Wellington's Column

Wellington's Column, or the Waterloo Memorial, is a monument to the Duke of Wellington standing on the corner of William Brown Street and Lime Street, Merseyside, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building. After the Duke's death in 1852, in common with other cities, Liverpool decided to erect a monument to celebrate his achievements. A committee was established to organise public subscriptions. A competition was set up in 1856 to find a designer for the column, this was won by the architect Andrew Lawson of Edinburgh. There were further delays while a suitable site was found, with sites at the top of Duke Street and Bold Street, in front of the Adelphi Hotel and Prince's Park being considered before the eventual location was settled on. In 1861 a second competition, this time for the statue of the Duke, was won by George Anderson Lawson, brother of the column's designer; the design of the column and plinth resembles that of the Melville Monument commemorating Henry Dundas, Lord Melville in St Andrew Square, itself loosely modelled on Trajan's Column in Rome.

The foundation stone was laid on 1 May 1861 by the Mayor of Liverpool. There were further delays during construction of the monument due to subsidence. Although it was inaugurated on 16 May 1863 in a ceremony attended by the Mayor and Sir William Brown, it was still not complete. Reliefs depicting Wellington's victories and the charge at the Battle of Waterloo were still to be added and it was completed towards the end of 1865; these delays resulted in its being "a late example of a column-monument for Britain". The foundations of the monument are in Runcorn sandstone, the pedestal is in granite, the column itself is in Darley Dale sandstone; the overall height of the monument is 132 feet, the column being 81 feet high and the statue 25 feet high. It stands on a stepped base with a square pedestal. On each side of the pedestal is a bronze plaque. Standing on the pedestal is a Roman Doric fluted column. Within the column are 169 steps leading up to a viewing platform. On top of the column is a cylinder surmounted by a cupola on which the bronze statue of the Duke stands.

The statue is made from the melted-down bronze from cannons captured at the Battle of Waterloo. The Duke holds a scroll in his right hand, his left hand rests on the hilt of his sword; the brass plaque on the south of the pedestal is a relief depicting the final charge at the battle of Waterloo. On the east and west faces, the plaques bear the names of the Duke's victorious battles; the east panel lists the battles of Assaye, Argaum, Rolica, Fuentes de Onoro, Cuidad Rodrigo and Badajoz. On and around the base of the monument are pre-metric standard Board of Trade measurements of length, the shorter ones being embossed on a bronze panel. Set into the pavement is a brass strip containing the measure of 100 feet, a chain of 100 links. Grade II* listed buildings in Liverpool – City Centre

Harper's Young People

Harper's Young People was an American children's magazine between 1879 and 1899. The first issue appeared in the fall of 1879, it was published by Harper & Brothers. It was Harper's fourth magazine to be established, after Harper's Magazine, Harper's Weekly, Harper's Bazaar. Harper's Young People was the first of the four magazines to cease publication. Harper's Young People began in November 1879 as a weekly illustrated 16-page magazine that contained fiction and non-fiction works, its first editor was Kirk Munroe. It was advertised as being appropriate for boys and girls ages six to 16, it was renamed Harper's Round Table and it changed its target demographic to teenage boys beginning with volume XVI number 809 at the end of April 1895. The magazine ceased publication in 1899. Harper's Young People, Vol. 7, Issues 314-365 Harper's Young People, Vol. 9, Issue 5 Harper's Young People public domain audiobook at LibriVox

Cín Lae Uí Mhealláin

Cín Lae Uí Mhealláin is an account of the Irish Confederate Wars written by Tarlach Ó Mealláin, OFM. Described as "an account of the progress of the Confederate war from the outbreak of rebellion in 1641 until February 1647" its text "reflected the Ulster Catholic point of view." The text was first described as Cín Lae Uí Mhealláin by Professor Tadhg Ó Donnchadha in 1931, Cín Lae being the Irish term for'diary.' It is written on both sides of twenty-two small sheets of paper. The narrative comes to an abrupt end on the 28th line of page forty-four. I n-aghaidh Laighneach agus each...." It is housed at the Boole Library at University College, Cork, as MS 3. In his introduction to the text, Charles Dillon points out that: "Tarlach had a detailed knowledge of the Ulster leaders; as he was familiar too with many of the places in which they fought, he is an invaluable source for the general historian and genealogist and, because of his language, he is an invaluable source for the linguist and the historian of Irish as well."

Ó Doibhlin opines that " might have been more named a Commonplace Book kept by Ó Mealláin at the instigation of the leader of the rebellion, Sir Pheilim O'Neill of Caledon. It looks much like a notebook the writer had with him in the field and he may have hoped that the notes taken down would at some stage in the future act as an aide memoire for a fuller, more extensive account." Charles Dillon concurs, stating that "The Cín Lae was written in abbreviated form as a memory aid to the author who may have intended to produce a fuller history of the period at a date. Sadly, no such history appears to have been written...... he... had the opportunity of revising at least part of the script." The text begins thus: "One the eve of the Feast of Saint John Capistranus the lords of Ulster planned to seize in one night, unknown to the English and the Scots, all their walled towns and bawns. The date chosen was 22nd October, Friday to be precise, the last day of the moon." On one occasion Ó Mealláin describes O'Neill rousing the troops: "Do bhí an General ag teagasc imeasc an tsloigh.

Iseadh adubhairt'Ag sud chuagaibh escairde Dé agus naimhde bhur n-anma. Elsewhere, he describes the terrible effect of the war on the general population: "Atá, daoine san tír, Duibhlinigh, muinter Ara, Ibh Eathach agus clann Aodh Bui uile an Ruta ag ithe capall, each: deireadh earraigh. "There are people in the country, O'Kanes, O'Devlins, the people of Ara and Iveagh, inhabitants of Clandeboy and the Route eating horsemeat. Other occasions described include a number such as Benburb. Irish Rebellion of 1641 Irish Confederate Wars Henry Ó Mealláin Feardorcha Ó Mealláin Tadhg Ó Donnchadha Analecta Hibernica iii, pp. 1–61. Éamonn Ó Doibhlin Domhnach Mór, pp. 101–35 Charles Dillon Cín Lae Uí Mhealláin, pp. 337–95 Tyrone:History and Society. ISBN 0-906602-71-8 Diarmaid Ó Doibhlin Tyrone's Gaelic Literary Legacy, pp. 414–17, op.cit