The York–Scarborough line runs between the city of York and the town of Scarborough. Towns and villages served along the way are Norton-on-Derwent and Seamer; the line was built by George Hudson's York and North Midland Railway and opened on 7 July 1845. The line was constructed remarkably by the standards of the time, taking just one year and three days to complete the 42-mile route; this feat was possible because the Y&NMR decided against the more costly and time-consuming option of building a tunnel through the Howardian Hills south of Malton. Instead the chosen route meanders with the River Derwent for around four miles, creating a slower but more scenically pleasant experience for passengers The railway line was opened with a ceremony for invited guests who were taken by George Hudson on a train of two engines and 40 first class coaches, which left York at 11.00 am. The line was single track and the journey to Scarborough took three and a half hours. In Scarborough the guests were treated to a lunch.
After a return journey to York, the guests were treated to dinner in the Guildhall, hosted by the Lord Mayor of York. The new railway included a 6-mile branch from Rillington to Pickering that connected with the horse-worked Whitby and Pickering Railway which the Y&NMR proceeded to take over and upgrade for steam traction. Most of the intermediate stations on the line were closed to passengers in September 1930 as the number of excursion and holiday trains going straight through to Scarborough during that period meant that the line was too busy to accommodate local services; the closed stations retained their goods facilities and were maintained for occasional passenger use by excursion trains until the 1960s. There are plans to re-open the stations at Haxby and Strensall due to the growth of population in those areas. There have been suggestions to re-open these stations since 1990 when it was pointed out that if they were inside a metropolitan county they would be re-opened quickly. In January 2009 funding to re-open Haxby station was confirmed but the Strensall plan has yet to come to fruition.
In 2014, work started on replacing the 1840s built bridge that carries the railway over the River Ouse. Network Rail spent £6 million on the entire project and used boats and pontoons floated on the River Ouse to reach the bridge; the new bridge opened to traffic on 23 February 2015. The route has 89 level crossings between Scarborough. All supervised and automatic crossings and the residual seven signal boxes en route will be closed and control handed over to the York Rail Operating Centre by 2025. Services operated along this line are run by TransPennine Express. Services are hourly and operate to and from either York, Manchester or Liverpool with a reduced service on Sundays; this is part of the North TransPennine route. Rolling stock on this line has consisted entirely of Class 185 DMUs since early 2007. East Midlands Trains run occasional summer services; the new Northern franchise run by Arriva Rail North will begin running services over the line from December 2017. Scarborough sees steam-hauled summer specials from York, hauled by various preserved steam locomotives.
There is talk of reinstating the pre-1965 link to Pickering to connect the North Yorkshire Moors Railway to the national network from its southern end, Allowing trains from Malton and beyond to reach Whitby. Such a move has been considered but does not seem for the foreseeable future. On 25 August 1845 the 12.15 train from York came off the rails a quarter of a mile south of Kirkham Abbey, in the vicinity of Crambe, due to subsidence of an embankment beside the River Derwent. Thomas Cabry was on the engine and hurt his foot in the process.. On 3 February 2009, a car hit the back of a train passing over Knapton level crossing; the driver was taken to hospital. There were no casualties on the train; the level crossing is an AHBC – automatic half barrier crossing. Details of proposals to construct halt at Scarborough Mere Passenger Numbers 1900 - 1934
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county and largest ceremonial county in England. It is located in the region of Yorkshire and the Humber but in the region of North East England; the estimated population of North Yorkshire was 602,300 in mid 2016. Created by the Local Government Act 1972, it covers an area of 8,654 square kilometres, making it the largest county in England; the majority of the Yorkshire Dales and the North York Moors lie within North Yorkshire's boundaries, around 40% of the county is covered by National Parks. The largest towns are Middlesbrough, York and Scarborough; the area under the control of the county council, or shire county, is divided into a number of local government districts: Craven, Harrogate, Ryedale and Selby. The Department for Communities and Local Government considered reorganising North Yorkshire County Council's administrative structure by abolishing the seven district councils and the county council to create a North Yorkshire unitary authority; the changes were planned to be implemented no than 1 April 2009.
This was rejected on 25 July 2007 so District Council structure will remain. The largest settlement in the administrative county is the second largest is Scarborough. Within the ceremonial county, the largest is the Middlesbrough built-up area. York is the most populous district in the ceremonial county. York and Redcar and Cleveland are unitary authority boroughs which form part of the ceremonial county for various functions such as the Lord Lieutenant of North Yorkshire, but do not come under county council control. Uniquely for a district in England, Stockton-on-Tees is split between North Yorkshire and County Durham for this purpose. Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees, Redcar and Cleveland boroughs form part of the North East England region; the ceremonial county area, including the unitary authorities, borders East Riding of Yorkshire to the east/south east, South Yorkshire to the south, West Yorkshire to the west/south west, Lancashire to the west, Cumbria to the north west and County Durham to the north, with the North Sea to the east.
