Amateur boxing is a variant of boxing practised at the collegiate level, at the Olympic Games, Pan American Games and Commonwealth Games, as well as many associations. Amateur boxing bouts are short in duration, comprising three rounds of three minutes in men, four rounds of two minutes in women, each with a one-minute interval between rounds. Men's senior bouts changed in format from four two-minute rounds to three three-minute rounds on January 1, 2009; this type of competition prizes point-scoring blows, based on number of clean punches landed, rather than physical power. This short format allows tournaments to feature several bouts over several days, unlike professional boxing, where fighters rest several months between bouts. A referee monitors the fight to ensure. Referees ensure that the boxers do not use holding tactics to prevent the opponent from punching. Referees will stop the bout if a boxer is injured, or if one boxer is dominating the other. Bouts which end this way may be noted as "RSC", RSCI, RSCH, or KO.
Amateur boxing emerged as a sport during the mid-to-late 19th century as a result of the moral controversies surrounding professional prize-fighting. Lampooned as an effort by upper and middle-class gentlemen to co-opt a traditionally working class sport, the safer, "scientific" style of boxing found favor in schools, universities and in the armed forces, although the champions still came from among the urban poor; the Queensberry Amateur Championships continued from 1867 to 1885, so, unlike their professional counterparts, amateur boxers did not deviate from using gloves once the Queensberry Rules had been published. In England, the Amateur Boxing Association was formed in 1880, it held its first championships the following year. Four weight classes were contested: Featherweight, Lightweight and Heavyweight. By 1902, American boxers were contesting the titles in the A. B. A. Championships, therefore, took on an international complexion. By 1924, the A. B. A. had 105 clubs in affiliation. Boxing first appeared at the Olympic Games in 1904 and, apart from the Games of 1912, has always been part of them.
From 1904 to 2016, the United States and Cuba won the most gold medals. S. and 21 for Cuba. Internationally, amateur boxing spread throughout the first half of the 20th century, but when the first international body, the Fédération Internationale de Boxe Olympique was formed in Paris in 1920, there were only five member nations. In 1946, when the International Amateur Boxing Association was formed in London, twenty-four nations from five continents were represented, the A. I. B. A. has continued to be the official world federation of amateur boxing since. The first World Amateur Boxing Championships were staged in 1974. Computer scoring was introduced to the Olympics in 1992; each of the five judges had a keypad with a blue button. The judges pressed a button for which corner they felt landed a scoring blow. Three out of the five judges had to press the button for the same boxer within a one-second window in order for the point to score. A legal scoring blow was that, landed cleanly with the knuckle surface of the glove, within the scoring area from the middle of the head, down the sides and between the hips through the belly button.
The AIBA introduced a new scoring system in January 2011. Each judge gives an individual score for each boxer; the score given to each boxer would be taken from 3 out of 5 judges either by similar score or trimmed mean. Scores are instead given at the end of each round. In March 13, 2013, the computer scoring system was abandoned, with amateur boxing instead using the ten point must system, similar to professional boxing. In March 2016, protective headgear, in use since 1982 was removed from men's competition due to higher concussion rates occurring in fights using headgear than in fights without the headgear. Women's competition was unaffected, as the AIBA announced that there wasn't enough data on its effects on women; this ruling was in place at the 2016 Summer Olympics. In June 2016, professional boxers were admitted in the Olympic Games and other tournaments sanctioned by the AIBA; this was done in part to level the playing field and give all of the athletes the same opportunities government-sponsored boxers from socialist countries and post-Soviet republics have.
