Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Groote Eylandt is the largest island in the Gulf of Carpentaria and the fourth largest island in Australia. It is the homeland of, is owned by, the Warnindhilyagwa who speak the Anindilyakwa language. Groote Eylandt lies about 50 km from the Northern Territory mainland and eastern coast of Arnhem Land, about 630 kilometres from Darwin, opposite Blue Mud Bay; the island measures about 50 kilometres from east to west and 60 kilometres from north to south. It is quite low-lying, with an average height above sea level of 15 metres, although Central Hill reaches an elevation of 219 metres, it was named by the explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and is Dutch for "Large Island" in an archaic spelling. The modern Dutch spelling is Groot Eiland. Together with Bickerton Island and a few smaller satellite islands, Groote Eylandt forms Anindilyakwa Ward of East Arnhem Region, it contains the communities of Angurugu, Umbakumba, Yadagba District, Uburamudja District and Sandy Hill and Milyakburra District. Outside the local government subdivision is the mining company GEMCO town of Alyangula, unincorporated territory within the Northern Region of Northern Territory.
Groote Eylandt is part of the Arnhem Land Aboriginal Reserve. GEMCO, a South32 / Anglo American plc joint venture, operates a large manganese mine near the community of Angurugu. In operation since the early 1960s, the mine produces more than 3.8 million tonnes annually – about a quarter of the world's total. The island has until been open to the public only with permission, the local Aboriginal Land Council did not encourage tourism. There is now a resort style hotel on the island and visitors are welcome; the island is becoming renowned for its fine Aboriginal rock art sites and crafts and outstanding sport-fishing including sailfish, tuna, Spanish mackerel, giant trevally and coral trout. The whole of Groote Eylandt and its surrounding waters lie within the Anindilyakwa Indigenous Protected Area. An unnamed islet off the north-eastern coast has been classified by BirdLife International as an important bird area because of its global importance as a roseate tern breeding site. Prior to European settlement, Groote Eylandt had been inhabited by Aboriginal people for thousands of years and there had been regular contact between local Aboriginal people and Macassan traders, evident in the names of some Groote Eylandt settlements, such as Umbakumba, which can be traced back to a Macassan origin.
The first recorded sighting of Groote Eylandt was in 1623, by the Dutch ship Arnhem, under Willem van Coolsteerdt. However, the relative prevalence of the hereditary Machado-Joseph Disease in the Groote Eylandt community was suggested as evidence of early contact with Portuguese sailors. Recent genetic studies showed that the Groote Eylandt families with MJD shared a haplogroup with some families from Taiwanese and Japanese families; the island was given its current name in 1644. The first European settlement on the island was established at Emerald River in 1921, in the form of a Christian mission by the Church Missionary Society. During World War II, in 1943, the mission moved to Angurugu, as the RAAF required the use of the mission's airstrip: the ruins of the RAAF base are still evident today. In 1856 the local aboriginal conglomerate that passed was known as the Jurambunga tribe; the island was used as a flying boat base by Qantas for a period of time. In 1979, control of the island was transferred to the local Aboriginal Town Council.
Groote Eylandt was converted to Aboriginal freehold title land following the passing of the Aboriginal Land Rights Act 1976. On May 20, 2008, the federal government signed a deal with local Aborigines from Groote Eylandt to lease land to the government for 40 years. In return, the government will spend money in the community with the aim of improving housing and health in the area; the Eylandt Echo newsletter is produced each fortnight. The newsletter's goal is to keep the community up to date on local news and recreation; the Eylandt Echo is sponsored by GEMCO as a community service. At the moment the people of Groote Eylandt are putting together a TV station showing a different variety of channels sponsored by GWN7. Donald Thomson, Australian anthropologist and biologist. David Warren, inventor of the flight data recorder, born on Groote Eylandt. Nick Kenny, former Brisbane Broncos rugby league player who moved to Groote Eylandt. Norman Tindale, Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist.
