President and Fellows of Harvard College
The President and Fellows of Harvard College is the smaller of Harvard University's two governing boards, the other being its Board of Overseers. In 1650, at the request of Harvard President Henry Dunster, the Great and General Court of Massachusetts issued the body's charter, making it now the oldest corporation in the Americas. Although the institution it governs has grown into Harvard University, the corporation's formal title remains the President and Fellows of Harvard College; the corporation was originally intended to be a body of the school's resident instructors, similar to the fellows of an Oxbridge college. However, it early fell into the now-familiar American model of a governing board—an outside body whose members are not involved in the institution's daily life, which meets periodically to consult with the day-to-day head, the president; the Corporation is self-perpetuating, appointing new members to fill its own vacancies as they arise. For most of its history, the Corporation was consisted of six fellows in addition to the president.
But after the abortive presidency of Lawrence Summers and a large endowment decline in 2008–2009, a year-long governance review was conducted. In December 2010, it announced that the Corporation's "composition and practices" would be altered: the number of fellows would increase from seven to 13, with prescribed terms of service, several new committees would endeavor to improve the group's integration with the activities of the University as a whole its long-term planning. There are thirteen members of the Corporation, their names and degrees that each received from a school of Harvard University are shown below. President and Fellows of Harvard College
The Harvard Crimson are the athletic teams of Harvard University. The school's teams compete in NCAA Division I; as of 2013, there were 42 Division I intercollegiate varsity sports teams for women and men at Harvard, more than at any other NCAA Division I college in the country. Like the other Ivy League universities, Harvard does not offer athletic scholarships. Harvard's baseball program began competing in the 1865 season, it has appeared in four College World Series. It plays at Joseph J. O'Donnell Field and is coached by Bill Decker. Harvard Crimson men's basketball program represents intercollegiate men's basketball at Harvard University; the team competes in the Ivy League in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and play home games at the Lavietes Pavilion in Boston, Massachusetts. The team's last appearance in the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament was in 2014, where they beat Cincinnati in the Round of 64 in a 12 vs. 5 seed upset. The Crimson are coached by Tommy Amaker.
Harvard Crimson women's basketball program represents intercollegiate men's basketball at Harvard University. The team competes in the Ivy League in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and play home games at the Lavietes Pavilion in Boston, Massachusetts; the team's last appearance in the NCAA Division I Women's Basketball Tournament was in 2007. See footnote. See also: College rowing and Intercollegiate sports team champions#RowingECAC Rowing Trophy: 2002, 2004 The fencing team won the 2006 NCAA team championship in men's and women's combined fencing. Representing Harvard Crimson, Benjamin Ungar won Gold in the 2006 Individual Men's Épée event at the NCAA Fencing Championship, was named Harvard Athlete of The Year. See: Harvard Crimson football and Harvard StadiumThe football team has competed since 1873, they have won ten national championships when the school competed in what is now known as the FBS. They are best known for their rivalry with Yale, known as "The Game".
Sixteen former players have been inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame. Harvard's athletic rivalry with Yale is intense in every sport in which they meet, coming to a climax each fall in their annual football meeting, which dates back to 1875. While Harvard's football team is no longer one of the country's best as it was a century ago during football's early days, both it and Yale have influenced the way the game is played. In 1903, Harvard Stadium introduced a new era into football with the first-ever permanent reinforced concrete stadium of its kind in the country; the stadium's structure played a role in the evolution of the college game. Seeking to reduce the alarming number of deaths and serious injuries in the sport, the Father of Football, Walter Camp, suggested widening the field to open up the game, but the state-of-the-art Harvard Stadium was too narrow to accommodate a wider playing surface. So, other steps had to be taken. Camp would instead support revolutionary new rules for the 1906 season.
These included legalizing the forward pass the most significant rule change in the sport's history. In both 1919 and 1920, headed by All-American brothers Arnold Horween and Ralph Horween, Harvard was undefeated; the team won the 1920 Rose Bowl against the University of Oregon, 7–6. It was the only bowl appearance in Harvard history. Harvard has won six national collegiate team championships: 1898, 1899, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, they have crowned eight individual national champions: James Curtis, Halstead Lindsley, Chandler Egan, A. L. White, H. H. Wilder, F. C. Davison, Edward Allis, J. W. Hubbell, they won the inaugural Ivy League championship in their only league championship. The men's ice hockey team is one of the oldest intercollegiate ice hockey teams in the United States, having played their first game on January 19, 1898 in a 0–6 loss to Brown. Former head coach William H. Claflin and former captain George Owen are credited with the first use of line change in a game against Yale on March 3, 1923 when the Crimson substituted entire forward lines instead of individuals.