However, professional organizations opposed that decision. There are several different amateur sanctioning bodies in the United States, including the Golden Gloves Association of America and USA Boxing; the Golden Gloves is an amateur boxing tournament, fought at both the national level and the regional level. Although the Golden Gloves refers to the National Golden Gloves, it can refer to the Intercity Golden Gloves, the Chicago Golden Gloves, the New York Golden Gloves, other regional Golden Gloves tournaments; the winners of the regional tournaments fight in a national competition annually. USA Boxing sanctions a national tournament to determine who will compete o
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling-type techniques such as clinch fighting and takedowns, joint locks and other grappling holds. The sport can either be genuinely competitive. A wrestling bout is a physical competition, between two competitors or sparring partners, who attempt to gain and maintain a superior position. There are a wide range of styles with varying rules with both traditional historic and modern styles. Wrestling techniques have been incorporated into other martial arts as well as military hand-to-hand combat systems; the term wrestling is attested as wræstlunge. Wrestling represents one of the oldest forms of combat; the origins of wrestling go back 15,000 years through cave drawings. Babylonian and Egyptian reliefs show wrestlers using most of the holds known in the present-day sport. Literary references to it occur as early as the ancient Indian Vedas. In the Book of Genesis, the Patriarch Jacob is said to have wrestled with an angel; the Iliad, in which Homer recounts the Trojan War of the 13th or 12th century BC contains mentions of wrestling.
Indian epics Mahabharata contain references to martial arts including wrestling. In ancient Greece wrestling occupied a prominent place in literature; the ancient Romans borrowed from Greek wrestling, but eliminated much of its brutality. During the Middle Ages wrestling remained popular and enjoyed the patronage of many royal families, including those of France and England. Early British settlers in America brought a strong wrestling tradition with them; the settlers found wrestling to be popular among Native Americans. Amateur wrestling flourished throughout the early years of the North American colonies and served as a popular activity at country fairs, holiday celebrations, in military exercises; the first organized national wrestling tournament took place in New York City in 1888. Wrestling has been an event at every modern Olympic Games since the 1904 games in St. Louis, Missouri; the international governing body for the sport, United World Wrestling, was established in 1912 in Antwerp, Belgium as the International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles.
The 1st NCAA Wrestling Championships were held in 1912, in Ames, Iowa. USA Wrestling, located in Colorado Springs, became the national governing body of U. S. amateur wrestling in 1983. Some of the earliest references to wrestling can be found in wrestling mythology; the Epic of Gilgamesh: Gilgamesh established his credibility as a leader, after wrestling Enkidu. Greek mythology celebrates the rise of Zeus as ruler of the earth after a wrestling match with his father, Cronus. Both Heracles and Theseus were famous for their wrestling against beast; the Mahabharata describes a malla-dwandwa between the accomplished wrestlers Jarasandha. Rustam of the Shahnameh is regarded by Iranian pahlevans as the greatest wrestler. In Pharaonic Egypt, wrestling has been evidenced by documentation on Egyptian artwork. Greek wrestling was a popular form of martial art, at least in Ancient Greece. Oil wrestling is the national sport of Turkey and it can be traced back to Central Asia. After the Roman conquest of the Greeks, Greek wrestling was absorbed by the Roman culture and became Roman wrestling during the period of the Roman Empire.
Shuai jiao, a wrestling style originating in China, which according to legend, has a reported history of over 4,000 years. Arabic literature depicted Muhammad as a skilled wrestler, defeating a skeptic in a match at one point; the Byzantine emperor Basil I, according to court historians, won in wrestling against a boastful wrestler from Bulgaria in the eighth century. In 1520 at the Field of the Cloth of Gold pageant, Francis I of France threw fellow king Henry VIII of England in a wrestling match; the Lancashire style of folk wrestling may have formed the basis for Catch wrestling known as "catch as catch can." The Scots formed a variant of this style, the Irish developed the "collar-and-elbow" style which found its way into the United States. A Frenchman "is credited with reorganizing European loose wrestling into a professional sport", Greco-Roman wrestling; this style, finalized by the 19th century and by wrestling was featured in many fairs and festivals in Europe. Greco-Roman wrestling and contemporary freestyle wrestling were soon regulated in formal competitions, in part resulting from the rise of gymnasiums and athletic clubs.
On continental Europe, prize money was offered in large sums to the winners of Greco-Roman tournaments, freestyle wrestling spread in the United Kingdom and in the United States after the American Civil War. Wrestling professionals soon increased the popularity of Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestling, worldwide. Greco-Roman wrestling became an event at the first modern Olympic games, in Athens in 1896. Since 1908, the event has been in every Summer Olympics. Freestyle wrestling became an Olympic event, in 1904. Women's freestyle wrestling was added to the Summer Olympics in 2004. Since 1921, United World Wrestling has regulated amateur wrestling as an athletic discipline, while professional wrestling has become infused with theatrics but still requires athletic ability. Today, various countries send national wrestling teams to the Olympics, including Russi
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring. Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth Games sport and is a common fixture in most international games—it has its own World Championships. Boxing is overseen by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds; the result is decided when an opponent is deemed incapable to continue by a referee, is disqualified for breaking a rule, or resigns by throwing in a towel. If a fight completes all of its allocated rounds, the victor is determined by judges' scorecards at the end of the contest. In the event that both fighters gain equal scores from the judges, professional bouts are considered a draw. In Olympic boxing, because a winner must be declared, judges award the content to one fighter on technical criteria. While humans have fought in hand-to-hand combat since the dawn of human history, the earliest evidence of fist-fighting sporting contests date back to the ancient Near East in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC.
The earliest evidence of boxing rules date back to Ancient Greece, where boxing was established as an Olympic game in 688 BC. Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century with the 1867 introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry Rules; the earliest known depiction of boxing comes from a Sumerian relief in Iraq from the 3rd millennium BC. Depictions from the 2nd millennium BC are found in reliefs from the Mesopotamian nations of Assyria and Babylonia, in Hittite art from Asia Minor. A relief sculpture from Egyptian Thebes shows both spectators; these early Middle-Eastern and Egyptian depictions showed contests where fighters were either bare-fisted or had a band supporting the wrist. The earliest evidence of fist fighting with the use of gloves can be found on Minoan Crete. Various types of boxing existed in ancient India; the earliest references to musti-yuddha come from classical Vedic epics such as the Ramayana and Rig Veda.
The Mahabharata describes two combatants boxing with clenched fists and fighting with kicks, finger strikes, knee strikes and headbutts. Duels were fought to the death. During the period of the Western Satraps, the ruler Rudradaman - in addition to being well-versed in "the great sciences" which included Indian classical music, Sanskrit grammar, logic - was said to be an excellent horseman, elephant rider and boxer; the Gurbilas Shemi, an 18th-century Sikh text, gives numerous references to musti-yuddha. In Ancient Greece boxing was enjoyed consistent popularity. In Olympic terms, it was first introduced in the 23rd Olympiad, 688 BC; the boxers would wind leather thongs around their hands. There were no boxers fought until one of them acknowledged defeat or could not continue. Weight categories were not used; the style of boxing practiced featured an advanced left leg stance, with the left arm semi-extended as a guard, in addition to being used for striking, with the right arm drawn back ready to strike.
It was the head of the opponent, targeted, there is little evidence to suggest that targeting the body was common. Boxing was a popular spectator sport in Ancient Rome. In order for the fighters to protect themselves against their opponents they wrapped leather thongs around their fists. Harder leather was used and the thong soon became a weapon; the Romans introduced metal studs to the thongs to make the cestus. Fighting events were held at Roman Amphitheatres; the Roman form of boxing was a fight until death to please the spectators who gathered at such events. However in times, purchased slaves and trained combat performers were valuable commodities, their lives were not given up without due consideration. Slaves were used against one another in a circle marked on the floor; this is. In AD 393, during the Roman gladiator period, boxing was abolished due to excessive brutality, it was not until the late 16th century. Records of Classical boxing activity disappeared after the fall of the Western Roman Empire when the wearing of weapons became common once again and interest in fighting with the fists waned.
