Prorail is a part of NS Railinfratrust, the Dutch railway infrastructure owner. The building currently features a UFO on its facade resulting from an art program in 2000, funding for ProRail is provided by a government subsidy, and a fee paid by the railway operators. The government subsidy totalled around €2.5 billion from 2014-2017, €200 million in 2006, the remaining income was listed as other. The fee that the transport operators have to pay for this is lower than the cost. In 2003 it was €0.64 per train km and €0.54 to €2.16 for stopping at a station, nederlandse Spoorwegen Network statement 2003 ProRail
Passenger rail terminology
It uses passenger railcars operating singly or in multiple unit trains on fixed rails. It operates on separate rights-of-way from which all other vehicular and foot traffic are excluded and it uses sophisticated signaling systems, and high platform loading. Originally, the rapid transit was used in the 1800s to describe new forms of quick urban public transportation that had a right-of-way separated from street traffic. This set rapid transit apart from horsecars, streetcars, though the term was almost always used to describe rail transportation, other forms of transit were sometimes described by their proponents as rapid transit, including local ferries in some cases. The term bus rapid transit has recently come into use to describe bus lines with features to speed their operation and these usually have more characteristics of light rail than rapid transit. They are consequently designed for operations in tunnel, viaducts or on surface level, in different parts of the world Metro systems are known as the underground, the subway or the tube.
Rail systems with specific construction issues operating on a segregated guideway are treated as Metros as long as they are designated as part of the public transport network. ”Metropolitan railways are used for high capacity public transportation. They can operate in trains of up to 10 cars, carrying 1800 passengers or more, in Germany, the terms U-Bahn and S-Bahn are used. Some metro systems run on rubber tires but are based on the same principles as steel wheel systems. Subway used in a transit sense refers to either a rapid transit system using heavy rail or a light system that goes underground. The term may only to the underground parts of the system. Some lines described as subway use light rail equipment, Bostons Green Line and the Newark City Subway, each about half underground, originated from fully surface streetcar lines. Sometimes the term is qualified, such as in Philadelphia, where trolleys operate in a subway for part of their route. In some cities where subway is used, it refers to the system, in others.
Historic posters referred to Chicagos Red & Blue lines as the subway lines, when the Boston subway was originally built, the subway label was only used for sections into which streetcars operated, and the rapid transit sections were called tunnels. Bus subways are uncommon but do exist, though in cases the non-underground portions of route are not called subways. Bus subways are built to provide an exclusive right-of-way for bus rapid transit lines. These are usually called by the bus rapid transit
Amsterdam Lelylaan station
Amsterdam Lelylaan is a railway, metro and bus station in west Amsterdam. It is served by trains of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen and metros of the GVB, the station opened on 1 June 1986. It is located on the Amsterdam-Schiphol railway, a few km south of Amsterdam Sloterdijk railway station, south of this station, trains turn west towards Schiphol railway station, while metros turn east towards Amsterdam Zuid railway station. The station is located in the Amsterdam borough of Slotervaart, on a viaduct spanning three roads. The station was built in 1986 when a link was constructed from Amsterdam Centraal to Schiphol Airport, the new line reduced journey time from Centraal Station and Schiphol to as little as 16 minutes. The other stations built on line were Amsterdam Sloterdijk and Amsterdam De Vlugtlaan. De Vlugtlaan was closed in May 2000 to enable construction of the Hemboog, for its first 10 years, Intercity trains called at Lelylaan station, providing direct services to places as far away as Brussels and Leeuwarden.
From 1996 to 2006, only stopping trains called at this station, in 2006 an intercity service Schiphol-Amsterdam Centraal-Lelystad was introduced, which calls at Lelylaan. Since December 2016, only stopping trains call at the once again. The metro platform is a platform, which has a direct link onto GVB tram lines 1 and 17. The main entrance is further south, in the early 2000s the stairs to the tram lines were closed off with fences to counter fare evasion, which was running high, with people running off the train and straight onto a tram. Early 2007 the gates were opened again, but only during daytime, until 1988 the only tram here had been the 1, but in that year the 17 was extended from Surinameplein to Osdorp. The two lines follow different routes into the city centre, in 1997 GVB opened its fourth metro line, the 50. The station is served by a bus station. The first tram in this area was in 1954, when line 1 ran to Slotermeer, in 1988 line 17 was extended to Osdorp as well, after it used to terminate at Surinameplein 1 km east of Lelylaan.
