Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Helen Adams Keller was an American author, political activist, lecturer. She was the first deaf-blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree; the story of Keller and her teacher, Anne Sullivan, was made famous by Keller's autobiography, The Story of My Life, its adaptations for film and stage, The Miracle Worker. Her birthplace in West Tuscumbia, Alabama, is now a museum and sponsors an annual "Helen Keller Day", her June 27 birthday is commemorated as Helen Keller Day in Pennsylvania and, in the centenary year of her birth, was recognized by a presidential proclamation from Jimmy Carter. A prolific author, Keller was outspoken in her convictions. A member of the Socialist Party of America and the Industrial Workers of the World, she campaigned for women's suffrage, labor rights, socialism and other similar causes, she was inducted into the Alabama Women's Hall of Fame in 1971 and was one of twelve inaugural inductees to the Alabama Writers Hall of Fame on June 8, 2015. Helen Adams Keller was born on June 1880, in Tuscumbia, Alabama.
Her family lived on Ivy Green, that Helen's grandfather had built decades earlier. She had four siblings, her father, Arthur Henley Keller, spent many years as an editor of the Tuscumbia North Alabamian and had served as a captain in the Confederate Army. Her mother, Catherine Everett Keller, known as "Kate", was the daughter of Charles W. Adams, a Confederate general, her paternal lineage was traced to a native of Switzerland. One of Helen's Swiss ancestors was the first teacher for the deaf in Zurich. Keller reflected on this coincidence in her first autobiography, stating "that there is no king who has not had a slave among his ancestors, no slave who has not had a king among his."At 19 months old Keller contracted an unknown illness described by doctors as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain", which might have been scarlet fever or meningitis. The illness left her both blind, she lived, as she recalled in her autobiography, "at sea in a dense fog." At that time, Keller was able to communicate somewhat with Martha Washington, the six-year-old daughter of the family cook, who understood her signs.
In 1886, Keller's mother, inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf and blind woman, Laura Bridgman, dispatched the young Keller, accompanied by her father, to seek out physician J. Julian Chisolm, an eye, ear and throat specialist in Baltimore, for advice. Chisholm referred the Kellers to Alexander Graham Bell, working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised them to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, located in South Boston. Michael Anagnos, the school's director, asked 20-year-old former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired, to become Keller's instructor, it was the beginning of a 49-year-long relationship during which Sullivan evolved into Keller's governess and her companion. Sullivan arrived at Keller's house on March 5, 1887, a day Keller would forever remember as my soul's birthday. Sullivan began to teach Helen to communicate by spelling words into her hand, beginning with "d-o-l-l" for the doll that she had brought Keller as a present.
Keller was frustrated, at first, because she did not understand that every object had a word uniquely identifying it. In fact, when Sullivan was trying to teach Keller the word for "mug", Keller became so frustrated she broke the mug, but soon she began imitating Sullivan’s hand gestures. “I did not know that I was spelling a word or that words existed,” Keller remembered. “I was making my fingers go in monkey-like imitation.” Keller's breakthrough in communication came the next month, when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on the palm of her hand, while running cool water over her other hand, symbolized the idea of "water". Writing in her autobiography, The Story of My Life, Keller recalled the moment. "I stood still, my whole attention fixed upon the motions of her fingers. I felt a misty consciousness as of something forgotten — a thrill of returning thought. I knew that w-a-t-e-r meant the wonderful cool something, flowing over my hand; the living word awakened my soul, gave it light, set it free!"
