Interstate 10 in California
Interstate 10, a major east–west Interstate Highway, runs in the U. S. state of California east from Santa Monica, on the Pacific Ocean, through Los Angeles and San Bernardino to the border with Arizona. In the Greater Los Angeles area, it is known as the Santa Monica Freeway and the San Bernardino Freeway, linked by a short concurrency on Interstate 5 at the East Los Angeles Interchange. Interstate 10 has portions designated as either the Rosa Parks Freeway, the Redlands Freeway, or the Christopher Columbus Transcontinental Highway; the California Streets and Highways Code defines Route 10 from Route 1 in Santa Monica to Route 5 near Seventh Street in Los Angeles. Route 101 near Mission Road in Los Angeles to the Arizona state line at the Colorado River via the vicinity of Monterey Park, Colton and Chiriaco Summit and via Blythe. Despite the legislative definition, Caltrans connects the two sections of the route by cosigning I-10 down Interstate 5 between the East LA Interchange and the Santa Monica Freeway, negating a section of the San Bernardino Freeway west of I-5.
This short section of Route 10 between Route 5 and Route 101, defined as Route 110 until 1968, is signed overhead for I-10 eastbound and for U. S. 101 westbound. This I-5/I-10 cosigning is consistent with the Federal Highway Administration's Interstate Highway route logs that such an overlap exists for the segment of I-10 in California. I-10 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. I-10 is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System, but it is not designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation; the Santa Monica Freeway is Route 10 from Route 1 to Route 5, as named by the State Highway Commission on April 25, 1957. The section between the Harbor and San Diego freeways is signed as the Rosa Parks Freeway, after the African American civil rights activist; the I-10 freeway is signed as the Christopher Columbus Transcontinental Highway in Santa Monica.
The Santa Monica Freeway is the westernmost segment of Interstate 10 and a small section of State Route 1, beginning at the McClure Tunnel in Santa Monica and ending southeast of downtown Los Angeles at the East Los Angeles Interchange. Interstate 10 begins in the city of Santa Monica when State Route 1 turns into a freeway and heads east. SR heads south while I-10 continues east. Soon after it enters the city of Los Angeles, I-10 has a four-level interchange with Interstate 405. Interstate 10 continues through Sawtelle, Rancho Park, Cheviot Hills and Crestview in West Los Angeles, Lafayette Square and Wellington Square in Mid-City, Arlington Heights, West Adams and Jefferson Park into downtown Los Angeles. On the western edge of downtown, I-10 has an interchange with Interstate 110 to the south and State Route 110 to the north. I-10 travels along the southern edge of downtown to the East Los Angeles Interchange. At the East Los Angeles Interchange, State Route 60 diverges east towards Pomona.
I-10 turns north, running concurrently with Interstate 5 for one mile. Interstate 10 heads east and merges with the traffic from the spur to US 101 onto the San Bernardino Freeway; the freeway is 14 lanes wide from the Harbor Freeway interchange to the Arlington Avenue off-ramp. Most of these lanes are full at peak travel times; the remainder of the freeway varies between 10 lanes in width. The whole freeway opened in 1965, with a formal dedication held in 1966. While the construction of the Century Freeway several miles to the south reduced traffic congestion to a considerable amount by creating an alternate route from downtown to the Los Angeles International Airport, the Santa Monica Freeway is still one of the busiest freeways in the world. All three freeway-to-freeway interchanges along its length are notorious for their congestion, are ranked among the top 10 most congested spots in the United States. Due to the high traffic volume, car accidents are so common that Caltrans has constructed special Accident Investigation Sites separated from the freeway by fences.