Line 1 terminated at Dijkgraafplein and line 17 terminated at the Osdorpplein, in 2001 the current service pattern came into operation. These services are operated by GVB.195 Station Lelylaan - Sloten - Badhoevedorp - Hoofddorp Media related to Amsterdam Lelylaan at Wikimedia Commons
South Holland is a province in the midwestern Netherlands. It has a population of just over 3.6 million, situated on the North Sea in the west of the Netherlands, South Holland covers an area of 3,403 km2, of which 585 km2 is water. It borders North Holland to the north and Gelderland to the east, the provincial capital is The Hague, while its largest city is Rotterdam. Archaeological discoveries in Hardinxveld-Giessendam indicate that the area of South Holland has been inhabited since at least ca.7,500 years before present and permanent settlements probably originated around 2,000 years later, based on excavations near Vlaardingen. In the classical antiquity, South Holland was part of the Roman Province of Germania Inferior, the Romans built fortresses along the border, such as Praetorium Agrippinae near modern-day Valkenburg, Matilo near modern-day Leiden, and Albaniana near modern-day Alphen aan den Rijn. A city was founded near modern-day Voorburg, Forum Hadriani and it was built according to the grid plan, and facilitated a square, a court, a bathhouse and several temples.
After the departure of the Romans, the area belonged to the Frisian Kingdom, in 690, the Anglo-Saxon monk Willibrord arrived near Katwijk and was granted permission to spread Roman Catholicism by the Frankish king Pepin II. He accordingly founded a church in Oegstgeest, after which the area was gradually Christianised. The area was appointed to East Francia in the Treaty of Verdun in 843, after which the king granted lands to Gerolf and this was the birth of the County of Holland. Gerolf was succeeded by Dirk I, who continued to rule Holland under the Frankish king, in 1248, count William II ordered the construction of the Ridderzaal, which was finished by his son and successor Floris V. The first city in South Holland to receive city rights was Dordrecht, the city retained a dominant position in the area until it was struck by a series of floods in the late 14th century. The same century saw a series of civil wars, the Hook and Cod wars. Both his daughter Jaqueline and his brother John, the supported by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy.
The conflict ended in 1490, with John victorious, the area of South Holland remained largely agrarian throughout the late Middle Ages. This changed around 1500, when Holland became Europes most urbanised area, during the Eighty Years War, the area of South Holland was the scene of the Capture of Brielle, the Siege of Leiden and the assassination of William the Silent. The United Netherlands declared their independence in 1581, and Holland quickly emerged as the dominant province, with important trading cities such as Leiden, Gouda. In 1575, the Netherlands first university was founded in Leiden by William the Silent, the Hague, which had originated around the castle of the counts of Holland, became its new political centre. Both the States of Holland and the States General seated in the Binnenhof, the Dutch Golden Age blossomed in the 17th century
Rotterdam Centraal station
Rotterdam Centraal is the main railway station of the city Rotterdam in the Netherlands. The station received an average of 110,000 passengers daily in 2007, the current station building, located at Station Square, was officially opened in March 2014. Delftse Poort station was damaged by bombing in the Rotterdam Blitz. The new Centraal station was rebuilt just westwards of the site and its original building was designed by architect Sybold van Ravesteyn and was completed on 13 March 1957, officially opening on 21 May. Maas station had closed in 1953 and trains from Utrecht were diverted to Centraal station via the new Rotterdam Noord station, the Hofpleinlijn continued to bypass the station. Hofplein station was closed in 2010 after the Hofpleinlijn was redirected through a tunnel. On 9 February 1968 Princess Beatrix opened the first metro line in the Netherlands at Centraal station, the line connected the station to the south of Rotterdam and is now known as Line D. The first subway station had a platform with two tracks.
On 28 September 2009, a new and more spacious underground station opened next to the old one. The new station has two platforms with three tracks. The mainline station nowadays has seven platforms with thirteen platform tracks. There are three tracks without platform, in 2007, it was used by approximately 110,000 passengers a day. The 1957 station building was closed in 2007 and demolished the next year - making it the first major railway station in the Netherlands to be taken down to make way for a new one. The new station was completed and opened in 2014, the existing station, especially the passenger tunnel, became too small to handle the growing number of passengers. Traveller numbers were projected to be 320,000 per day in 2025, to cope with this increase, a new station was necessary. On 16 May 2006 Mayor Ivo Opstelten revealed a work of Onno Poiesz consisting of the word EXIT, the final closure of the outdated station took place on September 2,2007, in the presence of Mayor Opstelten, to allow for the demolition of the station.
Between 16 January 2008 and the end of March 2008 the station was completely demolished, passengers then, for years, had to use amenities housed in a temporary shelter, a smurf-blue building complex on Conrad Street on the northeast corner of the Groothandelsgebouw. The bicycle tunnel served as a passenger tunnel
Duivendrecht station is a combined rail and metro station in Duivendrecht, Netherlands. The station opened in May 23,1993 as part of the extension of the Zuidtak of the Amsterdam Ringspoorbaan, the Weesp–Leiden railway on the lower floor, consisting of one broad island platform which houses the station hall. Duivendrecht is largely an interchange station, the village itself is quite small, the Duivendrecht railway station is near the Amsterdam ArenA and the Amsterdam Bijlmer ArenA railway station. Since December 2006, fewer trains call at Duivendrecht because passenger trains heading from Utrecht towards Schiphol v. v. nowadays use the Utrechtboog
Den Haag HS railway station
Den Haag HS, an abbreviation of the original name Den Haag Hollands Spoor, is the oldest railway station in The Hague, Netherlands. It was opened in 1843, when the Amsterdam–Haarlem railway, the oldest railway line in the country, was extended to The Hague and this line was further extended to Rotterdam in 1847. The railway station was named after the Hollandsche IJzeren Spoorweg-Maatschappij, the company operated the railway station. Rival company Nederlandsche Rhijnspoorweg-Maatschappij opened a main railway station in The Hague in 1870, Den Haag Rhijnspoor, for the railway line to Gouda. This railway station was demolished in 1973, to make way for the Den Haag Centraal railway station, as a result, The Hague has two main railway stations, Central Station and HS. Trains from Amsterdam to Rotterdam and beyond tend to stop at The Hague HS, whereas trains from Utrecht and, the original railway building of 1843 was replaced by the current building designed by D. A. N. A Royal Waiting Room was opened in 1893, tram lines 1,9,11,12,16 and 17 stop here.
Den Haag Hollands Spoor includes a bus station, several HTM bus lines stop here
Amsterdam Zuid station
Amsterdam Zuid is a railway station situated in the borough of Amsterdam-Zuid in Amsterdam, Netherlands. For a number of years it was named Amsterdam Zuid WTC, in 2006, with the area surrounding the station rapidly developing, the station was enlarged and the reference to the WTC was dropped. Amsterdam Zuid station is now at the heart of the modern Zuidas business district, home of large banks, accounting. It is the gateway for the VU University campus located just south of the station. Amsterdam Zuid lies on the rail route known as the Zuidtak, which was completed in 1993. Since 2006, Utrecht and other south of Amsterdam have been served. In that year, the Utrechtboog was completed, so that changes at Duivendrecht are no longer necessary for passengers from Schiphol to Utrecht and it is anticipated that in the future Amsterdam Zuid will be served by a number of the trains using the HSL-Zuid. There are plans to rebuild the station, as well as the Amsterdam ring road A10, in May 2008 tram line 5 which used to stop at the station was moved to the Strawinskylaan, where the bus services stop.
This is so that the new metro line 52 building works can take place here, in recent years Station Zuid has become a major station. In December 2006 the extension of the station, platforms 3 and 4, was opened, trains are operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen. Route 50 was opened in 1997 and it runs next to the railway line from Isolatorweg to Gein. Route 51 was opened in 1990, when it ran from Centraal Station to Zuid, in 1993 it was extended to Poortwachter and in 2004 to Amstelveen Westwijk. In May 2008 the tram stop was moved from in between the lines to the Strawinskylaan, where the bus services stop. At the western end of the platforms is the stop Parnassusweg situated. 5 Central Station - Leidseplein - Museumplein - Station Zuid - Buitenveldert - Amstelveen Stadshart Bus services the busstation located at the Strawinskylaan and these are city services, operated by GVB
Leiden is a city and municipality in the Dutch province of South Holland. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres from The Hague to its south, the recreational area of the Kaag Lakes lies just to the northeast of Leiden. A university city since 1575, Leiden houses Leiden University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, Leiden is a city with a rich cultural heritage, not only in science, but in the arts. One of the worlds most famous painters, was born, other famous Leiden painters include Lucas van Leyden, Jan van Goyen and Jan van Steen. The city has one of Europes most prominent scientific centres for more than four centuries. Modern scientific medical research and teaching started in the early 18th century in Leiden with Boerhaave, many important scientific discoveries have been made here, giving rise to Leiden’s motto, ‘City of Discoveries’. It is twinned with Oxford, the location of the United Kingdoms oldest university, Leiden University and Leiden University of Applied Sciences together have around 35,000 students.
