Cape Cod Bay
Cape Cod Bay is a large bay of the Atlantic Ocean adjacent to the U. S. state of Massachusetts. Measuring 604 square miles below a line drawn from Brant Rock in Marshfield to Race Point in Provincetown, Massachusetts, it is enclosed by Cape Cod to the south and east, Plymouth County, Massachusetts, to the west. To the north of Cape Cod Bay lie the Atlantic Ocean. Cape Cod Bay is the southernmost extremity of the Gulf of Maine. Cape Cod Bay is one of the bays adjacent to Massachusetts Bay State; the others are Narragansett Bay, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts Bay. In 1524 the great Italian navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to discover Cape Cod Bay, his claim proved by a map of 1529 which outlined Cape Cod. In 1620, the Pilgrims first sheltered in Provincetown Harbor where they signed the Mayflower Compact, the first democratic document signed in the New World. Most of Cape Cod is composed of glacially derived rocks and gravels; the last glacial period ended about 12,000 years ago.
During the end of the last glaciation, Cape Cod Bay was a large freshwater lake with drainages across Cape Cod in places like Bass River and Orleans Harbor. The Provincetown Spit, i.e. the land north of High Head in North Truro, was formed by marine deposits over the last 5,000-8,000 years. These deposits created a large, bowl-shaped section of Cape Cod Bay. Currents in the Bay move in a counter-clockwise fashion, moving south from Boston, to Plymouth east and north to Provincetown. Since 1914, Cape Cod Bay has been connected to Buzzards Bay by the Cape Cod Canal, which divides the upper cape towns of Bourne and Sandwich; the sea life of the bay is healthy. Fish such as Flounder, Blue-Finned Tuna, Sand Eel and Striped Bass all call the bay home. Sea mammals are quite common in Cape Cod Bay such as seals and whales; the Pilgrims shot at a whale unsuccessfully while they were anchored in Provincetown Harbor in 1620. Cape Cod Bay draws a lot of attention during fishing season with popular deep-sea charter boats, private boat fishing, fly fishing & whale watching.
Fisherman fish off the coast of the South Shore and inner cape for fish such as Blue Fish, Flounder, Striped Bass, Tuna, Pollock and Sharks. Fishing season takes place between May and October. Although plenty of fisherman prefer to fish from shore rather than a boat, Massachusetts requires a Recreational Saltwater Fishing Permit for anyone 16 years of age or older. Many coastal towns have fishing piers, boat charters that provide daily trips into Cape Cod Bay to catch fish; the most popular bait used is sea clams. Cape Cod
Muddy River (Massachusetts)
The Muddy River is a series of brooks and ponds that runs through sections of Boston's Emerald Necklace, including along the south boundary of Brookline, Massachusetts. The river, narrower than most waterways designated as rivers in the United States, is a protected public recreation area surrounded by parks and hiking trails, managed by the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation; the river flows from Jamaica Pond through Olmsted Park's Wards Pond, Willow Pond, Leverett Pond. It flows through a conduit under Route 9 and into a narrow park called the Riverway, from which it flows through three culverts: the Riverway Culvert, the Brookline Avenue Culvert, the Avenue Louis Pasteur Culvert; the Muddy River continues from the Fens toward its connection with the Charles River via the Charlesgate area, running through a stone-paved channel surrounded by a narrow strip of parklands. In a series of stone bridges and tunnels, it passes under Boylston Street, Massachusetts Turnpike, Commonwealth Avenue, Storrow Drive, a series of elevated connecting ramps.
In its natural state, the outlet of the Muddy River into the tidal Charles was much wider. It formed the eastern Brookline border with Boston and Roxbury, from Brookline's incorporation in 1705 until Boston's annexation of Allston–Brighton in 1873; the present form of the river and surrounding parks was created by the Emerald Necklace project, between 1880 and 1900. Under the direction of designer Frederick Law Olmsted, the project reclaimed marshland, creating sculpted and planted riverbanks; the Muddy River is mentioned by John Winthrop, in his famous "Journal of John Winthrop," as the site of an unidentified flying object in March 1638 or 1639, as described to him by witness James Everell. This event is considered by some to be the first recorded instance of such occurrences; the river is undergoing a two phase restoration project to improve flood control and water quality, enhance its aquatic and riparian habitats, restore the landscape and historic resources, implement improved management practices.