The geology of North Yorkshire is reflected in its landscape. Within the county are the North York Moors and most of the Yorkshire Dales. Between the North York Moors in the east and the Pennine Hills in the west lie the Vales of Mowbray and York; the Tees Lowlands lie to the north of the North York Moors and the Vale of Pickering lies to the south. Its eastern border is the North sea coast; the highest point is Whernside, on the Cumbrian border, at 736 metres. The two major rivers in the county are the River Ure; the Swale and the Ure form the River Ouse which flows into the Humber Estuary. The River Tees forms part of the border between North Yorkshire and County Durham and flows from upper Teesdale through Middlesbrough and Stockton and to the coast. North Yorkshire contains a small section of green belt in the south of the county, just north of Ilkley and Otley along the North and West Yorkshire borders, it extends to the east to cover small communities such as Huby, Kirkby Overblow, Follifoot before covering the gap between the towns of Harrogate and Knaresborough, helping to keep those towns separate.
The belt meets with the Yorkshire Dales National Park at its southernmost extent, forms a border with the Nidderdale AONB. It extends into the western area of Selby district, reaching as far as Balne; the belt was first drawn up from the 1950s. The city of York has an independent surrounding belt area affording protections to several outlying settlements such as Haxby and Dunnington, it too extends into the surrounding districts. North Yorkshire was formed on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, covers most of the lands of the historic North Riding, as well as the northern half of the West Riding, the northern and eastern fringes of the East Riding of Yorkshire and the former county borough of York. York became a unitary authority independent of North Yorkshire on 1 April 1996, at the same time Middlesbrough and Cleveland and areas of Stockton-on-Tees south of the river became part of North Yorkshire for ceremonial purposes, having been part of Cleveland from 1974 to 1996.
The non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire is administered by North Yorkshire County Council, a cabinet-style council. The full council of 72 elects a council leader, who in turn appoints up to 9 more councillors to form the executive cabinet; the cabinet is responsible for making decisions in the non-metropolitan county. The county council have their offices in the County Hall in Northallerton. Certain areas within the ceremonial county are administered independently of the county council and have their own unitary authority councils: the City of York Council and Cleveland Borough Council, Middlesbrough Borough Council, Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council; the county has above average house prices. Unemployment is below average for the UK and claimants of Job Seekers Allowance is very low compared to the rest of the UK at 2.7%. Agriculture is an important industry, as are power generation; the county has prosperous high technology and tourism sectors. Tourism is a significant contribut
North Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service
North Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service covering the seven districts of administrative county of North Yorkshire: Craven, Hambleton, Ryedale, Selby. The service is divided into eight groups related to the above districts; the FRS has a total of 38 fire stations, The majority of these are crewed by staff on the retained duty system, with the minority being wholetime. Unlike other fire and rescue services in the United Kingdom, this FRS has two volunteer fire stations which are crewed by volunteers. There are: 5 Wholetime Shift fire stations 7 wholetime Day-crewed stations 24 RDS stations 2 Volunteer-crewed stations 1 Headquarters and training centre RP = Rescue Pump ALP = Aerial Ladder Platform HRU/ISU = Heavy Rescue Unit/Incident Support Unit ICU = Incident Command Unit WB = Water Bowser IRU = Incident Response Unit WRL = Water Rescue Ladder SCO = Agrocat WRU = Water Rescue Unit GOTCHA = Specialist Rope Rescue VU = Volunteer Unit HVPU/HL = High Volume Pumping Unit/Hose Layer TRV = Targeted Response Vehicle TRV* = TRV at Day Crewed are first response appliances The FRS received a total number of 19,000 emergency calls in 2007, as well as this the service dealt with 9,000 incidents that year.
Additionally, the service experienced a drop in call-outs by 32% between 2003 and 2013. By 2016, this had dropped to 15,000 and received notoriety when a crew in Harrogate was delayed in getting to a car fire after it emerged they had been sent to the wrong location by a control room in Cornwall. NYFRS shares its control room operations with the Cornwall Fire and Rescue Service during peak periods. A investigation determined that the mix-up was down to the caller not supplying timely information rather than the Cornish operator not having'local' knowledge. Fire Service in the United Kingdom Fire apparatus Fire Engine FiReControl List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty Homepage
Welburn is a village and civil parish in the Ryedale district of North Yorkshire, in England, 2 miles south west of Kirkbymoorside and about 24 miles from York. The population of the parish was estimated at 60 in 2012; as the population of the civil parish was less than 100 it was not separately counted in the 2011 census and was included with the civil parish of Wombleton. The civil parish includes the lower part of Kirkdale, including Kirkdale Cave and the parish church of St Gregory's Minster, both about 0.6 miles north of the village. The Slingsby Aviation works and airstrip lie south-east of the village. Welburn was a township in the parish of Kirkdale and became a civil parish in 1866. In 1870–72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales described Welburn like this: "WELBURN, a township in Kirkdale parish, N. R. Yorkshire. Acres, 1,582. Real property, £2,846. Pop. 121. Houses, 20." Built during the 17th century, Welburn Hall was a lath and plaster structure, becoming the home of the Strangeway family.