However, there are detailed records of various fist-fighting sports that were maintained in different cities and provinces of Italy between the 12th and 17th centuries. There was a sport in ancient Rus called Kulachniy Boy or "Fist Fighting"; as the wearing of swords became less common, there was renewed interest in fencing with the fists. The sport would resurface in England during the early 16th century in the form of bare-knuckle boxing sometimes referred to as prizefighting; the first documented account of a bare-knuckle fight in England appeared in 1681 in the London Protestant Mercury, the first English bare-knuckle champion was James Figg in 1719. This is the time when the word "boxing" first came to be used; this earliest form of modern boxing was different. Contests in Mr. Figg's time, in addition to fist fighting contained fencing and cudgeling. On 6 January 1681, the first recorded boxing match took place in Britain when Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle engineered a bout between his butler and his butcher with the latter winning the prize.
Early fighting had no written rules. There were no weight divisions or round limits, no referee. In general, it was chaotic. An early article on boxing was published i
Professional boxing, or prizefighting, is regulated, sanctioned boxing. Professional boxing bouts are fought for a purse, divided between the boxers as determined by contract. Most professional bouts are supervised by a regulatory authority to guarantee the fighters' safety. Most high-profile bouts obtain the endorsement of a sanctioning body, which awards championship belts, establishes rules, assigns its own judges and referee. In contrast with amateur boxing, professional bouts are much longer and can last up to twelve rounds, though less significant fights can be as short as four rounds. Protective headgear is not permitted, boxers are allowed to take substantial punishment before a fight is halted. Professional boxing has enjoyed a much higher profile than amateur boxing throughout the 20th century and beyond. In Cuba professional boxing is banned. So was the case in Sweden between 1970 and 2007, Norway between 1981 and 2014. In 1891, the National Sporting Club, a private club in London, began to promote professional glove fights at its own premises, created nine of its own rules to augment the Queensberry Rules.
These rules specified more the role of the officials, produced a system of scoring that enabled the referee to decide the result of a fight. The British Boxing Board of Control was first formed in 1919 with close links to the N. S. C. and was re-formed in 1929 after the N. S. C. Closed. In 1909, the first of twenty-two belts were presented by the fifth Earl of Lonsdale to the winner of a British title fight held at the N. S. C. In 1929, the B. B. B. C. Continued to award Lonsdale Belts to any British boxer who won three title fights in the same weight division; the "title fight" has always been the focal point in professional boxing. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, there were title fights at each weight. Promoters who could stage profitable title fights became influential in the sport, as did boxers' managers; the best promoters and managers have been instrumental in bringing boxing to new audiences and provoking media and public interest. The most famous of all three-way partnership was that of Jack Dempsey, his manager Jack Kearns, the promoter Tex Rickard.
Together they grossed US$8.4 million in only five fights between 1921 and 1927 and ushered in a "golden age" of popularity for professional boxing in the 1920s. They were responsible for the first live radio broadcast of a title fight. In the United Kingdom, Jack Solomons' success as a fight promoter helped re-establish professional boxing after the Second World War and made the UK a popular place for title fights in the 1950s and 1960s. In the early twentieth century, most professional bouts took place in the United States and Britain, champions were recognised by popular consensus as expressed in the newspapers of the day. Among the great champions of the era were the peerless heavyweight Jim Jeffries and Bob Fitzsimmons, who weighed less than 12 stone, but won world titles at middleweight, light heavyweight, heavyweight. Other famous champions included light heavyweight Philadelphia Jack O'Brien and middleweight Tommy Ryan. On May 12, 1902 lightweight Joe Gans became the first black American to be boxing champion.
Despite the public's enthusiasm, this was an era of far-reaching regulation of the sport with the stated goal of outright prohibition. In 1900, the State of New York enacted the Lewis Law, banned prizefights except for those held in private athletic clubs between members. Thus, when introducing the fighters, the announcer added the phrase "Both members of this club", as George Wesley Bellows titled one of his paintings; the western region of the United States tended to be more tolerant of prizefights in this era, although the private club arrangement was standard practice here as well, San Francisco's California Athletic Club being a prominent example. On December 26, 1908, heavyweight Jack Johnson became the first black heavyweight champion and a controversial figure in that racially charged era. Prizefights had unlimited rounds, could become endurance tests, favouring patient tacticians like Johnson. At lighter weights, ten round fights were common, lightweight Benny Leonard dominated his division from the late teens into the early twenties.
Prizefighting champions in this period were the premier sports celebrities, a championship event generated intense public interest. Long before bars became popular venues in which to watch sporting events on television, enterprising saloon keepers were known to set up ticker machines and announce the progress of an important bout, blow by blow. Local kids hung about outside the saloon doors, hoping for news of the fight. Harpo Marx fifteen, recounted vicariously experiencing the 1904 Jeffries-Munroe championship fight in this way. In the 1920s, prizefighting was the pre-eminent sport in the United States, no figure loomed larger than Jack Dempsey, who became world heavyweight champion after brutally defeating Jess Willard. Dempsey was one of the hardest punchers of all time and as Bert Randolph Sugar put it, "had a left hook from hell", he is remembered for his iconic fight with Luis Ángel Firpo, followed by a lavish life of celebrity away from the ring. The enormously popular Dempsey would conclude his career with a memorable two bouts with Gene Tunney, breaking the $1 million gate threshold for the first time.
Although Tunney dominated both fights, Dempsey retained the public's sympathy after the controversy of a "long count" in their second fight. This fight introduced the new rule that the counting of a downed opponent w
Mixed martial arts
Mixed martial arts is a full-contact combat sport that allows striking and grappling, both standing and on the ground, using techniques from various combat sports and martial arts. The first documented use of the term mixed martial arts was in a review of UFC 1 by television critic Howard Rosenberg in 1993; the term gained popularity when newfullcontact.com one of the largest websites covering the sport and republished the article. The question of who coined the term is subject to debate. During the early 20th century, various mixed-style contests took place throughout Japan, in the countries of the Four Asian Tigers. In Brazil, there was the sport of Vale Tudo, in which fighters from various styles fought with little to no rules; the Gracie family was known to promote Vale Tudo matches as a way to promote their own Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu style. An early high-profile mixed martial arts bout was Masahiko Kimura vs. Hélio Gracie in 1951, fought between judoka Masahiko Kimura and Brazilian jiu jitsu founder Hélio Gracie in Brazil.
In the West, the concept of combining elements of multiple martial arts was popularized by Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do during the late 1960s to early 1970s. A precursor to modern MMA was the 1976 Muhammad Ali vs. Antonio Inoki bout, fought between boxer Muhammad Ali and wrestler Antonio Inoki in Japan, where it inspired the foundation of Pancrase in 1993 and Pride Fighting Championships in 1997. In 1980, CV Productions, Inc. created the first regulated MMA league in the United States, called Tough Guy Contest, renamed Battle of the Superfighters. The company sanctioned ten tournaments in Pennsylvania. However, in 1983 the Pennsylvania State Senate passed a bill prohibiting the sport. In 1993, the Gracie family brought Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, developed in Brazil from the 1920s, to the United States by founding the Ultimate Fighting Championship MMA promotion company; the company held an event with no rules due the influence of Art Davie and Rorion Gracie attempting to replicate Vale Tudo fights that existed in Brazil, would implement a different set of rules, which differed from other leagues which were more in favour of realistic fights.