Groote Eylandt Airport List of islands of Australia Alyangula Area School Alyangula Area School Angurugu Community Government Council site East Arnhem Regional Council Eylandt Echo GEMCO – The Groote Eylandt mining company GEMCO publication with map
The Gulf Plains, an interim Australian bioregion, is located in the Northern Territory, comprising 22,041,825 hectares. The code for the bioregion is GUP. Geography of Australia Thackway, R and I D Cresswell An interim biogeographic regionalisation for Australia: a framework for setting priorities in the National Reserves System Cooperative Program Version 4.0 Canberra: Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Reserve Systems Unit, 1995. ISBN 0-642-21371-2
Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia
The Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia is a biogeographic regionalisation of Australia developed by the Australian Government's Department of Sustainability, Water and Communities. It was developed for use as a planning tool, for example for the establishment of a National Reserve System. Within the broadest scale, Australia is a major part of the Australasia biogeographic realm, as developed by the World Wide Fund for Nature. Based on this system, the world is split into 14 terrestrial habitats of which eight are shared by Australia; the Australian land mass is divided into 419 subregions. Each region is a land area made up of a group of interacting ecosystems that are repeated in similar form across the landscape; the most recent version is IBRA7, developed during 2012, which replaced IBRA6.1. This is a list of region and subregions under IBRA7. Region codes are given in parentheses. Images of regions are from IBRA6.1, pending creation of maps for IBRA7. Ecoregions in Australia Integrated Marine and Coastal Regionalisation of Australia "Australia's bioregions".
Department of Sustainability, Water and Communities. Commonwealth of Australia. 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2013. Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia regions and codes. Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia subregions and codes
Government of Queensland
The Government of Queensland referred to as the Queensland Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of Queensland. The Government of Queensland, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1859 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, Queensland has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, Queensland ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Key state government offices are located at 1 William Street in the Brisbane central business district; the Government of Queensland operates under the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. The Governor of Queensland, as the representative of Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, holds nominal power, although in practice only performs ceremonial duties.
The Parliament of Queensland holds legislative power, while executive power lies with the Premier and Cabinet, judicial power is exercised by a system of courts and tribunals. The Parliament of Queensland is the state's legislature, it consists of Her Majesty The Queen, a single chamber. Queensland is the only Australian state with a unicameral parliament after a second chamber, the Legislative Council, was abolished in 1922; the Legislative Assembly has 93 members. Elections for the Legislative Assembly are held every four years; the Cabinet of Queensland is the government's chief policy-making organ, consists of the Premier and all ministers. The Queensland Government delivers services, determines policy and regulations, including legal interpretation, by a number of agencies grouped under areas of portfolio responsibility; each portfolio is led by a government minister, a member of the Parliament. As of April 2016 there were nineteen lead agencies, called government departments, that consist of: Department of the Premier and Cabinet Department of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Partnerships Department of Agriculture and Fisheries Department of Communities, Child Safety and Disability Services Department of Education and Training Department of Energy and Water Supply Department of Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland Health Department of Housing and Public Works Department of Infrastructure, Local Government and Planning Department of Justice and Attorney-General Department of National Parks and Racing Department of Natural Resources and Mines Queensland Police Service and Queensland Fire and Emergency Services Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation Department of State Development Department of Transport and Main Roads Queensland Treasury Department of Tourism, Major Events, Small Business and the Commonwealth GamesA range of other agencies support the functions of these departments.
The judiciary of Queensland consists of the Magistrates Court, the District Court, the Supreme Court, as well as a number of smaller courts and tribunals. The Chief Justice of Queensland is the state's most senior judicial officer; the Magistrates Court is the lowest tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland. The court's criminal jurisdiction covers summary offences, indictable offences which may be heard summarily, but all criminal proceedings in Queensland begin in the Magistrates Court if they are not within this jurisdiction. For charges beyond its jurisdiction, the court conducts committal hearings in which the presiding magistrate decides, based on the strength of the evidence, whether to refer the matter to a higher court or dismiss it; the court's civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is less than or equal to $150,000. Appeals against decisions by the Magistrates Court are heard by the District Court; the District Court is the middle tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland.
The court has jurisdiction to hear all appeals from decisions made in the Magistrates Court. Its criminal jurisdiction covers serious indictable offences; the court's civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is more than $150,000 but less than or equal to $750,000. Appeals against decisions by the District Court are heard by the Court of Appeal, a division of the Supreme Court; the Supreme Court is the highest tier of the judicial hierarchy Queensland. The court has two divisions; the Trial Division's jurisdiction covers serious criminal offences, civil matters involving claims of more than $750,000. The Court of Appeal's jurisdiction allows it to hear cases on appeal from the Trial Division, the District Court, a number of other judicial tribunals in Queensland. Appeals against decisions by the Court of Appeal are heard by the High Court of Australia. There are several factors; the legislature has no upper house. For a large portion of its history, the state was under a gerrymander that favoured rural electorates.