A following owner, Sir John Gibson, High Sheriff of Yorkshire, built a substantial stone addition to the original building. The Hall again passed to new owners by way of Elizabeth and heiress of Thomas Robinson Esquire of Welburn who married Rev. Digby Cayley, their three daughters and co-heiresses married into the families of Rev. Francis Wrangham, Archdeacon of Cleveland, Thomas Smith, M. D. and Rev. Arthur Cayley, rector of Normanby, who were in possession in 1824. Mrs. Wrangham held the manor in 1857 followed by William Ernest Duncombe, the Earl of Feversham, in 1872. During the 19th century, Welburn Hall a fine specimen of Elizabethan architecture, was in a state of decay having remained unoccupied from about 1850 to 1880 when Joseph Heads, a brick and tile maker, became the occupant. “In 1890, the derelict hall was sold, the west wing was demolished and the present house and stables were built.” The 1901 census is more precise than earlier records. Notably, Welburn Hall was occupied by colliery owner, John Shaw JP, his wife, his son, James Edward Shaw, wife of James and John's three grandchildren, Beatrice and John Edward Durrant Shaw.
Eleven household servants are recorded. The Hall’s new coach house was occupied by the coachman, William Scholey, his wife, Elizabeth; the "Hall Farm" was operated by his two employees. “In 1931, the house was badly damaged by a fire and was subsequently rebuilt in a less ostentatious style”. The above-mentioned, Major John Edward Durrant Shaw, son of James Edward Shaw, became High Sheriff of Yorkshire from 1939 to 1940. Richard Potter became a miller occupying Howkeld Mill. In 1784, William Franklin was born in Welburn, he worked as a cartwright and in 1861, he was lodging with another carpenter, John Clarke, employing 3 apprentices. Thomas Parker, born in Edmundbyres, appeared in Yorkshire during the mid-18th Century, he married Hannah Boyes, born in Wombleton and they took up farming in Welburn. Christopher Foxton and his wife, Ann Hodgson, farmed 200 acres. By 1840, their son, John Foxton and Grace Brown had taken over this farm. John and Grace were born in Welburn and married in 1803; the widowed Grace and her two sons, Richard Foxton and Hartas Foxton continued to run the farm through the 1850s.
By 1861, Hartas had taken over Welburn Grange. Leonard Snowdon followed by Mathew Snowdon occupied West Ings; the Parker and Snowdon families became intertwined by marriage during the 1800s, producing many descendants who contributed to the growth and prosperity of Yorkshire and beyond. Thomas Parker and Hannah Boyes produced five children: Thomas Parker married Jane Winspear Elizabeth Parker married Joseph Worthy, Margaret Parker married William Foxton, John Parker married Ann Richardson, Joseph Parker married Lavinia Fenwick. During the 1840s and 1850s, the three Parker brothers were tenant farmers on individual acreages and occupied adjacent homes in Welburn Village, they produced eight daughters in total. Thomas Parker and Jane Winspear's son, another Thomas Parker, married Jane Foxton and worked as a cattle jobber in nearby Wombleton; this couple produced five daughters. Their move back to Welburn coincided with the death of Thomas' father in 1853 and by 1881, Thomas and Jane, now "cattle dealers", had moved to Sonley Hill, Welburn.
Hartas Foxton was born in Welburn in 1822. By 1861, he occupied Welburn Grange with his wife, farming 210 acres and employing six servants. John Parker, son of John Parker and Ann Richardson, became the original Sinnington Huntsman, he was described as an eccentric character "whose witty anecdotes are still remembered". Jack Parker is noted as the legendary huntsman who "blooded" the Viscount of Helmsley. According to available records, Frederick Parker, son of Thomas Parker and Jane Foxton, is the only Parker to have a direct connection to Welburn Hall. During the 1860s and 1870s, Frederick and Jane Snowdon were farming 150 acres at nearby Muscoates. By 1881, Frederick and his second wife, were farming 113 acres in Welburn. West Ings, a 234-acre farm, adjacent to Welburn Hall, was the birthplace of Frederick’s former wife, Jane Snowdon. In 1881, West Ings was occupied by William Snowdon and his wife, Hannah. By 1901, Frederick Parker was again a widower, farming Welburn Hall acreage until about 1910.
