Welcome sign

A welcome sign is a road sign at the border of a region that introduces or welcomes visitors to the region. Examples of welcome signs can be found near political borders, such as when entering a state, county, city, or town, they are found in neighborhoods and private communities. In European countries under the Schengen Agreement, a welcome sign may be found at borders between countries, its purpose is informational, to inform drivers where they are, for tourism, as it affords an opportunity to advertise features within the region to people who are entering it. A welcome sign is a type of town sign — a sign placed at the entrance to and exit from a city, town, or village. In many jurisdictions, the format of town signs is standardized. A municipality's welcome sign may give its population or date of foundation, list twinned towns or services within the town, or depict the town's crest, typical local products, or the logo of sponsor organizations which maintain the sign

List of Atlanta Braves no-hitters

The Atlanta Braves are a Major League Baseball franchise based in Atlanta. They play in the National League East division. Known in their early years as the "Boston Red Caps", "Boston Beaneaters", "Boston Doves", "Boston Rustlers", "Boston Bees", "Boston Braves", "Milwaukee Braves", pitchers for the Braves have thrown 14 no-hitters in franchise history. A no-hitter is recognized by Major League Baseball only "when a pitcher allows no hits during the entire course of a game, which consists of at least nine innings", though one or more batters "may reach base via a walk, an error, a hit by pitch, a passed ball or wild pitch on strike three, or catcher's interference". No-hitters of less than nine complete innings were recognized by the league as official. A perfect game, a special subcategory of no-hitter, has yet to be thrown in Braves history; as defined by Major League Baseball, "in a perfect game, no batter reaches any base during the course of the game." Jack Stivetts threw the first no-hitter in Braves history on August 6, 1892.

Two left-handed pitchers have thrown no-hitters in franchise history while eleven were by right-handers. Twelve no-hitters were thrown at only two on the road, they threw three in April, one in May, two in June, five in August, three in September. The longest interval between no-hitters was between the games pitched by Tom Hughes and Jim Tobin, encompassing 27 years, 10 months, 20 days from June 16, 1916 till April 27, 1944. Conversely, the shortest interval between no-hitters was between the games pitched by Lew Burdette and Warren Spahn, encompassing 29 days from August 18, 1960 till September 16, 1960; the Braves have no-hit the Philadelphia Phillies the most, which occurred four times, which were no-hit by George Davis in 1914, Jim Wilson in 1954, Burdette in 1960, Spahn in 1960. There is one no-hitter which the team allowed one run, thrown by Vic Willis in 1899; the most baserunners allowed in a no-hitter was by Hughes. Of the fourteen no-hitters, three have been won by a score of 1–0, 2–0, 7–0, more common than any other results.

The largest margin of victory in a no-hitter was an 11–0 win by Stivetts in 1892. The smallest margin of victory in a no-hitter was a 1–0 wins by Burdette in 1960, Spahn in 1961, a combined no-hitter by Kent Mercker, Mark Wohlers, Alejandro Peña in 1991; the Braves are the only team to claim three straight no-hitters with no other teams throwing one between: the Burdette and Spahn no-hitters in 1960, followed by Spahn's second no-hitter in 1961. The umpire is part of any no-hitter; the task of the umpire in a baseball game is to make any decision "which involves judgment, such as, but not limited to, whether a batted ball is fair or foul, whether a pitch is a strike or a ball, or whether a runner is safe or out… is final." Part of the duties of the umpire making calls at home plate includes defining the strike zone, which "is defined as that area over homeplate the upper limit of, a horizontal line at the midpoint between the top of the shoulders and the top of the uniform pants, the lower level is a line at the hollow beneath the kneecap."

These calls define every baseball game and are therefore integral to the completion of any no-hitter. 12 different umpires presided over each of the franchise's 14 no-hitters. The manager is another integral part of any no-hitter; the tasks of the manager include determining the starting rotation as well as batting order and defensive lineup every game. Managers choosing the right pitcher and right defensive lineup at a right game at a right place at a right time would contribute to a no-hitter. 10 different managers, most Bobby Cox, have led the franchise during the team's 14 no-hitters. List of Major League Baseball no-hitters a The only team without a no-hitter in franchise history is the San Diego Padres. Braves Rare Feats: No-hitters at Atlanta Braves official site

Carbon copy

Before the development of photographic copiers, a carbon copy—not to be confused with the carbon print family of photographic reproduction processes—was the under-copy of a typed or written document placed over carbon paper and the under-copy sheet itself. When copies of business letters were so produced, it was customary to use the acronym "CC" or "cc" before a colon and below the writer's signature to inform the principal recipient that carbon copies had been made and distributed to the parties listed after the colon. With the advent of word processors and e-mail, "cc" is used as a formal indication of the distribution of letters to secondary recipients. A sheet of carbon paper is placed between two or more sheets of paper; the pressure applied by the writing implement to the top sheet causes pigment from the carbon paper to reproduce the similar mark on the copy sheet. More than one copy can be made by stacking several sheets with carbon paper between each pair. Four or five copies is a practical limit.

The top sheet is the original and each of the additional sheets is called a carbon copy. The use of carbon copies declined with the advent of photocopying and electronic document creation and distribution. Carbon copies are still sometimes used in special applications: for example, in manual receipt books which have a multiple-use sheet of carbon paper supplied, so that the user can keep an exact copy of each receipt issued, although here carbonless copy paper is used to the same effect, it is still common for a business letter to include, at the end, a list of names preceded by the abbreviation "CC", indicating that the named persons are to receive copies of the letter though carbon paper is no longer used to make the copies. An alternative etymology is that "c:" was used for copy and "cc:" indicates the plural, just as "p." means page and "pp." means pages. This alternative etymology explains the frequent usage of "c:" when only one recipient is listed, while "cc:" is used for two or more recipients of the copies.

This etymology can explain why originally, "cc:" was used to list recipients who received typed copies and not carbon copies. The term "carbon copy" can denote anything, a near duplicate of an original. Carbon copy can be used as a transitive verb with the meaning described under e-mail below related to the CC field of an e-mail message; that is. It is common practice to abbreviate the verb form, many forms are acceptable, including cc and cc:. Past tense forms in use are cc'd, cc ` ed, cc-ed and cc:'d. Present participle or imperfect forms in use include cc'ing. Merriam-Webster uses cc'd and cc ` ing, respectively. In common usage, an email message has three fields for addressees: the To field is for principal recipients of the message, the CC field indicates secondary recipients whose names are visible to one another and to the principal, the BCC field contains the names of tertiary recipients whose names are invisible to each other and to the primary and secondary recipients, it is considered good practice to indicate to the other recipients that a new participant has been added to the list of receivers.

Dot matrix and daisy wheel impact printers are able to use carbon paper to produce several copies of a document in one pass, most models feature adjustable impact power and head spacing to accommodate up to three copies plus the original printout. This feature is used in conjunction with continuous, prearranged perforated paper and carbon supplies for use with a tractor feeder, rather than with single sheets of paper, for example, when printing out commercial invoices or receipts; the dictionary definition of carbon copy at Wiktionary