These enable the California Highway Patrol to clear accidents from the through traffic lanes, the fences reduce congestion by preventing rubbernecking. The Santa Monica Freeway is considered the border between South Los Angeles. Part of the freeway skims the Byzantine-Latino quarter, home to many immigrants affiliated with the Eastern Orthodox Church. Interstate 10 heads east from the Downtown Los Angeles Eastside Los Angeles region, with two HOV lanes paralleling it on the north side called the El Monte Busway; these roadways extend to Alameda Street on US 101, following the spur west to where I-10 passes California State University Los Angeles. However, after the Interstate 710 interchange, these lanes merge back into the typical left lanes of each roadway. East of Interstate 710, I-10 continues through Monterey Park, Rosemead, San Gabriel, El Monte, Baldwin Park before intersecting with Interstate 605, it travels through West Covina and Covina before heading up Kellogg Hill into San Dimas, where I-10 intersects with State Route 57 and State Route 71 at the Kellogg Interchange.
I-10 heads east through Pomona and Clare
Mayor of Los Angeles
The Mayor of the City of Los Angeles is the official head and chief executive officer of Los Angeles, United States. The officeholder is limited to serving no more than two terms. Under the Constitution of California, all judicial, school and city offices, including those of chartered cities, are nonpartisan. Eric Garcetti has been the city's 42nd and current mayor since 2013. California does not impose statewide term limits on school board members, but such limits can still be imposed on the local level. Los Angeles has a strong mayor–council form of government, giving the mayor the position of chief executive of the city; the mayor is given the authority to appoint general managers and commissioners, remove officials from city posts, is required to propose a budget each year. Most of the mayor's appointments and proposals are subject to approval by the Los Angeles City Council, but the mayor has the power of veto or approval of City Council legislation; the organization of the mayor's office changes with administration, but is always governed by a chief of staff, deputy chief of staff, director of communications, several deputy mayors.
Each mayor organizes his office into different offices containing the Los Angeles Housing Team, Los Angeles Business Team, International Trade Office, Mayor's Volunteer Corps, Office of Immigrant Affairs, among other divisions. The mayor has an office in the Los Angeles City Hall and resides at the Mayor's Mansion, Getty House, located in Windsor Square; as of 2017, the mayor received a salary of $248,141. The mayor is elected in citywide election. Elections follow a two-round system; the first round of the election is called the primary election. The candidate receiving a majority of the vote in the primary is elected outright. If no candidate receives a majority, the top two candidates advance to a runoff election, called the general election; the City Charter allows for write-in candidates for the primary election, but not for the runoff in the general election. The mayor is elected with a limit of two consecutive terms; the office of Mayor is nonpartisan by state law, although most mayoral candidates identify a party preference.
Elections for mayor were held in odd-numbered years from 1909 until 2013. In October 2014, the Los Angeles City Council recommended consolidating city elections with gubernatorial and presidential elections in even-numbered years in an effort to increase turnout. On March 3, 2015, voters passed a charter amendment to extend the term of the mayor elected in 2017 to five-and-a-half years. From 2022 and onward, mayoral elections will be consolidated with the statewide gubernatorial elections held every four years; the most recent election was held in March 2017. Incumbent mayor Eric Garcetti was re-elected for a second term. In the case of an office vacancy, the City Council has a choice to appoint a new mayor or to hold a special election; the replacement, if appointed, will serve until the next scheduled primary for a city general election. If any portion remains on the term, a special election will be held to elect a candidate to serve the remainder of the term; the mayor is subject to recall by registered voters if at least 15 percent of eligible voters sign a recall petition within 120 days of the first day of circulation.
If the petition is successful, a special election is held asking whether the incumbent should be removed and who among a list of candidates should replace the incumbent. If the recall is successful, the replacement candidate with the majority of votes succeeds the ousted incumbent. If no replacement candidate receives a majority of the votes, a special runoff election is held between the top two candidates; as of April 2019, 42 individuals have served as mayor of Los Angeles since its incorporation as a city in the state of California. Six individuals served non-consecutive terms, the first of which began in 1854 and the last of which ended in 1921; those who served non-consecutive terms are only counted once in the official count of mayoralties. Stephen Clark Foster was appointed as Mayor of Los Angeles in 1848 prior to California statehood and official incorporation of the city; the longest term was that of Tom Bradley, who served for 20 years over five terms prior to the establishment of successive term limits.