Promoted as a competition to find the most effective martial arts for real unarmed combat, competitors from different fighting styles were pitted against one another in contests with few rules. Individual fighters incorporated multiple martial arts into their style. MMA promoters were pressured to adopt additional rules to increase competitors' safety, to comply with sport regulations and to broaden mainstream acceptance of the sport. Following these changes, the sport has seen increased popularity with a pay-per-view business that rivals boxing and professional wrestling. In Ancient Greece, there was a sport called pankration, which featured a combination of grappling and striking skills similar to those found in modern MMA. Pankration was formed by a combination of the established wrestling and boxing traditions and, in Olympic terms, first featured in the 33rd Olympiad in 648 BC. All strikes and holds were allowed with the exception of gouging, which were banned; the fighters, called pankratiasts, fought until someone could not continue or signaled submission by raising their index finger.
According to E. Norman Gardiner,'No branch of athletics was more popular than the pankration.' From its origins in Ancient Greece, pankration was passed on to the Romans. In Ancient China, combat sport appeared in the form of Leitai, a no-holds-barred mixed combat sport that combined Chinese martial arts and wrestling. There is evidence of similar mixed combat sports in Ancient Egypt and Japan; the mid-19th century saw the prominence of the new sport savate in the combat sports circle. French savate fighters wanted to test their techniques against the traditional combat styles of its time. In 1852, a contest was held in France between French savateurs and English bare-knuckle boxers in which French fighter Rambaud alias la Resistance fought English fighter Dickinson and won using his kicks. However, the English team still won the four other match-ups during the contest. Contests occurred in the late 19th to mid-20th century between French Savateurs and other combat styles. Examples include a 1905 fight between French savateur George Dubois and a judo practitioner Re-nierand which resulted in the latter winning by submission, as well as the publicized 1957 fight between French savateur and professional boxer Jacques Cayron and a young Japanese karateka named Mochizuki Hiroo which ended when Cayron knocked Hiroo out with a hook.
No-holds-barred fighting took place in the late 1880s when wrestlers representing style of Catch wrestling and many others met in tournaments and music-hall challenge matches throughout Europe. In the USA, the first major encounter between a boxer and a wrestler in modern times took place in 1887 when John L. Sullivan heavyweight world boxing champion, entered the ring with his trainer, wrestling champion William Muldoon, was slammed to the mat in two minutes; the next publicized encounter occurred in the late 1890s when future heavyweight boxing champion Bob Fitzsimmons took on European wrestling champion Ernest Roeber. In September 1901, Frank "Paddy" Slavin, a contender for Sullivan's boxing title, knocked out future world wrestling champion Frank Gotch in Dawson City, Canada; the judo-practitioner Ren-nierand, who gained fame after defeating George Dubois, would fight again in another similar contest, which he lost to Ukrainian Catch wrestler Ivan Poddubny. Another early example of mixed martial arts was Bartitsu, which Edward William Barton-Wright founded i
Kickboxing is a group of stand-up combat sports based on kicking and punching developed from karate mixed with boxing. Kickboxing is practiced as a contact sport. Japanese kickboxing originated with competitions held since then. American kickboxing originated in the 1970s and was brought to prominence in September 1974, when the Professional Karate Association held the first World Championships. Kickboxing can be considered a hybrid martial art formed from the combination of elements of various traditional styles; this approach became popular since the 1970s, since the 1990s, kickboxing has contributed to the emergence of mixed martial arts via further hybridization with ground fighting techniques from Brazilian jiu-jitsu and folk wrestling. There is no single international governing body. International governing bodies include International Combat Organisation, World Association of Kickboxing Organizations, World Kickboxing Association, International Sport Karate Association, International Kickboxing Federation, World Kickboxing Network, among others.
There is no single kickboxing world championship, champion titles are issued by individual promotions, such as K-1, Glory and Kunlun Fight among others. Bouts organised under different governing bodies apply different rules, such as allowing the use of knees or clinching, etc; the term "kickboxing" can be used in a broad sense. The narrow use is restricted to the styles that self-identify as kickboxing, i.e. Japanese kickboxing, Dutch kickboxing, American kickboxing. In the wider sense, it includes all stand-up combat sports that allow both punching and kicking, including Muay Thai, Kun Khmer, Adithada, Lethwei and certain styles of karate; the term kickboxing itself was introduced in the 1960s as a Japanese anglicism by Japanese boxing promoter Osamu Noguchi for a hybrid martial art combining Muay Thai and karate which he had introduced in 1958. The term was also adopted by the American variant. Since there has been a lot of cross-fertilization between these styles, with many practitioners training or competing under the rules of more than one style, the history of the individual styles cannot be seen in isolation from one another.
The French term Boxe pieds-poings is used in the sense of "kickboxing" in the general meaning, including French boxing as well as American and Japanese kickboxing and Thai boxing, any style of full contact karate, etc. Arts labeled as kickboxing in the general sense include: The Indochinese family of kickboxing sports including: Pradal Serey – similar to Muay Thai with an emphasis on elbow techniques. Known as Kun Khmer. Thai Muay Boran – Predecessor of Muay Thai, allows the use of headbutts. Thai kickboxing or Muay Thai – the modern Thai martial art with strong emphasis on knee and elbow strikes. Burmese Lethwei, a traditional Burmese martial art of which has now grown into a popular kickboxing event with strong emphasis on knee, elbow strikes and headbutt. Any part of the body may be used to be struck, it is known as Bando kickboxing. Laotian Muay Lao – Laotian boxing, similar to Muay Thai Filipino Yaw-Yan – Sayaw ng Kamatayan is the proper name for Yaw-Yan, a Filipino martial art developed by Napoleon Fernandez.
The art resembles Muay Thai in a sense, but differs in the hip torquing motion as well as downward-cutting nature of its kicks and with strong emphasis on delivering attacks from long range. Indian Musti yuddha and Adithada, a form of kickboxing that uses knee and forehead strikes in Southern kalaripayattu. French Savate, a historical sport which developed in the 19th century, it is known for its foot-kicking techniques. Modern competition-oriented hybrid martial arts that developed in parallel with Japanese and American kickboxing: Dutch Kickboxing — incorporate styles of Muay Thai and Kyokushin style of Karate. Any style of Full contact Karate Sanda – The applicable component of wushu/kung fu of which takedowns and throws are legal in competition as well as all other sorts of striking. Shoot boxing – A Japanese form of kickboxing which allows throwing and submission while standing, similar to Sanda. Since kickboxing is a broad term, understanding the history can be somewhat difficult; some of the earliest forms of kickboxing included the various Indochinese martial arts muay boran, which developed into modern Muay Thai.
However, in terms of modern competition, it was during the 1950s that a Japanese karateka named Tatsuo Yamada first established an outline of a new sport that combined karate and Muay Thai. This was further explored during the early 1960s, when competitions between karate and Muay Thai began, which allowed for rule modifications to take place. By the middle of the decade the first true kickboxing events were being held in Osaka. By the 1970s and 1980s, the sport had expanded beyond Japan and had reached North America and Europe, it was during this time. In Japan the sport was popular and was broadcast on television before going into a dark period during the 1980s. In North America the sport had unclear rules so kickboxing and full contact karate were the same sport. In Europe the sport did not thrive until the 1990s. Since the 1990s the sport has been dominated by the Japanese K-1 promotion, with some competition coming
"Combat Sports" redirects here, for The Vaccines' album, see Combat Sports. A combat sport, or fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport that involves one-on-one combat. In many combat sports, a contestant wins by scoring more points than the opponent or by disabling the opponent. Common combat sports include mixed martial arts, wrestling, savate, Muay Thai, Tae Kwon Do, Brazilian Jiu-jitsu, HMB, Kyokushin, Kūdō, sometimes Ninjutsu. Tradition styles of wrestling exist in most cultures. Boxing contests date back to ancient Sumer in the 3rd millennium BCE and ancient Egypt circa 1350 BCE; the ancient Olympic Games included several combat-related sports: armored foot races, boxing and pankration, introduced in the Olympic Games of 648 BCE. In ancient China, combat sport appeared in the form of lei tai, it was a no-holds barred combat sport that combined wrestling. There is evidence of similar combat sports in ancient Egypt and Japan. Through the Middle ages and Renaissance, the tournament was popular.