The project is being managed by the Army Corps of Engineers working with the City of Boston, the State of Massachusetts and the Town of Brookline. Phase 1 was completed in 2016. Phase 2 will begin in 2019; this project is intended to prevent repeat occurrences of the Muddy River's past damaging floods. Muddy River Restoration Project Emerald Necklace Conservancy Riverway history page
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Westport River lies between Narragansett Bay and Buzzards Bay in Westport, Massachusetts. The Westport River has two branches; the smaller West Branch is 7.0 miles long, rising from a confluence of brooks near the village of Adamsville, Rhode Island. It flows in a southeastward direction, passing around several small islands before meeting Westport Harbor west of Westport Point; the West Branch separates the village of Acoaxet from the rest of the town. The larger East Branch is 11.5 miles long, rising at the town line of Westport and Dartmouth at Lake Noquochoke, fed by the Copicut and Shingle Island rivers. After a short length the river meets the Bread and Cheese Brook before reaching the Head of Westport village, where the river widens and deepens. From here the river continues southward, being fed by several brooks before an initial widening to between 100-400 yards at Widows Point. From Widows Point, the river flows due southward, crossing under the Hix Bridge before passing Gull Rock and widening at Cadman's Neck to a half mile wide.
The river flows southward, with several larger islands dotting the path, before meeting the Horseneck Channel at Westport Point. The East Branch flows under the Normand Edward Fontaine Bridge and into Westport Harbor. Once in Westport Harbor, the combined branches bend around Horseneck Point across from The Knubble before flowing into Rhode Island Sound, just west of Horseneck Beach State Reservation and the point where Rhode Island Sound meets Buzzards Bay; the Westport River estuary has long been known for its wildlife. Deer, coyotes and turkeys can all be spotted at different times along the shore. Ospreys are prevalent. There were 41 nesting sites confirmed in 1980. Now the population has spread to over 300 statewide, due to the Westport River estuary nesting program. MassWildlife continues to provide technical assistance to monitor a sample of the nesting population to determine productivity
The Tiasquam River is a 3.7-mile-long stream on the southwest of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. The creek arises in the eastern section of Chilmark, flows east south, into West Tisbury, Massachusetts to feed the Tisbury Great Pond, which in turn empties into the Atlantic Ocean from the island's southern shore. Martha's Vineyard Watersheds Vineyard Gazette: Tiasquam River Reservation
Gulf of Maine
The Gulf of Maine is a large gulf of the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of North America. It is bounded by Cape Cod at the eastern tip of Massachusetts in the southwest and by Cape Sable Island at the southern tip of Nova Scotia in the northeast; the gulf includes the entire coastlines of the U. S. states of New Hampshire and Maine, as well as Massachusetts north of Cape Cod, the southern and western coastlines of the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, respectively. The gulf was named for the adjoining English colonial Province of Maine, in turn named by early explorers after the Province of Maine in France. Massachusetts Bay, Penobscot Bay, Passamaquoddy Bay, the Bay of Fundy are included within the Gulf of Maine system; the Gulf of Maine is a rectangular depression with a surface area of around 36,000 square miles, enclosed to the west and north by the North American mainland and communicating with the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. The region's glaciation by the Laurentide Ice Sheet stripped sedimentary soil away from the coastline, leaving a shore, predominantly rocky and scenic, lacking the sandy beaches found to the south along the Eastern Seaboard.
The only significant coastal developments are located in the Boston, Portsmouth and Saint John metropolitan areas. The underwater features of the seabed sculptured during the lower sea levels of the ice ages make the gulf a semi-enclosed sea bounded to the south and east by underwater banks. Georges Bank in particular, on its southern end, shelters the gulf from the Gulf Stream. Gulf of Maine waters are more influenced by the Labrador Current, making the gulf waters colder and more nutrient-rich than those found to the south. Undersea valleys in the central basin can reach depths of 1,500 feet while undersea mountains rise up 800 feet from the sea floor reaching the surface in some locations, or exceeding it, creating islands. There are three major basins contained within the Gulf of Maine: Wilkinson Basin to the west, Jordan Basin in the northeast, Georges Basin in the south, which are isolated from each other beneath the 650 foot isobath. Georges Basin, just north of Georges Bank, is the deepest of the three at just over 1200 feet and generates a pocket at the end of the Northeast Channel, a deep fissure between Georges Bank and Browns Bank, the southwestern edge of the Nova Scotian Shelf.