The men's ice hockey team won the NCAA Division I Championship on April 1, 1989, defeating the Minnesota Golden Gophers 4-3 in overtime. The Cleary Cup, awarded to the ECAC regular-season champion, is named for former Harvard All-American hockey player and athletic director Bill Cleary, a member of the U. S. hockey team. The team competes in ECAC Hockey along with five other Ivy League schools and is coached by Harvard alumnus and former NHL forward, Ted Donato. Harvard competes in one of the most heated rivalries of college hockey at least twice each season against Harvard's archrival, the Cornell Big Red, in installments of the Cornell-Harvard hockey rivalry. Cornell and Harvard are the most storied programs in the ECAC. 1-time NCAA men's champions: 1989 10-time ECAC men's champions: 1963, 1971, 1983, 1987, 1994, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2015, 2017 11-time ECAC men's regular-season champions: 1963, 1973*, 1975, 1986, 1987, 1988*, 1989, 1992, 1993, 1994, 2017* See the "Harvard Crimson ice hockey" navigation box at the bottom of the page.1-time women's national champions 6-time ECAC women's champions 6-time ECAC women's regular-season champions Older than The Game by 23 years, the Harvard–Yale Regatta was the original source of the athletic rivalry between the
Harvard Yard, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is the oldest part of the Harvard University campus, its historic center and modern crossroads. It contains most of the freshman dormitories, Harvard's most important libraries, Memorial Church, several classroom and departmental buildings, the offices of senior University officials including the President of Harvard University; the Yard is a grassy area of 22.4 acres bounded principally by Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge Street and Quincy Street. Its perimeter fencing – principally iron, with some stretches of brick – has twenty-seven gates; the center of the Yard, known as Tercentenary Theatre, is a wide grassy area bounded by Widener Library, Memorial Church, University Hall, Sever Hall. Tercentenary Theater is the site of other convocations; the western third of Harvard Yard, which opens onto Peabody Street at Johnston Gate and abuts the center of Harvard Square to the south, is known as the Old Yard. Most of the freshman dormitories cluster around the Old Yard, including Massachusetts Hall, Harvard's oldest building and the second-oldest academic building in the United States.
Massachusetts Hall houses the offices of the President of Harvard University. The original Harvard Hall in the Old Yard housed the College library, including the books donated by John Harvard—all but one of which were destroyed when the building burned in 1764. Rebuilt in 1766, the current Harvard Hall now houses classrooms. Across the Old Yard from Johnston Gate is University Hall, whose white-granite facade was the first to challenge the red-brick Georgian style until ascendant. University Hall contains major administrative offices, including those of the Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences and the Dean of Harvard College. Libraries in the Yard are Widener Library, its connected Pusey Library annex, Houghton Library for rare books and manuscripts, Lamont Library, the main undergraduate library. Classroom and departmental buildings include Emerson Hall, Sever Hall, Robinson Hall, Boylston Hall; the Harvard Bixi, a Chinese stele with inscribed text, is located near Widener. The freshman dormitories of Harvard Yard include the upper levels of Massachusetts Hall, Wigglesworth Hall, Weld Hall, Grays Hall, Matthews Hall, Straus Hall, Mower Hall, Hollis Hall, Stoughton Hall, Lionel Hall, Holworthy Hall, Canaday Hall, Thayer Hall.
Nestled among Mower, Hollis and Stoughton Halls is Holden Chapel, home of the Holden Choirs. Nearby is Phillips Brooks House, dedicated to student service to the community. Administrative buildings in the Yard include the aforementioned University Hall and Massachusetts Hall. Loeb House is the home of Harvard's governing bodies: the Harvard Corporation and the Board of Overseers. Wadsworth House houses the Harvard University Librarian and the Office of the University Marshal, among others. Lehman Hall, at the southwestern corner of the Yard, provides administrative services for students who live off-campus. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cambridge, Massachusetts "Park the car in Harvard Yard" Campus map showing Harvard Yard
Newell Boathouse, named for a popular Harvard athlete killed just a few years after graduation, is the primary boathouse used by Harvard University's varsity men's rowing teams. It stands on land subject to an unusual peppercorn lease agreement between Harvard and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Called "the elder statesman among Charles River boathouses", Newell Boathouse is named for 1894 Harvard College graduate Marshall Newell, a varsity rower and All-American football player in all four of his undergraduate years, "beloved by all those who knew him" and nicknamed "Ma" for the guidance he gave younger athletes. After Newell was killed in 1897 while working as an official of the Boston and Albany Railroad, $2,000 was raised for a boathouse in his memory. Built in 1900 on the south side of the Charles to a design by Peabody and Stearns, Newell Boathouse is constructed of concrete, with a slate facade and roof, it was Harvard's first permanent boathouse. In addition to storage for racing shells, the building provides locker rooms and training rooms, rowing tanks and other practice equipment.