Keller nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world. Helen Keller was viewed as isolated but was in touch with the outside world, she was able to enjoy music by feeling the beat and she was able to have a strong connection with animals through touch. She was delayed at picking up language. In May 1888, Keller started attending the Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Keller and Sullivan moved to New York to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf, to learn from Sarah Fuller at the Horace Mann School for the Deaf. In 1896, they returned to Massachusetts, Keller entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College of Harvard University where she lived in Briggs Hall, South House, her admirer, Mark Twain, had introduced her to Standard Oil magnate Henry Huttleston Rogers, with his wife Abbie, paid for her education. In 1904, at the age of 24, Keller gradu
A nest box spelled nestbox, is a man-made enclosure provided for animals to nest in. Nest boxes are most utilized for birds, in which case they are called birdhouses or a birdbox/bird box, but some mammalian species may use them, like bats for example. Placing nestboxes or roosting boxes may be used to help maintain populations of particular species in an area; the nest box was invented by the British conservationist Charles Waterton in the early 19th century to encourage more birdlife and wildfowl on the nature reserve he set up on his estate. Nest boxes are getting more attention because industrialization and other human activities since the mid-20th century have caused severe declines in birds' natural habitats, introducing hurdles to breeding. A nest box can help prevent bird extinction. Nest boxes are wooden, although the purple martin will nest in metal; some boxes are made from a mixture of concrete, called woodcrete. Ceramic and plastic nestboxes are not suitable. Nest boxes should be made from untreated wood with an overhanging, sloped roof, a recessed floor and ventilation holes, a way to access the interior for monitoring and cleaning, have no outside perches which could assist predators.
Boxes may either be open-fronted. Some nest boxes can be decorated and complex, sometimes mimicking human houses or other structures, they may contain nest box cameras so that use of, activity within, the box can be monitored. The diameter of the opening in a nest-box has a strong influence on the species of birds that will use the box. Many small birds select boxes with a hole only just large enough for an adult bird to pass through; this may be an adaptation to prevent other birds from raiding it. In European countries, an opening of 2.5 cm in diameter will attract Poecile palustris, Poecile montanus. The size of the nest box affects the bird species to use the box. Small boxes attract wrens and treecreepers and large ones may attract ducks and owls. Seasonally removing old nest material and parasites is important if they are to be re-used; the material used in the construction may be significant. Sparrows have been shown to prefer woodcrete boxes rather than wooden ones. Birds nesting in woodcrete sites had earlier clutches, a shorter incubation period, more reproductive success because the synthetic nests were warmer than their wooden counterparts.
Placement of the nest box is significant. Some birds prefer their nest box to be at an optimum height; some birds prefer nest sites them to be low or at ground level. For many birds orientation relative to the sun is of importance with many birds preferring an orientation away from direct sun and sheltered from the prevailing rain. Bat boxes differ from bird nest-boxes in typical design, with the larger opening on the underside of the box, are more referred to as bat boxes, although in regard to the rearing of young, they serve the same purpose; some threatened bat species can be locally supported with the provision of appropriately placed bat-boxes, however species that roost in foliage or large cavities will not use bat boxes. Bat boxes are made out of wood, there are several designs for boxes with single or multiple chambers. Directions for making the open bottom bat houses for small and large colonies, as well as locations to purchase them are available on the internet. Colour and placement is important to ensuring.
Australian bat box projects have been running for over 12 years in particular at the Organ Pipes National Park. There are 42 roost boxes using the "Stebbings Design" which have peaked at 280 bats roosting in them; the biggest problem with roosting boxes of any kind is the ongoing maintenance. Nest boxes are marketed not only for birds, but for butterflies and other mammals arboreal ones such as squirrels and opossums. Depending on the animal, these boxes may be used for breeding, or both. Or, as in the case with butterflies, hibernation. Wasps may build their nests inside a nest box intended for other animals, may exclude the intended species. Biological pest control: birds can help controlling pests in agriculture. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. "Birds Australia Information Sheet 5: Nestboxes for Natives". McDonald, Rob. "Birdhouses". Southern Spaces; the dictionary definition of birdhouse at Wiktionary The dictionary definition of nest box at Wiktionary
National monument (United States)
In the United States, a national monument is a protected area, similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government by proclamation of the President of the United States. National monuments can be managed by one of several federal agencies: the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; some national monuments were managed by the War Department. National monuments can be so designated through the power of the Antiquities Act of 1906. President Theodore Roosevelt used the act to declare Devils Tower in Wyoming as the first U. S. national monument. The Antiquities Act of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts on federal lands in the American West; the Act authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for taking or destroying antiquities without permission.