This, combined with the decentralised nature of Queensland, meant that politics has been dominated by regional interests. Queensland, along with New South Wales operated a balloting system known as Optional Preferential Voting for state elections; this is different from the predominant Australian electoral system, the instant-runoff voting system, in practice is closer to a first past the post ballot, which some say is to the
Mornington Island is the northernmost of 22 islands that form the Wellesley Islands group. The island is in the Gulf of Carpentaria and is part of the Gulf Country region in the Australian state of Queensland; the Manowar and Rocky Islands Important Bird Area lies about 40 kilometres to the north-west. Mornington Island is the largest of the islands, the largest settlement of, Gununa on the south-west of the island; the general topography of the island is flat with the maximum elevation of 150 metres. The island contains 10 estuaries, all in near pristine condition; the population was estimated to be 1,143 in 2016 and the majority of the citizens live in the township of Gununa. Mornington Island is included in the Shire of Mornington local government area; the majority of the islanders are Aboriginal. Lardil are the predominant clan group on Mornington Island and are the traditional owners of the land and surrounding seas; the Kaiadilt clan arrived more from nearby Bentinck Island, when that island's water supply was contaminated by salt after a cyclone.
Recent re-building work on aboriginal housing has been undertaken by the James Fraser Foundation, a non-profit organisation in Queensland. Macassan trepangers once travelled thousands of kilometres from Sulawesi to Mornington Island and other Australian mainland destinations in search of sea cucumbers; the eastern cape of the island was named Cape Van Diemen after Anthony van Diemen. Commander Matthew Flinders named the island after Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, known when younger as the Earl of Mornington. Gununa Post Office opened by 1982; the Mornington Island Airport was a temporary airfield used by the RAAF and allied air forces during World War II. Penile subincision is still traditionally performed on the island for those wanting to learn a complex ceremonial language called Damin; the Mornington Island State School opened on 28 January 1975. In 1978, the Queensland government decided to take over control of both the Aurukun and Mornington Island Aboriginal reserves. Cyclones hit the island.
In 2000 Cyclone Steve passed directly over the island. Tropical Cyclone May passed in February 1988 and Tropical Cyclone Bernie passed to the west in early 2002. Tropical Cyclone Fritz passed directly over the island on 12 February 2003. Severe Tropical Cyclone Harvey caused damage on the island in February, 2005. Mornington Island State School offers kindergarten and limited secondary schooling for boys and girls operated by the Queensland Government at 500 Lardil Street. In 2016, the school had an enrolment of 248 students with 16 non-teaching staff. Mornington Island was the site of research over several decades by British anthropologist David McKnight, described in a series of books, People and the Rainbow Serpent: Systems of classification among the Lardil of Mornington Island, From Hunting to Drinking: The devastating effects of alcohol on an Australian Aboriginal community, Going the Whiteman’s Way: Kinship and marriage among Australian Aborigines and Of Marriage and Sorcery: The quest for power in northern Queensland.
McKnight lamented the increasing levels of violence since the 1970s. Indigenous art of Mornington Island is described in The Heart of Everything: The art and artists of Mornington & Bentinck Islands, ed. N. Evans, L. Martin-Chew and P. Memmott. A tribe of indigenous people on the island have been communicating with wild Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins for millennium, it is said that they have "a medicine man who "speaks" to them telepathically. By these communications he assures that the tribes’ fortunes and happiness are maintained." In 2003 the Government of Queensland implemented an Alcohol Management Plan to 19 indigenous communities in Queensland where alcohol abuse was rampant. The alcohol bans are aimed at alleviating high levels of domestic violence, child abuse and child neglect; the plan restricts tavern opening hours, limits sales to only light and mid-strength beers, bans takeaway alcohol sales and home brewing. The Mornington Island community has been described as the toughest in Queensland when it comes to resisting alcohol bans.
