Cromwell was dead, the royalists resurging, the Penn family returned to England. The middle class aligned itself with the royalists and Admiral Penn was sent on a secret mission to bring back exiled Prince Charles. For his role in restoring the monarchy, Admiral Penn was knighted and gained a powerful position as Commissioner of the Navy. In 1660, Penn enrolled as a gentleman scholar with an assigned servant; the student body was a volatile mix of swashbuckling Cavaliers, sober Puritans, nonconforming Quakers.
The new government's discouragement of religious dissent gave the Cavalier
A vestry was a committee for the local secular and ecclesiastical government for a parish in England and Wales, which met in the vestry or sacristy of the parish church, became known colloquially as the "vestry". For many centuries, vestries were the sole civil government of rural areas. At the high point of their powers, just prior to removal of Poor Law responsibilities in 1834, the vestries spent not far short of one-fifth of the budget of the national government itself; the secular and ecclesiastical duties of the vestries were separated under local government reforms in 1894. Their secular duties have been performed since 1894 by parish councils, leaving their ecclesiastical duties to the Church of England where they have been performed by Parochial Church Councils since 1921; the only remnant of the vestry meeting is the annual parish meeting called to appoint churchwardens. The vestry was a meeting of the parish ratepayers chaired by the incumbent of the parish held in the parish church or its vestry, from which it got its name.
The vestry committees were not established by any law, but they evolved independently in each parish according to local needs from their roots in medieval parochial governance. By the late 17th century they had become, along with the county magistrates, the rulers of rural England. In England, until the 19th century, the parish vestry committee was in effect what would today be called a parochial church council, but was responsible for secular parish business, now the responsibility of a parish council, other activities, such as administering locally the poor law; the original unit of settlement among the Anglo-Saxons in England was the town. The inhabitants met to carry out this business in the town moot or meeting, at which they appointed the various officials and the common law would be promulgated. With the rise of the shire, the township would send its reeve and four best men to represent it in the courts of the hundred and shire. However, this local independence of the Saxon system was lost to the township by the introduction of the feudal manorial Court Leet which replaced the town meeting.
The division into ancient parishes was linked to the manorial system, with parishes and manors sharing the same boundaries. The manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice in the rural economy, but over time the Church replaced the manorial court as the centre of rural administration, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe; the decline of the feudal system and, following the Reformation in the 16th century, the power of the Church, led to a new form of township or parish meeting, which dealt with both civil and ecclesiastical affairs. This new meeting was supervised by the parish priest the best educated of the inhabitants, it evolved to become the vestry meeting; as the complexity of rural society increased, the vestry meetings pragmatically acquired greater responsibilities, were given the power to grant or deny payments from parish funds. Although the vestry committees were not established by any law, had come into being in an unregulated ad-hoc process, it was convenient to allow them to develop.
This was convenient when they were the obvious body for administering the Edwardian and Elizabethan systems for support of the poor on a parochial basis. This was their first, for many centuries their principal, statutory power. With this gradual formalisation of civil responsibilities, the ecclesiastical parishes acquired a dual nature and could be classed as both civil and ecclesiastical parishes. In England, until the 19th century, the parish vestry was in effect what would today be called a parochial church council, but was responsible for all the secular parish business now dealt with by civil bodies, such as parish councils; the vestry assumed a variety of tasks. It became responsible for appointing parish officials, such as the parish clerk, overseers of the poor and scavengers, constables and nightwatchmen. At the high point of their powers, just prior to removal of Poor Law responsibilities in 1834, the vestries spent not far short of one-fifth of the budget of the national government itself.
More than 15,600 ecclesiastical parish vestries looked after their own: churches and burial grounds, parish cottages and workhouses, endowed charities, market crosses, pounds, whipping posts, cages, watch houses and scales, clocks and fire engines. Or to put it another way: the maintenance of the church and its services, the keeping of the peace, the repression of vagrancy, the relief of destitution, the mending of roads, the suppression of nuisances, the destruction of vermin, the furnishing of soldiers and sailors to some extent the enforcement of religious and moral discipline; these were among the multitudinous duties imposed on the parish and its officers, to say the vestry and its organisation, by the law of the land, by local custom and practice as the situation demanded. This level of activity had resulted in an increasing sophistication of administration; the decisions and accounts of the vestry committee would be administered by the parish clerk, records of parish business would be stored in a "parish chest" kept in the church and provided for security with three different locks, the individual keys to which would be held by such as the parish priest and churchwardens.
Whilst the vestry was a general meeting of all inhabitant rate-paying householders in a parish, in the 17th century the huge growth of population in some parishes urban, made it difficult to convene and conduct meetings. In some of these a new body, the select vestry, was created; this was an administrative committee of se
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
National Register of Historic Places listings in Botetourt County, Virginia
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Botetourt County, Virginia. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Botetourt County, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in an online map. There are 28 districts listed on the National Register in the county. Another 2 properties have been removed; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted March 29, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Virginia National Register of Historic Places listings in Virginia
Grant DeVolson Wood was an American painter best known for his paintings depicting the rural American Midwest American Gothic, which has become an iconic painting of the 20th century. Wood was born in rural Iowa, 4 mi east of Anamosa, in 1891, his mother moved the family to Cedar Rapids, after his father died in 1901. Soon thereafter, Wood began as an apprentice in a local metal shop. After graduating from Washington High School, Wood enrolled in The Handicraft Guild, an art school run by women in Minneapolis in 1910, he is said to have returned to the Guild to paint American Gothic. A year Wood returned to Iowa, where he taught in a rural one-room schoolhouse. In 1913, he enrolled at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and performed some work as a silversmith. From 1922 to 1928, Wood made four trips to Europe, where he studied many styles of painting Impressionism and post-Impressionism. However, it was the work of the 15th-century Flemish artist Jan van Eyck that influenced him to take on the clarity of this technique and to incorporate it in his new works.
From 1922 to 1935, Wood lived with his mother in the loft of a carriage house in Cedar Rapids, which he turned into his personal studio at "5 Turner Alley". In 1932, Wood helped found the Stone City Art Colony near his hometown to help artists get through the Great Depression, he became a great proponent of regionalism in the arts, lecturing throughout the country on the topic. As his classically American image was solidified, his bohemian days in Paris were expunged from his public persona. Wood was married to Sara Sherman Maxon from 1935–38. Four years older than Grant, she was born in Iowa in 1887. Friends considered the marriage a mistake for Wood. Wood taught painting at the University of Iowa's School of Art from 1934 to 1941. During that time, he supervised mural painting projects, mentored students, produced a variety of his own works, became a key part of the University's cultural community, it is thought that he was a closeted homosexual, that there was an attempt to fire him because of a relationship with his personal secretary.
Critic Janet Maslin states that his friends knew him to be "homosexual and a bit facetious in his masquerade as an overall-clad farm boy." University administration dismissed the allegations and Wood would have returned as professor if not for his growing health problems. The day before his 51st birthday, Wood died at the university hospital of pancreatic cancer, he is buried at Riverside Cemetery, Iowa. When Wood died, his estate went to his sister, Nan Wood Graham, the woman portrayed in American Gothic; when she died in 1990, her estate, along with Wood's personal effects and various works of art, became the property of the Figge Art Museum in Davenport, Iowa. Wood was an active painter from an young age until his death, although he is best known for his paintings, he worked in a large number of media, including lithography, charcoal, metal and found objects. Throughout his life, he hired out his talents to many Iowa-based businesses as a steady source of income; this included painting advertisements, sketching rooms of a mortuary house for promotional flyers and, in one case, designing the corn-themed decor for the dining room of a hotel.
In addition, his 1928 trip to Munich was to oversee the making of the stained glass windows he had designed for a Veterans Memorial Building in Cedar Rapids. The window was damaged during the 2008 flood and it is in the process of restoration, he again returned to Cedar Rapids to teach junior high students after serving in the army as a camouflage painter. Wood is associated with the American movement of Regionalism, situated in the Midwest, advanced figurative painting of rural American themes in an aggressive rejection of European abstraction. Wood was one of three artists most associated with the movement; the others, John Steuart Curry and Thomas Hart Benton, returned to the Midwest in the 1930s due to Wood's encouragement and assistance with locating teaching positions for them at colleges in Wisconsin and Missouri, respectively. Along with Benton and other Regionalist artists, Wood's work was marketed through Associated American Artists in New York for many years. Wood is considered the patron artist of Cedar Rapids, his childhood country school is depicted on the 2004 Iowa State Quarter.
Wood's best known work is his 1930 painting American Gothic, one of the most famous paintings in American art, one of the few images to reach the status of recognised cultural icon, comparable to Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa and Edvard Munch's The Scream. American Gothic was first exhibited in 1930 at the Art Institute of Chicago, where it is still located, it was made news stories country-wide, bringing Wood immediate recognition. Since it has been borrowed and satirized endlessly for advertisements and cartoons. Art critics who had favorable opinions about the painting, such as Gertrude Stein and Christopher Morley, assumed the painting was meant to be a satire of repression and narrow-mindedness of rural small-town life, it was seen as part of the trend toward critical depictions of rural America, along the lines of such novels as Sherwood Anderson's 1919 Winesburg, Sinclair Lewis' 1920 Main Street, Carl Van Vechten's The Tattooed Countess. Wood rejected this reading of it. With the onset of the Great Depression, it came to be seen as a depiction of steadfast American pioneer spirit.
Another reading is that it is an ambiguous fusion of parody. Wood's inspir