Architectural historian Bainbridge Bunting wrote that its "complex profile... resembling that of Carey Cage reflected in the Charles in the early morning, has made it a landmark on the river." The "prime riverfront space" upon which Newell Boathouse stands belongs to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In addition to having given the Commonwealth forty-six acres of land downriver, Harvard pays $1 per year for the right to maintain a boathouse on the site, under a lease running one thousand years, at the end of which time Harvard has the option to renew the lease for a further thousand years—an example of a peppercorn lease amounting to "virtual freehold." Peppercorn rent
Radcliffe College was a women's liberal arts college in Cambridge and functioned as the female coordinate institution for the all-male Harvard College. It was one of the Seven Sisters colleges, among which it shared with Bryn Mawr College, Wellesley College, Smith College, others the popular reputation of having a intellectual and independent-minded female student body. Radcliffe conferred Radcliffe College diplomas to undergraduates and graduate students for the first 70 or so years of its history and joint Harvard-Radcliffe diplomas to undergraduates beginning in 1963. A formal "non-merger merger" agreement with Harvard was signed in 1977, with full integration with Harvard completed in 1999. Today, within Harvard University, Radcliffe's former administrative campus is home to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, former Radcliffe housing at the Radcliffe Quadrangle has been incorporated into the Harvard College house system. Under the terms of the 1999 consolidation, the Radcliffe Yard and the Radcliffe Quadrangle retain the "Radcliffe" designation in perpetuity.
The "Harvard Annex," a private program for the instruction of women by Harvard faculty, was founded in 1879 after prolonged efforts by women to gain access to Harvard College. Arthur Gilman, Cambridge resident, banker and writer, was the founder of what became The Annex/Radcliffe. At a time when higher education for women was a controversial topic, Gilman hoped to establish a higher educational opportunity for his daughter that exceeded what was available in female seminaries and the new women's colleges such as Vassar and Wellesley, most of which in their early years had substantial numbers of faculty who were not university trained. In conversations with the chair of Harvard's classics department, he outlined a plan to have Harvard faculty deliver instruction to a small group of Cambridge and Boston women, he approached Harvard President Charles William Eliot with the idea and Eliot approved. Gilman and Eliot recruited a group of prominent and well-connected Cambridge women to manage the plan.
These women were Elizabeth Cary Agassiz, Mary H. Cooke, Stella Scott Gilman, Mary B. Greenough, Ellen Hooper Gurney, Alice Mary Longfellow and Lillian Horsford. Building upon Gilman's premise, the committee convinced 44 members of the Harvard faculty to consider giving lectures to female students in exchange for extra income paid by the committee; the program came to be known informally as "The Harvard Annex." The course of study for the first year included 51 courses in 13 subject areas, an "impressive curriculum with greater diversity than that of any other women's college at its inception. Courses were offered in Greek, English, French and Spanish; the first graduation ceremonies took place in the library of Longfellow House on Brattle Street, just above where George Washington's generals had slept a century earlier. The committee members hoped that by raising an enticing endowment for The Annex they would be able to convince Harvard to admit women directly into Harvard College. However, the university resisted.
In his inaugural address as president of Harvard in 1869, Charles Eliot summed up the official Harvard position toward female students when he said, "The world knows next to nothing about the capacities of the female sex. Only after generations of civil freedom and social equality will it be possible to obtain the data necessary for an adequate discussion of woman's natural tendencies and capabilities... It is not the business of the University to decide this mooted point." In a similar vein, when confronted with the notion of females receiving Harvard degrees in 1883, the University's treasurer stated, "I have no prejudice in the matter of education of women and am quite willing to see Yale or Columbia take any risks they like, but I feel bound to protect Harvard College from what seems to me a risky experiment."Some of President Eliot's objections stemmed from 19th century notions of propriety. He was against co-education, commenting that "The difficulties involved in a common residence of hundreds of young men and women of immature character and marriageable age are grave.
The necessary police regulations are exceedingly burdensome." The committee persevered despite Eliot's skepticism. Indeed, the project proved attracting a growing number of students; as a result, the Annex was incorporated in 1882 as the Society for the Collegiate Instruction of Women, with Elizabeth Cary Agassiz, widow of Harvard professor Louis Agassiz, as president. This Society did not have the power to confer academic degrees. In subsequent years, on-going discussions with Harvard about admitting women directly into the university still came to a dead end, instead Harvard and the Annex negotiated the creation of a degree-granting institution, with Harvard professors serving as its faculty and visiting body; this modification of the Annex was chartered by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts as Radcliffe College in 1894, the eponym being early Harvard benefactor Lady Ann Mowlson. The Boston Globe reported "President of Harvard To Sign Parchments of the Fair Graduates"). Students seeking admission to the new women's college were required to sit for the same entrance examinations required of Harvard students.