The shortest term, not counting city council presidents serving as acting mayor, was that of William Stephens, appointed to serve for less than two weeks after Arthur Cyprian Harper resigned from office. Two mayors died in office: Henry Mellus and Frederick A. MacDougall. Three Hispanics have served as mayor since incorporation: Antonio F. Coronel, Cristobal Aguilar, Antonio Villaraigosa. Many other Hispanics served as mayor prior to California joining the United States including Manuel Requena, who briefly served as acting mayor post-statehood in his role as city council president. Tom Bradley is the only African American to have served as mayor, but was the city's longest-serving mayor. Two French Canadians have served as mayor, including Damien Marchesseault, who served for three distinct periods, Prudent Beaudry; this list includes three Presidents of the City Council who served as Acting Mayor due to a vacancy in the office of the mayor but who were not appointed as mayor. The Council Presidents are not included in the count of mayors.
† Council presidents who temporarily served as acting mayor in case of a vacancy but were not appointed to the position are not included in the count of mayors. As of April 2019, three former Mayors of Los Angeles were alive, the oldest being Richard J. Riordan; the most recent mayor to die was Thomas Bradley, on September 29, 1998. History of Los Angeles T
Government of Los Angeles
The Government of Los Angeles operates as a charter city under the Charter of the City of Los Angeles. The elected government is composed of the Los Angeles City Council with 15 city council districts and the Mayor of Los Angeles, which operate under a mayor–council government, as well as several other elective offices; the current mayor is Eric Garcetti, the current City Attorney is Mike Feuer and the current City Controller is Ron Galperin. In addition, there are numerous departments and appointed officers such as the Los Angeles Police Department, the Los Angeles Fire Department, the Los Angeles Department of Transportation, the Los Angeles Public Library, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; the government of the city of Los Angeles includes the following city officers: Mayor Members of the Council City Attorney City Clerk Controller Treasurer The members of the boards or commissions of the departments and the chief administrative officer of each department and office An Executive Director of the Board of Police Commissioners Other officers as prescribed by ordinance The Mayor of Los Angeles is the chief executive officer of the city.
The officeholder is elected for a four-year term, limited to serving no more than two terms. Under the California Constitution, all judicial, school and city offices, including those of chartered cities, are nonpartisan; the 42nd and current Mayor is Eric Garcetti. The Los Angeles City Council is the governing body of Los Angeles; the council is composed of fifteen members elected from single-member districts for four-year terms and limited to three terms. The president of the council and the president pro tempore are chosen by the council at the first regular meeting after June 30 in odd-numbered years. An assistant president pro tempore is appointed by the president; the current president of the Los Angeles City Council is Herb Wesson, the president pro tempore is Mitchell Englander and the assistant president pro tempore is Nury Martinez. Regular council meetings are held in the City Hall on Tuesdays and Fridays at 10 am except on holidays or if decided by special resolution; the Los Angeles Police Department polices the city of Los Angeles.
It is governed by the Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners and the Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department. The city maintains specialized police agencies; the Los Angeles General Services Police, which provided police coverage for Los Angeles city owned property and parks was absorbed into the LAPD in 2012. The Los Angeles Unified School District maintains it own separate police department, as do many other school districts and college campuses within the city; the Charter of the City of Los Angeles ratified by voters in 1999 created a system of advisory neighborhood councils that would represent the diversity of stakeholders, defined as those who live, work or own property in the neighborhood. The neighborhood councils are autonomous and spontaneous in that they identify their own boundaries, establish their own bylaws, elect their own officers. There are about 90 neighborhood councils; the Los Angeles City Attorney is an elected official whose job is legal counsel for the city and may prosecute misdemeanor criminal offenses within the city.
The Los Angeles City Clerk is in charge of record keeping for elections. The Los Angeles City Controller is the elected chief accounting officer of the city; the Los Angeles City Treasurer handles financial matters. In addition, there are numerous departments and appointed officers such as the: Los Angeles City Clerk Economic & Workforce Development Department Office of Finance Los Angeles Fire Department Los Angeles Housing + Community Investment Department Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles Port of Los Angeles Los Angeles Port Police Los Angeles Public Library Department of Recreation and Parks Los Angeles Department of Transportation Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Los Angeles Board of Water and Power Commissioners The most recent elections were in May 2013, with 13th district City Councilman Eric Garcetti defeating City Controller Wendy Greuel for Mayor; the voter turnout was about 19% of registered voters, one of the lowest turnouts on record, with Garcetti garnering about 54% of the votes.
The Charter of the City of Los Angeles is the founding document of Los Angeles. Pursuant to its Charter, all legislative power is vested in the Council and is exercised by ordinance subject to a veto by the Mayor. Pursuant to this power, the Council has caused to be promulgated the Administrative Code, consisting of administrative and procedural ordinances, the Municipal Code, consisting of codified regulatory and penal ordinances. Violations of the ordinances are misdemeanor crimes unless otherwise specified as an infraction and may be prosecuted by city authorities; the Los Angeles Superior Court, which covers the entire county, is not a County department but a division of the State's trial court system. The courthouses were county-owned buildings that were maintained at county expense, which created significant friction since the trial court judges, as officials of the stat
History of Los Angeles
The written history of Los Angeles city and county began with a Spanish colony town, populated by 11 descendants of Spanish families which were known as "Los Pobladores" that established a settlement in Southern California that changed little in the three decades after 1848, when California became part of the United States. Much greater changes came from the completion of the Santa Fe railroad line from Chicago to Los Angeles in 1885. "Overlanders" flooded in, namely white Protestants from South. Los Angeles had a strong economic base in farming, tourism, real estate and movies, it grew with many suburban areas inside and outside the city limits. Hollywood made the city world-famous, World War II brought new industry high-tech aircraft construction. Politically the city was moderately conservative, with a weak labor union sector. Since the 1960s, growth has slowed—and traffic delays have become famous. Los Angeles was a pioneer in freeway development as the public transit system deteriorated. New arrivals from Mexico and Asia, have transformed the demographic base since the 1960s.
Old industries have declined, including farming, oil and aircraft, but tourism and high tech remain strong. By 3000 B. C. the area was occupied by the Hokan-speaking people of the Milling Stone Period who fished, hunted sea mammals, gathered wild seeds. They were replaced by migrants — fleeing drought in the Great Basin — who spoke a Uto-Aztecan language called Tongva; the Tongva people called the Los Angeles region Yaa in Tongva. By the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the 18th century A. D. there were 5,000 in the Los Angeles basin. Since contact with Europeans, the people in what became Los Angeles were known as Gabrielinos and Fernandeños, after the missions associated with them; the land used by the Gabrielinos covered about 4,000 square miles. It included the enormous floodplain drained by the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers and the southern Channel Islands, including the Santa Barbara, San Clemente, Santa Catalina, San Nicholas Islands, they were part of a sophisticated group of trading partners that included the Chumash to the west, the Cahuilla and Mojave to the east, the Juaneños and Luiseños to the south.
Their trade included slavery. The lives of the Gabrielinos were governed by a set of religious and cultural practices that included belief in creative supernatural forces, they worshipped Chinigchinix, a creator god, Chukit, a female virgin god. Their Great Morning Ceremony was based on a belief in the afterlife. In a purification ritual, they drank tolguache, a hallucinogenic made from jimson weed and salt water, their language was called Kizh or Kij, they practiced cremation. Generations before the arrival of the Europeans, the Gabrielinos had identified and lived in the best sites for human occupation; the survival and success of Los Angeles depended on the presence of a nearby and prosperous Gabrielino village called Yaanga. Its residents provided the colonists with seafood, bowls and baskets. For pay, they dug ditches, hauled water, provided domestic help, they intermarried with the Mexican colonists. In 1542 and 1602, the first Europeans to visit the region were Captain Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo and Captain Sebastián Vizcaíno.