He moved to Wombleton where he died in 1912. In 1859, Joseph and Thomas Parker, sons of Thomas Parker and Jane Foxton, le
The Howardian Hills are an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty located between the Yorkshire Wolds, the North York Moors National Park and the Vale of York, they take their name from the Howard family who still own local lands. The Howardian Hills form 79 square miles of well-wooded undulating countryside between the flat agricultural Vales of Pickering and York; the irregular 558 feet high ridges of the Howardian Hills are a southern extension of the rocks of the Hambleton Hills in the North York Moors. Jurassic limestone and a network of pasture, extensive woodland and woodland combine to create a strong visual character in the higher ground overlooking the agricultural plains below. On the eastern edge, the River Derwent cuts through the Hills in the Kirkham Gorge, a deep winding valley formed as an overflow channel from glacial Lake Pickering. Although there are no towns within the AONB, the market towns of Helmsley and Malton lie just beyond the boundary. From Malton to Hovingham is a line of spring line villages.
The majority of older buildings are of locally quarried limestone with red pantile roofs and those which developed as part of the grand country house estates have retained a coherent identity. The village of Ampleforth and its Abbey and College lie within the area. High grade arable land and managed woodland makes this rich farming country whose diversity contributes to its attractive rural character; the Howardian Hills AONB is a key area for several nationally important Biodiversity Action Plan Priority habitats including lowland broadleaved woodland, wood pasture, veteran trees and neutral grasslands and fen meadows. Characteristic species include brown hare, tree sparrow and barn owl as well as several local rarities such as knapweed broomrape and baneberry; as a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The Howardian Hills are designated an AONB because of the following Special Qualities: Unusual landform: The Howardian Hills are the only area of Jurassic limestone in Northern England with AONB designation.
Kirkham Gorge on the River Derwent, Yorkshire is a unique glacial overflow channel of great scientific importance. A richly varied landscape: The landscape comprises a complex system of hills and valleys of woodland, arable fields, fens, stone walls, designed parklands and scattered settlements. Landscape of high visual quality: Diverse landform and land use with contrasting scale, colour and form alongside historic houses, extensive woodland, sweeping views, farming landscapes and traditional building styles provide great aesthetic appeal. Remarkable heritage: A concentration of archaeological and historic features including Iron Age earthworks, medieval castles and monasteries, grand houses and designed landscapes including Castle Howard, Newburgh Priory, Hovingham Hall, Gilling Castle and Nunnington Hall contribute to the dramatic landscape. An important wildlife resource: The area boasts outstanding wild plants and animals within the unique River Derwent and has nationally important fens as well as extensive remnants of Ancient Semi-Natural Woodland.
Each of these attributes is important in its own right, but it is their combination in a small area that has produced a landscape of national significance. As a working landscape, the interests of agriculture, rural enterprise and the economic and social needs of communities in the AONB are important; the Joint Advisory Committee and professional staff in the AONB unit help to conserve and enhance the AONB landscape by: Preparing and implementing the AONB Management Plan on behalf of the three constituent Local Authorities Encouraging and facilitating communities to work collaboratively. Providing advice, practical support and grant aid to farmers and landowners to protect and enhance wildlife habitat and landscape features. Working with the County Council's Rights of Way Team to improve access. Restoring historic field boundaries including hedgerows and stone walls. Implementing habitat restoration and management projects. Safeguarding the historic environment by renovating traditional features and buildings.
Scutinising strategies and planning applications to avoid intrusive development. Visit for further details. Bateman, J.'Howardian Hills Field Collection Survey' John Bateman: York Archaeological Survey Report. Ampleforth Parish Council Village in the Howardian Hills AONB Howardian Hills AONB
Castle Howard railway station
Castle Howard railway station was a minor railway station serving the village of Welburn and the stately home at Castle Howard in North Yorkshire, England. On the York to Scarborough Line it was opened on 5 July 1845 by the North Midland Railway; the architect was George Townsend Andrews. It closed to passenger traffic on 22 September 1930 but continued to be staffed until the 1950s for small volumes of freight and parcels; the station was used by the aristocracy, notably Queen Victoria when she visited Castle Howard with Prince Albert as a guest of Earl of Carlisle in August 1850. A road was built from the station to the stately home. Parts of this road can still be seen to the north side of Whitwell-on-the-Hill; the station is now a private residence. Castle Howard Station Website – An historic record featuring a timeline, image bank and personal memories relating to the station Castle Howard station on navigable 1947 O. S. map