By 1896, the Globe could headline a story: "Sweet Girls. They Graduate in Shoals at Radcliffe. Commencement Exercises at Sanders Theatre. Galleries Filled with Students. Handsome Mrs. Agassiz Made Fine Address. Pres Eliot Commends the Work of the New Inst
Leverett House is one of twelve undergraduate residential Houses at Harvard University. It is situated along the north bank of the Charles River in Cambridge and consists of McKinlock Hall, constructed in 1925, it has the largest student population within the Harvard house system. The bulk of McKinlock Hall consists of 5 entryways, each of which leads to four or five floors of suites for 35 students. McKinlock serves as the center of Leverett social life: it houses the Leverett Dining Hall, the Junior and Senior Common Rooms, the Old Library Theatre, the Faculty Dean's Residence, several other common spaces; the Leverett Towers serve a residential function. Each tower consists of singles and doubles and holds 150 students; the top floors of the towers - those facing south - boast outstanding views of the Boston skyline and the Charles River for the students lucky enough to live there. The ground floor of G-Tower features a common area that house residents have nicknamed the "G-spot," although the space goes unused due to its poor design.
The ground floor of F-tower includes meeting spaces as well as several house offices. Between the towers and McKinlock sits the Leverett Library, constructed along with the towers and has won awards for its innovative design; the ground floor of the library building houses the superintendent's office. The top floors of 20 DeWolfe Street were annexed by the house in fall of 2007. Intended for faculty or graduate students, the DeWolfe suites offer more modern amenities than those available in either McKinlock or Leverett Towers, but those amenities come at the cost of tighter living conditions. Leverett House was named after John Leverett, President of Harvard from 1708 to 1724. Leverett's election was one of the significant turning points for Harvard, for every President before him had been a clergyman. Leverett was a leader of the liberal movement in the Congregational Church and he opposed the powerful clergymen Increase and Cotton Mather, who had attempted to impose upon the College a new charter containing a loyalty oath that would have refused appointment to the faculty of anyone not willing to acknowledge the primacy of Biblical scripture.
Leverett, during his tenure as president, improved the quality of instruction in the College, maintained the position of Harvard in the critical years when Yale was becoming a formidable rival. In the mid-1920s, Harvard constructed student residences on the banks of the dammed Charles River; these residences were occupied by freshmen. McKinlock Hall, built in 1925, was one of those original buildings; the building was donated by the family of Lieutenant George Alexander McKinlock Jr, a Harvard graduate, killed by a German machine gun near Soissons in 1918. With the formation of Leverett House in 1930-31, Mather Hall, across Mill Street, was built along with the present dining hall and Master's residence. Six squash courts were constructed, adjacent to Mather Hall. Leverett remained in that configuration until the early 1960s, when the College expanded and new Houses were added. Mather Hall became a part of Quincy House, the squash courts were lost, the Leverett Towers were built; the Saltonstall family gave money for a new library in honor of the ten generations of Saltonstalls who had attended Harvard, the House offices moved to the first floor of F-Tower.
Shepley, Bulfinch and Abbott designed the two-story library, as well as the two twelve-story Leverett Towers that were constructed at the same time. In 1983, McKinlock was renovated, at that time a new entrance to the dining hall was constructed; the first Master of the House was Kenneth Murdock, Professor of English and Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. The second Master was an embryologist and professor of zoology. Hoadley resigned in 1957; the third Master was a scholar of Canadian history. He married his wife Jill, a graduate student in Harvard's history department at the time, in the early 1960s; the fourth Master was an economist. A bass singer, Gill sang each year in the Leverett House Opera, a fixture in the House. While Master, he was offered a contract, he accepted and left Harvard and Leverett to begin a new career, first with the New York City Opera, with the Metropolitan Opera. The fifth Co-Masters, Kenneth Andrews and Carolyn Andrews, were appointed in 1971. During their tenure, the Houses became coeducational.
Andrews was a professor at Harvard Business School and the first Business School faculty member to be appointed Master. During Harvard's 350th anniversary celebration in 1986, Andrews was one of 20 individuals who received a Harvard Medal for distinguished service to the University, his citation read: "He understands, as Mark Twain never did. Howard Georgi and his wife Ann were appointed as the seventh Faculty Deans. Howard and Ann, more known as Chief and Coach are beloved for their house pride, their dogs, monkey bread, a delicious cinnamon-flavored treat popular among Leverett studen