It was. Although Los Angeles was a town, founded by Mexican families from Sonora, it was the Spanish governor of California who named the settlement. In 1777, governor Felipe de Neve toured Alta California and decided to establish civic pueblos for the support of the military presidios; the new pueblos reduced the secular power of the missions by reducing the dependency of the military on them. At the same time, they promoted the development of agriculture. Neve identified Santa Barbara, San Jose, Los Angeles as sites for his new pueblos, his plans for them followed a set of Spanish city-planning laws contained in the Laws of the Indies promulgated by King Philip II in 1573. Those laws were responsible for laying the foundations of the largest cities in the region, including Los Angeles, San Francisco and San Antonio—as well as Sonoma, Santa Fe, San Jose, Laredo; the Spanish system called for an open central plaza, surrounded by a fortified church, administrative buildings, streets laid out in a grid, defining rectangles of limited size to be used for farming and residences.
It was in accordance with such precise planning—specified in the Law of the Indies—that Governor Neve founded the pueblo of San Jose de Guadalupe, California's first municipality, on the great plain of Santa Clara on 29 November 1777. The Los Angeles Pobladores is the name given to the 44 original settlers, 22 adults and 22 children from Sonora, who founded the town. In December 1777, Viceroy Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa and Commandant General Teodoro de Croix gave approval for the founding of a civic municipality at Los Angeles and a new presidio at Santa Barbara. Croix put the California lieutenant governor Fernando Rivera y Moncada in charge of recruiting colonists for the new settlements, he was instructed to recruit 55 soldiers, 22 settlers with families and 1,000 head of livestock that included horses for the military. After an exhausting search that took him to Mazatlán, Durango, Rivera y Moncada only recruited 12 settlers and 45 soldiers. Like the people of most towns in New Spain, they were a mix of Spanish backgrounds.
The Quechan Revolt killed 95 soldiers, including Rivera y Moncada. In his Reglamento, the newly baptized India
Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, as well as a diverse residential neighborhood of some 58,000 people. A 2013 study found, it is part of Central Los Angeles. A heritage of the city's founding in 1781, Downtown Los Angeles today is composed of different areas ranging from a fashion district to Skid Row, it is the hub for the city's urban rail transit system and the Metrolink commuter rail system for Southern California. Banks, department stores, movie palaces at one time drew residents and visitors into the area, but the district declined economically and suffered a downturn for decades until its recent renaissance starting in the early 2000s. Old buildings are being modified for new uses, skyscrapers have been built. Downtown Los Angeles is known for its government buildings, parks and other public places; the earliest known settlements in the area of what is now Downtown Los Angeles was by the Tongva, a Native American people. European settlement arrived after Father Juan Crespí, a Spanish missionary charged with exploring sites for Catholic missions in California, noted in 1769 that the region had "all the requisites for a large settlement".
On September 4, 1781, the city was founded by a group of settlers who trekked north from present-day Mexico. Land speculation increased in the 1880s, which saw the population of the city explode from 11,000 in 1880 to nearly 100,000 by 1896. Infrastructure enhancements and the laying of a street grid brought development south of the original settlement into what is today the Civic Center and Historic Core neighborhoods. By 1920, the city's private and municipal rail lines were the most far-flung and most comprehensive in the world in mileage besting that of New York City. By this time, a steady influx of residents and aggressive land developers had transformed the city into a large metropolitan area, with DTLA at its center. Rail lines connected four counties with over 1,100 miles of track. During the early part of the 20th century, banking institutions clustered around South Spring Street, forming the Spring Street Financial District. Sometimes referred to as the "Wall Street of the West," the district held corporate headquarters for financial institutions including Bank of America and Merchants Bank, the Crocker National Bank, California Bank & Trust, International Savings & Exchange Bank.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange was located on the corridor from 1929 until 1986 before moving into a new building across the Harbor Freeway. Commercial growth brought with it hotel construction—during this time period several grand hotels, the Alexandria, the Rosslyn, the Biltmore, were erected — and the need for venues to entertain the growing population of Los Angeles. Broadway became the nightlife and entertainment district of the city, with over a dozen theater and movie palaces built before 1932. Department stores opened flagship stores downtown, including The Broadway, Hamburger & Sons, May Company, JW Robinson's, Bullock's, serving a wealthy residential population in the Bunker Hill neighborhood. Numerous specialty stores flourished including those in the jewelry business which gave rise to the Downtown Jewelry District. Among these early jewelers included the Laykin Diamond Company and Harry Winston & Co. both of which found their beginnings in the Hotel Alexandria at Fifth and Spring streets.
The Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal opened in May 1939, unifying passenger service among various local and long-distance passenger trains. It was built on a grand scale and would be one of the "last of the great railway stations" built in the United States. Following World War II, the development of the Los Angeles freeway network, increased automobile ownership led to decreased investment downtown. Many corporate headquarters dispersed to new suburbs or fell to mergers and acquisitions; the once-wealthy Bunker Hill neighborhood became a haven for low-income renters, its stately Victorian mansions turned into flophouses. From about 1930 onward, numerous old and historic buildings in the plaza area were demolished to make way for street-level parking lots, the high demand for parking making this more profitable than any other option that might have allowed preservation; the drastic reduction in the number of residents in the area further reduced the viability of streetfront businesses that would be able to attract pedestrians.
For most Angelenos, downtown became a drive-out destination. In an effort to combat blight and lure businesses back downtown, the city's Community Redevelopment Agency undertook the Bunker Hill Redevelopment Project in 1955, a massive clearance project that leveled homes and cleared land for future commercial skyscraper development; this period saw the clearing and upzoning of the entire neighborhood, as well as the shuttering of the Angels Flight funicular railway in 1969. Angels Flight resumed operation in 1996 for a period of five years, shutting down once again after a fatal accident in 2001. On March 15, 2010, the railway once again opened for passenger service following extensive upgrades to brake and safety systems. With Class A office space becoming available on Bunker Hill, many of DTLA's remaining financial corporations moved to the newer buildings, leaving the former Spring Street Financial District devoid of tenants above ground floor. Following the corporate headquarters' moving six blocks west, the large department stores on Broadway shuttered, culminating in the 1980s.
However, the Broadway theaters saw much use as Spanish-language movie houses during this time, beginning with the conve
Lucius Oliver Allen, Jr. is an American former professional basketball player. In 1999, the Topeka Capital-Journal named Lucius Oliver Allen, Jr. of Wyandotte High School in Kansas City, Kansas as the greatest Kansas high school basketball player of the 20th century. Allen was a prep All-American player under head coach Walt Shublom and was named consensus first-team all-state as a junior and senior as he led Wyandotte to back-to-back Class AA state championships in 1964 and'65. Prior to his National Basketball Association career, he was a starter on two of coach John Wooden's UCLA NCAA Championship teams, in 1967 and 1968, playing alongside Lew Alcindor; these teams are considered by many to be the greatest in men's college basketball history. After being suspended for his senior year at UCLA for receiving a second citation for possessing a small quantity marijuana, Allen was drafted by the Seattle SuperSonics in the 1st round of the 1969 NBA draft and retired in 1979; as a member of the 1971 Milwaukee Bucks team, which featured Alcindor, Allen earned an NBA championship ring.
He played with Alcindor, now known as Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, for two seasons, from 1975–77, in Los Angeles, but not winning a championship in either of those years. Allen was traded the following season to the Kansas City Kings, winning the division championship in 1979, retired from basketball after that season. Allen played 10 years in the NBA for four teams, his highest scoring average was 19.1 points per game, during the 1974–75 season. Part of the way through that season he was traded to the Los Angeles Lakers after playing with the Milwaukee Bucks since the 1970–71 season, he was inducted into the Pac-12 Conference men's basketball Hall of Honor on March 16, 2013. After finishing his basketball career, which included a high school state championship, college national championship, an NBA championship, Allen turned his attention to coaching aspiring players in the Los Angeles area
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A