In December 2003 police reinforcements had to be sent to Mornington Island after riots broke out when tough new alcohol laws were introduced. In 2008 more riots were feared after the Lelka Murrin Hotel, one of only two liquor retailers on the island, closed due to the proprietor being ill. Extra police were sent to the island to stop any unauthorised sale of alcohol and to quash any alcohol-fueled violence that may have erupted at a time when violent incidents on the island were common; as per 2018, alcohol continues to be a major social and health problem. The alcohol ban on the island has led to locals home brewing, which in turn is providing unlimited quantities of cheap alcohol. List of islands of Australia Sydney Island Mornington Island Weather & Community Portal Junkuri Laka Welleslaey Islands Aboriginal Law Justice and Governance Association
Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley
Richard Colley Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley was an Irish and British politician and colonial administrator. He was styled as Viscount Wellesley until 1781, when he succeeded his father as 2nd Earl of Mornington. In 1799, he was granted the Irish peerage title of Marquess Wellesley, he first made his name as Governor-General of Bengal between 1798 and 1805, he served as Foreign Secretary in the British Cabinet and as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He was the eldest son of The 1st Earl of Mornington, an Irish peer, Anne, the eldest daughter of The 1st Viscount Dungannon, his younger brother, was Field Marshal The 1st Duke of Wellington. Wellesley is an ancestor of Queen Elizabeth II, as his elder daughter, was the paternal grandmother of Cecilia Bowes-Lyon, Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne, maternal grandmother of Queen Elizabeth II. Wellesley was born in 1760 in Ireland, where his family was part of the Ascendancy, the old Anglo-Irish aristocracy, he was educated at the Royal School, Harrow School and Eton College, where he distinguished himself as a classical scholar, at Christ Church, Oxford.
He is one of the few men known to have attended both Eton. In 1780, he entered the Irish House of Commons as the member for Trim until the following year when, at his father's death, he became 2nd Earl of Mornington, taking his seat in the Irish House of Lords, he was elected Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Ireland in 1782, a post he held for the following year. Due to the extravagance of his father and grandfather, he found himself so indebted that he was forced to sell all the Irish estates. However, in 1781, he was appointed to the coveted position of Custos Rotulorum of Meath. In 1784, he joined the British House of Commons as member for Bere Alston. Soon afterwards he was appointed a Lord of the Treasury by William Pitt the Younger. In 1793, he became a member of the Board of Control over Indian affairs. Mornington seems to have caught Pitt's large political spirit in the period 1798 to 1805; that both had consciously formed the design of acquiring a great empire in India to compensate for the loss of the American colonies is not proved.
Robert Clive won and Warren Hastings consolidated the British ascendancy in India, but Mornington extended it into an empire. On the voyage outwards, he formed the design of annihilating French influence in the Deccan. Soon after his landing, in April 1798, he learned that an alliance was being negotiated between Tipu Sultan and the French republic. Mornington resolved to anticipate the action of the enemy, ordered preparations for war; the first step was to effect the disbandment of the French troops entertained by the Nizam of Hyderabad. The invasion of Mysore followed in February 1799, the campaign was brought to a swift conclusion by the capture of Seringapatam on 4 May 1799 and the killing of Tipu Sultan. In 1803, the restoration of the Peshwa proved the prelude to the Mahratha war against Sindhia and the raja of Berar, in which his brother Arthur took a leading role; the result of these wars and of the treaties which followed them was that French influence in India was extinguished, that forty million people and ten millions of revenue were added to the British dominions, that the powers of the Maratha and all other princes were so reduced that Britain became the true dominant authority over all India.
He left it an imperial power. He was an excellent administrator, picked two of his talented brothers for his staff: Arthur was his military adviser, Henry was his personal secretary, he founded Fort William College, a training centre intended for those who would be involved in governing India. In connection with this college, he established the governor-general's office, to which civilians who had shown talent at the college were transferred, in order that they might learn something of the highest statesmanship in the immediate service of their chief. A free-trader like Pitt, he endeavoured to remove some of the restrictions on the trade between Britain and India. Both the commercial policy of Wellesley and his educational projects brought him into hostility with the court of directors, he more than once tendered his resignation, however, public necessities led him to postpone till the autumn of 1805, he reached England just in time to see Pitt before his death. He had been created a Peer of Great Britain in 1797 as Baron Wellesley, in 1799 became Marquess Wellesley in the Peerage of Ireland.
He formed an enormous collection of over 2,500 painted miniatures in the Company style of Indian natural history. A motion by James Paull to impeach Wellesley due to his expulsion of the traders from Oudh was defeated in the House of Commons by 182 votes to 31 in 1808. On the fall of the coalition ministry in 1807 Wellesley was invited by George III to join the Duke of Portland's cabinet, but he declined, pending the discussion in parliament of certain charges brought against him in respect of his Indian administration. Resolutions condemning him for the abuse of power were moved in both the Lords and Commons, but defeated by large majorities. In 1809, Wellesley was appointed ambassador to Spain, he landed at Cádiz just after the Battle of Talavera, tried unsuccessfully to bring