Tournaments were competitions that featured several mock combat events, with jousting as a main event. While the tournament was popular among aristocrats, combat sports were practiced by all levels of society; the German school of late medieval martial arts distinguished sportive combat from serious combat. In the German Renaissance, sportive combat competitions were known as Fechtschulen, corresponding to the Prize Playing in Tudor England. Out of these Prize Playing events developed the English boxing of the 18th century, which evolved into modern boxing with the introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry rules in 1867. Amateur boxing has been part of the modern Olympic Games since their introduction in 1904. Professional boxing became popular in the United States in the 1920s and experienced a "golden age" after World War II; the creation of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is attributed to the Gracie family of Brazil in 1925 after Asian martial arts were introduced to Brazil. Vale-tudo, muay thai kickboxing and luta livre gained popularity.
Modern Muay Thai was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. Sambo was introduced in the Soviet Union. Modern Taekwondo emerged after the Japanese occupation of Korea and became an Olympic sport in 2000. Sanshou as part of modern wushu was developed in the People's Republic of China since the 1950s. Kickboxing and full contact karate were developed in the 1960s and became popular in Japan and the West during the 1980s and 1990s. Modern Mixed Martial Arts developed out of the interconnected subcultures of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and shoot wrestling, it was introduced in Japan in the form of Shooto in 1985, in the United States as Ultimate Fighting Championship in 1993. The Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts were introduced in 2000, the sport experienced peak popularity in the 2000s. During this period, multiple brands and promotions were established; the most well-known promotion for MMA is UFC. Combat sports are more popular among men, both as athletes and as spectators. For many years, participation in combat sports was exclusive to men.
A study conducted by Greenwell, Hancock and Thorn in 2015 revealed that combat sports had a male audience. Combat sport promotions such as UFC or Bellator MMA are advertised to men. Combat athletes fight one-on-one. Different sports moves. For example, boxing only allows punches, taekwondo involves kicks, both Muay Thai and Burmese boxing allow the use of elbows and knees. There are combat sports based on grappling, such as both freestyle and Collegiate wrestling. Modern MMA is similar to the ancient Greek Olympic sport of pankration; some combat sports involve the use of weapons and armor, such as fencing and the new sport SCA Heavy Combat. Boxing Historical Ancient Greek boxing Historical Russian Fist Fighting Historical English Bare-Knuckle Boxing Modern Amateur Boxing Modern Professional Boxing Kickboxing and analogous styles Musti-yuddha Savate Sanda Indochinese Kickboxing Muay Thai Muay Lao Lethwei Shoot boxing Japanese combat sport introduced in 1985. Karate Full Contact Karate Taekwondo Pinning and takedown oriented wrestling Ancient Greek wrestling Beach wrestling Belt wrestling Judo Freestyle wrestling Greco-Roman wrestling Scholastic wrestling Sport Sambo Sumo Submission grappling: Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu luta livre FILA Grappling Folk wrestling shuai jiao Catch wrestling Hybrid martial arts, combining striking and grappling elements: Pankration.
Modern Amateur Pankration Dambe traditional form of boxing, including kicking and wrestling elements, practiced by the Hausa people. Combat Sambo: Russian sport introduced in the 1920s. Kudo Vale Tudo, derived from Brazilian circus shows of the 1920s. Sanshou, institutionalized as part of modern Wushu since the 1950s. Shoot-style wrestling, since the 1980s. Shootfighting Shoot boxing Japanese combat sp