Additionally, it authorized the president to proclaim "historic landmarks and prehistoric structures, other objects of historic or scientific interest" on federal lands as national monuments, "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."The reference in the act to "objects of...scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower in Wyoming, the first national monument three months later. Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in Arizona, another natural feature. In 1908, Roosevelt used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres of the Grand Canyon as a national monument. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed Katmai National Monument in Alaska, comprising more than 1,000,000 acres. Katmai was enlarged to nearly 2,800,000 acres by subsequent Antiquities Act proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit.
Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, Great Sand Dunes were originally proclaimed as national monuments and designated as national parks by Congress. In response to Roosevelt's declaration of the Grand Canyon monument, a putative mining claimant sued in federal court, claiming that Roosevelt had overstepped the Antiquities Act authority by protecting an entire canyon. In 1920, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Grand Canyon was indeed "an object of historic or scientific interest" and could be protected by proclamation, setting a precedent for the use of the Antiquities Act to preserve large areas. Federal courts have since rejected every challenge to the president's use of Antiquities Act preservation authority, ruling that the law gives the president exclusive discretion over the determination of the size and nature of the objects protected. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming.
He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. for addition to Grand Teton National Park after Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming except for areas of 5,000 acres or less; the most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska.
The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President Bill Clinton proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. This action was unpopular in Utah, bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority. None of which have been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed not by the National Park Service, but by the Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not only to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. For example, Franklin D. Roosevelt enlarged Dinosaur National Monument in 1938. Lyndon B. Johnson added Ellis Island to Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, Jimmy Carter made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978. On June 24, 2016, President Barack Obama designated the Stonewall Inn and surrounding areas in Greenwich Village, New York as the Stonewall National Monument, the first national monument commemorating the struggle for LGBT rights in the United States.
List of U. S. National Forests List of areas in the United States National Park System List of U. S. wilderness areas Protected areas of the United States List of proposed national monuments of the United States National monument proclamations under the Antiquities Act Congressional Research Service reports regar
An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment and sports. The term derives from the ancient Greek ἀμφιθέατρον, from ἀμφί, meaning "on both sides" or "around" and θέατρον, meaning "place for viewing". Ancient Roman amphitheatres were oval or circular in plan, with seating tiers that surrounded the central performance area, like a modern open-air stadium. In contrast both ancient Greek and ancient Roman theatres were built in a semicircle, with tiered seating rising on one side of the performance area. In modern usage, an "amphitheatre" may consist of theatre-style stages with spectator seating on only one side, theatres in the round, stadia. Natural formations of similar shape are sometimes known as natural amphitheatres. Ancient Roman amphitheatres were major public venues, circular or oval in plan, with perimeter seating tiers, they were used for events such as gladiator combats, chariot races and executions. About 230 Roman amphitheatres have been found across the area of the Roman Empire.
Their typical shape and name distinguish them from Roman theatres, which are more or less semicircular in shape. The earliest Roman amphitheatres date from the middle of the first century BCE, but most were built under Imperial rule, from the Augustan period onwards. Imperial amphitheatres were built throughout the Roman empire; the most elaborate featured multi-storeyed, arcaded façades and were elaborately decorated with marble and statuary. After the end of gladiatorial games in the 5th century and of staged animal hunts in the 6th, most amphitheatres fell into disrepair, their materials were recycled. Some were razed, others were converted into fortifications. A few continued as convenient open meeting places. A natural amphitheatre is a performance space located in a spot where a steep mountain or a particular rock formation amplifies or echoes sound, making it ideal for musical and theatrical performances. An amphitheatre can be occurring formations which would be ideal for this purpose if no theatre has been constructed there.