The Northeast Channel is the rest of the Northwest Atlantic. A secondary, shallower connection to the rest of the Atlantic is the Great South Channel, located between Georges Bank and the Nantucket Shoals; the cold waters, extreme tidal mixing, diverse bottom of the Gulf make it one of the most productive marine environments in the North Atlantic, it furnishes habitat for many diverse species including most notably haddock, the Acadian redfish, the Atlantic herring and the American lobster, which grows to famously large sizes in the Gulf. The waters of the Gulf of Maine system at the boundary with the Bay of Fundy are home to the summering grounds for many different bird and whale species, most notably the endangered North Atlantic right whale; the gulf was home to the sea mink until its extinction in the late 1800s. Due to rapid warming of the Gulf of Maine, the water has become too hot for cod. This, along with past overfishing, has helped pushed stocks towards collapse and hampered its recovery despite deep reductions in the number of fish caught, according to a study conducted by the Gulf of Maine Research Institute.
Traditional calculations "consistently over-estimated the abundance of cod." From 2004, temperatures rose by more than 0.4 °F per year, culminating in an ocean heat wave in the northwest Atlantic in 2012-13. The watershed of the gulf encompasses an area of 69,000 sq mi, including all of Maine, 70% of New Hampshire, 56% of New Brunswick, 41% of Massachusetts, 36% of Nova Scotia; the watershed includes a small southern portion of the Canadian province of Quebec. Significant rivers that drain into the Gulf include, from east to west, the Annapolis, Salmon, Saint John, Magaguadavic, St. Croix, Kennebec, Piscataqua and Charles rivers; the gulf's relative proximity to Europe made it an early destination for European colonization. French settlers founded a settlement on St. Croix Island in 1604. English settlers founded the Popham Colony on an island in the Kennebec River in 1607, the same year as the Jamestown settlement, followed by the Plymouth Colony on the shores of Massachusetts Bay in 1620. In the 1960s and 1970s there was a dispute between Canada and the United States over fishing and other resource rights in the Gulf of Maine the Georges Bank region.
This dispute was taken to the International Court of Justice, which delineated a maritime boundary through the Gulf in 1984. Canada and the U. S. continue to disagree on the sovereignty of Machias Seal Island and the waters surrounding it in the northeastern part of the gulf. In recognition of the Gulf's importance to marine habitat, both nations maintain complementary embargoes against offshore oil and gas exploration activities on Georges Bank in the southern part of the gulf. British colonization of the Americas French colonization of the Americas Gulf of Maine Research Institute Gulf of Maine Research Institute Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment
The Quashnet River known as Quoshnet River or Moonakis River, is a 5.1-mile-long estuary in Falmouth, Massachusetts on Cape Cod. Its area is about 1-square-mile; the river is connected by ditch to John's Pond in Mashpee, just north of today's Route 28. It is fed by groundwater and flows south, gaining water as it goes, into Waquoit Bay which flows into Nantucket Sound. During colonial times it was known for its abundant brook trout but was dammed in the mid-19th century for water power. After the mills burned and the dam was breached, the valley was converted to cranberry cultivation in the early 20th century. Cranberry production stopped in the 1950s, the cranberry bogs were abandoned; the land was purchased by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts beginning in the late 1950s, Trout Unlimited and other organizations began to restore the river to trout-quality in the 1970s. Today the river is an important migratory fish run for alewife and salter brook trout, home to herring and eels, is Waquoit Bay's largest source of fresh water.
Additional portions of its watershed were purchased through the years by various entities. The area is now a wildlife management and conservation preserve managed by the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. Environmental Protection Agency Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Trout Unlimited