Leiden is a university city, university buildings are scattered throughout the city. Leiden was formed on a hill at the confluence of the rivers Oude. In the oldest reference to this, from circa 860, the settlement was called Leithon, the name is said to be from Germanic *leitha- canal. Leiden has in the past erroneously been associated with the Roman outpost Lugdunum Batavorum and this particular castellum was thought to be located at the Burcht of Leiden, and the citys name was thought to be derived of the Latin name Lugdunum. However the castellum was in closer to the town of Katwijk. The landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill, was subject to the Bishop of Utrecht. This county got its name in 1101 from a domain near the stronghold, Leiden was sacked in 1047 by Emperor Henry III. Early 13th century, Countess of Holland took refuge here when she was fighting in a war against her uncle, William I. He besieged the stronghold and captured Ada, Leiden received city rights in 1266.
In 1389, its population had grown to about 4,000 persons, burgrave Filips of Wassenaar and the other local noblemen of the Hook faction assumed that the duke would besiege Leiden first and send small units out to conquer the surrounding citadels. But John of Bavaria chose to attack the citadels first and he rolled the cannons with his army but one which was too heavy went by ship
Schiphol Airport railway station
Schiphol Airport railway station is a major passenger railway station in Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands. It is located directly beneath the complex of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol and is operated by the Nederlandse Spoorwegen. The stations six platforms are accessible via escalators and three elevators located in the main concourse of the airport. The original station was opened in 1978, and the current station was opened in 1995 and it connects the airport to Amsterdam and to various others cities in the Netherlands, as well as to Belgium and France. The original railway station at Schiphol was partly at street level, by 1978, One could only travel to Amsterdams Zuid WTC and RAI stations, as well as south bound towards Leiden, The Hague and Rotterdam. To get to Amsterdam Centraal station one had to travel to RAI, a direct link was created with the construction of the Amsterdam-Schiphol railway in 1986. A newly built station opened in 1995. The station was renamed Schiphol Airport from 13 December 2015 to make the more recognisable to international passenger.
Schiphol stations offers several trains per hour to Amsterdam Centraal, and these include intercity services to Leiden, The Hague, Utrecht, Amersfoort, Lelystad, Groningen, Leeuwarden and Zwolle. A new flyover provides connections to Utrecht and the south of the country. This so-called Utrechtboog opened on 12 March 2006 and it connects two existing lines and is located more or less between the stations Amsterdam RAI and Amsterdam Bijlmer ArenA bypassing the Duivendrecht station. Passengers need not change trains at Duivendrecht anymore, during nighttime, an hourly service connects Schiphol with Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Delft and The Hague between 1am and 5am. The high-speed trains Thalys and Intercity Direct call at Schiphol railway station, Thalys operates a service between Amsterdam Centraal, Rotterdam Centraal, Antwerp-Central, Brussels-South and Paris Gare du Nord or Lille. Intercity direct connects Amsterdam to Rotterdam Centraal and Breda via Schiphol, both trains use Schiphol - Antwerp high speed line.
Reservations are obligatory to board Thalys, for Intercity direct to Breda a supplement is required for the High Speed stretch to Rotterdam. From December 2012 direct services from Schiphol to Hannover and Berlin ceased, passengers could use a national Intercity service to Hilversum and change there for the Berlin service. From December 2014 a direct service restarted between Amsterdam and Brussels, following the failure of the Fyra and this service uses the The Hague HS route. There are several types of series in the Netherlands, Intercity direct These are Intercity Services using the high speed network