Notable natural amphitheatres include the Drakensberg amphitheatre in South Africa, Slane Castle in Ireland, the Supernatural Amphitheatre in Australia, the Red Rocks and Gorge amphitheatres in the western United States. Arena Stadium Thingplatz List of Roman amphitheatres List of contemporary amphitheatres List of indoor arenas List of ancient Greek theatres Roman theatre Bomgardner, David Lee; the Story of the Roman Amphitheatre. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16593-8
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which includes moths. Adult butterflies have large brightly coloured wings, conspicuous, fluttering flight; the group comprises the large superfamily Papilionoidea, which contains at least one former group, the skippers, the most recent analyses suggest it contains the moth-butterflies. Butterfly fossils date to the Paleocene, about 56 million years ago. Butterflies have the typical four-stage insect life cycle. Winged adults lay eggs on the food plant; the caterpillars grow, sometimes rapidly, when developed, pupate in a chrysalis. When metamorphosis is complete, the pupal skin splits, the adult insect climbs out, after its wings have expanded and dried, it flies off; some butterflies in the tropics, have several generations in a year, while others have a single generation, a few in cold locations may take several years to pass through their entire life cycle. Butterflies are polymorphic, many species make use of camouflage and aposematism to evade their predators.
Some, like the monarch and the painted lady, migrate over long distances. Many butterflies are attacked by parasites or parasitoids, including wasps, protozoans and other invertebrates, or are preyed upon by other organisms; some species are pests because in their larval stages they can damage domestic trees. Larvae of a few butterflies eat harmful insects, a few are predators of ants, while others live as mutualists in association with ants. Culturally, butterflies are a popular motif in the literary arts; the Oxford English Dictionary derives the word straightforwardly from Old English butorflēoge, butter-fly. A possible source of the name is the bright yellow male of the brimstone; the earliest Lepidoptera fossils are of a small moth, Archaeolepis mane, of Jurassic age, around 190 million years ago. Butterflies evolved from moths, so while the butterflies are monophyletic, the moths are not; the oldest butterflies are from the Palaeocene MoClay or Fur Formation of Denmark 55 million years old.
The oldest American butterfly is the Late Eocene Prodryas persephone from the Florissant Fossil Beds 34 million years old. Traditionally, the butterflies have been divided into the superfamily Papilionoidea excluding the smaller groups of the Hesperiidae and the more moth-like Hedylidae of America. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the traditional Papilionoidea is paraphyletic with respect to the other two groups, so they should both be included within Papilionoidea, to form a single butterfly group, thereby synonymous with the clade Rhopalocera. Butterfly adults are characterized by their four scale-covered wings, which give the Lepidoptera their name; these scales give butterfly wings their colour: they are pigmented with melanins that give them blacks and browns, as well as uric acid derivatives and flavones that give them yellows, but many of the blues, greens and iridescent colours are created by structural coloration produced by the micro-structures of the scales and hairs. As in all insects, the body is divided into three sections: the head and abdomen.
The thorax is composed of each with a pair of legs. In most families of butterfly the antennae are clubbed, unlike those of moths which may be threadlike or feathery; the long proboscis can be coiled. Nearly all butterflies are diurnal, have bright colours, hold their wings vertically above their bodies when at rest, unlike the majority of moths which fly by night, are cryptically coloured, either hold their wings flat or fold them over their bodies; some day-flying moths, such as the hummingbird hawk-moth, are exceptions to these rules. Butterfly larvae, have a hard head with strong mandibles used for cutting their food, most leaves, they have cylindrical bodies, with ten segments to the abdomen with short prolegs on segments 3–6 and 10. Many are well camouflaged; the pupa or chrysalis, unlike that of moths, is not wrapped in a cocoon. Many butterflies are sexually dimorphic. Most butterflies have the ZW sex-determination system where females are the heterogametic sex and males homogametic. Butterflies are distributed worldwide except Antarctica.
Of these, 775 are Nearctic. The monarch butterfly is native to the Americas, but in the nineteenth century or before, spread across the world, is now found in Australia, New Zealand, other parts of Oceania, the Iberian Peninsula, it is not clear.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti