Parliament of Canada
The Parliament of Canada is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital. The body consists of the Canadian monarch, represented by the Governor General; each element has its own officers and organization. By constitutional convention, the House of Commons is dominant, with the Senate and monarch opposing its will; the Senate reviews legislation from a less partisan standpoint and the monarch or viceroy provides royal assent to make bills into law. The Governor General summons and appoints the 105 senators on the advice of the Prime Minister, while the 338 members of the House of Commons—called members of parliament —each represent an electoral district referred to as a riding, are directly elected by Canadian voters; the Governor General summons Parliament, while either the viceroy or monarch can prorogue or dissolve Parliament, the latter in order to call a general election. Either will read the Throne Speech; the most recent Parliament, summoned by Governor General David Johnston in 2015, is the 42nd since Confederation.
The Parliament of Canada is composed of three parts: the monarch, the Senate, the House of Commons. Each work in conjunction within the legislative process; this format was inherited from the United Kingdom and is a near-identical copy of the parliament at Westminster, the greatest differences stemming from situations unique to Canada, such as the impermanent nature of the monarch's residency in the country and the lack of a peerage to form the upper chamber. Only those who sit in the House of Commons are called members of parliament. Though legislatively less powerful, senators take higher positions in the national order of precedence. No individual may serve in more than one chamber at the same time; the sovereign's place in the legislature, formally called the Queen-in-Parliament, is defined by the Constitution Act, 1867, various conventions. Neither she nor her viceroy, participates in the legislative process, save for signifying the Queen's approval to a bill passed by both houses of parliament, known as the granting of Royal Assent, necessary for a bill to be enacted as law.
All federal bills thus begin with the phrase "Now, Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows..." and, as such, the Crown is immune from acts of parliament unless expressed otherwise in the act itself. The governor general will perform the task of granting Royal Assent, though the monarch may do so, at the request of either the Cabinet or the viceroy, who may defer assent to the sovereign as per the constitution; as both the monarch and his or her representatives are traditionally barred from the House of Commons, any parliamentary ceremonies in which they are involved take place in the Senate chamber. The upper and lower houses do, each contain a mace, which indicates the authority of the Queen-in-Parliament and the privilege granted to that body by her, both bearing a crown at their apex; the original mace for the Senate was that used in the Legislative Council of the Province of Canada after 1849, while that of the House of Commons was inherited from the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada, first used in 1845.
Following the burning of the Centre Block on 3 February 1916, the City of London, donated a replacement, still used today. The temporary mace, made of wood, used until the new one arrived from the United Kingdom in 1917, is still carried into the Senate each 3 February; the Senate's 1.6-metre-long mace comprises gold. The Senate may not sit. Members of the two houses of parliament must express their loyalty to the sovereign and defer to her authority, as the Oath of Allegiance must be sworn by all new parliamentarians before they may take their seats. Further, the official opposition is formally called Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition, to signify that, though they may be opposed to the incumbent Cabinet's policies, they remain dedicated to the apolitical Crown; the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, the Senate, is a group of 105 individuals appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister. Senators served for life until 1965, when a constitutional amendment imposed a mandatory retirement age of 75.
Senators may, resign their seats prior to that mark, can lose their position should they fail to attend two consecutive sessions of parliament. The Senate is divided amongst four geographic regions: 24 for Ontario, 24 for Quebec, 24 for the Maritimes, 24 for the Western provinces. Newfoundland and Labrador, which became a Canadian province in 1949, is represented by six senators, is not part of a senatorial division. Further, Canada's three territories—the Northwest Territories and Nunavut—are allocated one senator each. An additio
Rideau Street is a major street in downtown Ottawa, Ontario and one of Ottawa's oldest and most famous streets running from Wellington Street in the west to Montreal Road in the east where it connects to the Vanier district. Rideau Street is home to the Château Laurier, the CF Rideau Centre and the Government Conference Centre. Along with Wellington Street and Sussex Drive it was among the first streets in Ottawa to be host to businesses; the Plaza Bridge by the Rideau Canal is at its westmost point and the Cummings Bridge is at its eastmost point. For many years, Rideau Street was one of Ottawa's primary retail thoroughfares, containing department stores such as Freimans, Ogilvy's, Caplan's and Metropolitan. In November 1979 mayor Marion Dewar examined a plan to create what became the'Rideau Street Bus Mall.' Sidewalks from Sussex to Dalhousie were enclosed in a continuous glass-and-steel structure. The heated mall was expected to allow pedestrians to shop in comfort year-round. However, the structure had an unanticipated downside, in that it attracted large numbers of homeless and late-night drinkers.
Many establishments along the affected stretch of Rideau Street failed as a result. The decision was made to tear the shelters down, in the end the cost for dismantling them was as much as the $6.5 million incurred in their construction. Although the local department stores are gone, Rideau Street still features The Bay department store, the Rideau Centre shopping mall, the street is adjacent to shops of the Byward Market; the street had been designated Highway 17B before the Ontario government discontinued it in 1998. To the north of Rideau, east of King Edward Avenue is the traditional Lower Town district of Ottawa, a residential area which in the past was predominantly Francophone, but now has one of Ottawa's largest immigrant populations, notably including many Francophone Africans and Somalis. North of Rideau and west of King Edward is the commercial Byward Market area. To the south of Rideau Street is the Sandy Hill neighbourhood, with its mix of embassies, older houses, low- and high-rise apartment buildings, student housing.
A section of Rideau Street was closed to all traffic from June 8 to July 2, 2016 after it collapsed in the vicinity of excavations being made for the Rideau station of the Confederation Line. That year on October 2, a much smaller sinkhole opened in the same area as the June 8 sinkhole. Due to the sinkholes, Rideau Street was closed to regular traffic from Sussex to Dalhousie until further notice. Only buses, construction vehicles, delivery vehicles were permitted. 2014 sinkhole Rideau Street Chapel Sussex Drive Wallis House Wellington Street
History of Ottawa
The History of Ottawa, capital of Canada, was shaped by events such as the construction of the Rideau Canal, the lumber industry, the choice of Ottawa as the location of Canada's capital, as well as American and European influences and interactions. By 1914, Ottawa's population had surpassed 100,000 and today it is the capital of a G7 country whose metropolitan population exceeds one million; the origin of the name "Ottawa" is derived from the Algonquin word adawe, meaning "to trade". The word refers to the indigenous peoples who used the river to trade, fish, harvest plants and for other traditional uses; the first maps made of the area started to name the major river after these peoples. For centuries, Algonquin people have portaged through the waterways of both the Ottawa River and the Rideau River while passing through the area. French explorer Étienne Brûlé was credited as the first European to see the Chaudière Falls in 1610, he too had to portage past them to get further inland. No permanent settlement occurred in the area until 1800 when Philemon Wright founded his village near the falls, on the north shore of the Ottawa River.
The construction of the Rideau Canal, spurred by concerns for defense following the War of 1812 and plans made by Lieutenant Colonel John By and Governor General Dalhousie began shortly after September 26, 1826 when Ottawa's predecessor, Bytown was founded. Lt. Colonel John By was an officer of the Royal Engineers commissioned by the British Government in 1826 to superintend the construction of the Rideau Canal; the founding was marked by a sod turning, a letter from Dalhousie which authorized Colonel By to divide up the town into lots. The town developed into a site for the timber, sawed lumber trade, causing growth so that in 1854, Bytown was created a city and its present name, Ottawa was conferred. Shortly afterward, Queen Victoria chose Ottawa as the capital of Canada. At this time, increased export sales led it to connect by rail to facilitate shipment to markets in the United States. In the early 1900s the lumber industry waned as both demand lessened. Growth continued in the 20th century, by the 1960s, the Greber Plan transformed the capital's appearance and removed much of the old industrial infrastructure.
By the 1980s, Ottawa had become known as Silicon Valley North after large high tech companies formed, bringing economic prosperity and assisting in causing large increases in population in the last several decades of the century. In 2001, the city amalgamated all areas in the former region, today plans continue in areas such as growth and transportation. With the draining of the Champlain Sea around 10,000 years ago the Ottawa Valley became habitable; the Algonquin people who call the Ottawa River the Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River" maintained a trade route along the Ottawa River for a short time. The word "Ottawa" is in relation to the Ottawa people, the First Nation who hunted, camped and traveled in the area, lived far to the west along Georgian Bay and Lake Huron; when Étienne Brûlé in 1610 became the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, followed by Samuel de Champlain in 1613, they were assisted by Algonquin guides. Written records show that by 1613 the Algonquins were in control of the Ottawa Valley and the surrounding areas to the west and north.
At left is an extract from a map created in 1632 by Samuel de Champlain of the eastern reaches of New France. It shows a portion of the Ottawa River route he took in 1616, with numbers used to indicate sites he visited, significant rapids and aboriginal encampments. Numbers 77 and 91 correspond to the locations of the modern-day City of Ottawa and the Rideau River respectively. Champlain wrote about both the Rideau Falls on the eastern part of the early future town, the Chaudière Falls in the west, which would become employed in the lumber industry. Unlike some parts of Gatineau, areas much further upstream, there are no indications of any settlement at all in present-day Ottawa for the next two centuries, however the river and the Rideau River had been used for travel. Chaudière was, still is impassable by any water traffic, so there were portage paths around it on trips from the mouth of the Ottawa River to the lands of the interior and Great Lakes. Many missionaries, coureurs de bois and voyageurs passed by Ottawa, such as Jesuit martyr Jean de Brébeuf in 1634, on his way to the Hurons, Groseilliers in 1654, in the 1700s explorers La Vérendrye, Alexander Mackenzie, Joseph Frobisher and Simon McTavish.
Nicholas Gatineau traded using the nearby Gatineau River. The Algonquin were not the only people in present-day Ontario. During the 17th century, the Algonquians and Hurons fought a bitter war against the Iroquois. Champlain's travels brought him to Lake Nipissing and Georgian Bay to the center of Huron country near Lake Simcoe. During these voyages, Champlain aided the Hurons in their battles against the Iroquois Confederacy; as a result, the Iroquois would become enemies of the French and be involved in multiple conflicts until the signing of the Great Peace of Montreal in 1701. The Seven Years' War between Great Britain and France ended with t
Confederation Building (Ottawa)
The Confederation Building is a gothic revival office building designed by Richard Cotsman Wright and Thomas W. Fuller in Ottawa, Canada. Located just west of the Parliament Buildings at Bank and Wellington Streets, it is considered part of Parliament Hill; the land where the Confederation Building and the Supreme Court of Canada now stand contained homes and businesses. These were expropriated by the government to allow for the construction of new federal buildings. Work on the Confederation Building began when the cornerstone was laid by the Governor General Lord Willingdon on July 1, 1927 as part of the celebrations of Canada's Diamond Jubilee and it opened during 1931, it housed workers in a number of departments, with the Department of Agriculture being the largest tenant. Today it is home both to a number of MPs and ministers. Many Conservative, Liberal and NDP MPs have their offices there along with some junior cabinet members; as part of the ongoing work on Parliament Hill there are discussions to fill the space between the Confederation Building and the smaller Justice Building to create more office space.
This has been contested by some, due to a government daycare, open to hill staff, there. Work began in 2008 to refurbish the building's masonry. Thomas W. Fuller, Chief Dominion Architect 1927-1936
Wellington Street West
Wellington Street West is a 2.3 km road and shopping area west of downtown Ottawa, Ontario. This road was once connected to - and is confused with - the prominent Wellington Street in downtown Ottawa, but the two Wellingtons were severed in the 1960s with the expropriation of LeBreton Flats and the demolition of the viaduct that connected them over the Canadian Pacific Railway tracks. A small remnant of the old Wellington alignment remains between Bayview Road and the small park, Somerset Square, but the modern Wellington Street West roadway is now connected with Somerset Street West, which becomes Wellington West at Garland Avenue. The section from Somerset Street West to Holland Avenue traverses the Hintonburg neighbourhood, while the section from Holland Avenue to Island Park Drive forms the backbone of the Wellington Village) community. At Island Park Drive, the roadway changes its name again to Richmond Road; the entire Wellington Street West corridor and the surrounding shopping district contain more than 500 individual businesses and restaurants.
Since 2008, these have been represented by the Wellington West Business Improvement Area. The following is a list of major intersections along Wellington Street West, listed from east to west: Bayview Road Somerset Street West Fairmont Avenue Melrose Avenue Carruthers Avenue Parkdale Avenue Holland Avenue Harmer Avenue North Clarendon Avenue Western Avenue Island Park Drive
Library and Archives Canada
Library and Archives Canada is a federal institution tasked with acquiring and making Canada's documentary heritage accessible. It is the fourth biggest library in the world. LAC reports to Parliament through Pablo Rodríguez, the Minister of Canadian Heritage since August 28, 2018; the Dominion Archives was founded in 1872 as a division within the Department of Agriculture and was transformed into the autonomous Public Archives of Canada in 1912 and renamed the National Archives of Canada in 1987. The National Library of Canada was founded in 1953. Freda Farrell Waldon contributed to the writing of the brief which led to the founding of the National Library of Canada. In 2004, Library and Archives Canada combined the functions of the National Archives of Canada and the National Library of Canada, it was established by the Library and Archives of Canada Act, proclaimed on April 22, 2004. A subsequent Order in Council dated May 21, 2004 united the collections and personnel of the National Archives of Canada and the National Library of Canada.
Since inception LAC has reported to Parliament through the Minister of Canadian Heritage. LAC's stated mandate is: to preserve the documentary heritage of Canada for the benefit of present and future generations. LAC is expected to maintain "effective recordkeeping practices that ensure transparency and accountability". LAC's holdings include the archival records of the Government of Canada, representative private archives, 20 million books acquired through legal deposit, 24 million photographs, more than a petabyte of digital content; some of this content the book collection, university theses and census material, is available online. Many items are only available in physical form; as of May 2013 only about 1% of the collection had been digitized, representing "about 25 million of the more popular and most fragile items". The collection includes: the proclamation of the Canadian Constitution Act, which bears marks left by raindrops during a ceremony on Parliament Hill in April 1982 when Queen Elizabeth II signed it.
Genealogists account for 70% of LAC's clients. The building at 395 Wellington Street in downtown Ottawa is the main physical location where the public may access the collection in person; the building was opened on June 20, 1967. With the de-emphasis on physical visits, in-person services have been curtailed, for example since April 2012 reference services are by appointment only, the role of this building is decreasing. There are administrative offices in Gatineau and preservation and storage facilities throughout Canada for federal government records; the Preservation Centre in the city centre of Gatineau, about 10 kilometres away from the Ottawa headquarters, was designed to provide a safe environment for the long-term storage and preservation of Canada's valuable collections. It was built at a cost of CDN$107 million, the official opening took place on June 4, 1997, it is a unique building containing 48 climate-controlled preservation vaults and state-of-the-art preservation laboratories.
In 2000, the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada named it one of the top 500 buildings constructed in Canada during the last millennium. A Nitrate Film Preservation Facility on the Communications Research Centre campus in Shirleys Bay, on the outskirts of Ottawa, houses Canada's cellulose nitrate film collection; the collection contains 5,575 film reels dating back to 1912, including some of the first Canadian motion pictures and photographic negatives. The film material is sensitive and requires precise temperatures for its preservation; the state-of-the-art facility, opened on June 21, 2011, is an eco-designed building featuring an environmentally friendly roof that provides better insulation and minimizes energy expenditures. A planned key activity for 2013–14 was to rehouse analogue information resources in a new state-of-the-art high-density storage facility in Gatineau, where the national newspaper collection and records of Second World War veterans will be stored; the facility will feature a high bay metal shelving system with a suitable environment to better protect Canada's published heritage.
In January 2019, Library and Archives Canada announced that negotiations for a new facility to be built next to the existing one in Gatineau were starting, with an opening date in 2022. LAC's online collection is accessible via its website and LAC provides ongoing information online via its blog, the Twitter and Facebook social networking services, the Flickr image-sharing site, the YouTube video-sharing site. RSS feeds provide links to news about LAC services and resources. A new modernized website is being developed and is scheduled for completion in 2013, with both new and old websites accessible during the transition period. In June 2004 LAC issued a discussion paper Creating a New Kind of Knowledge Institution, after consultation in
Hintonburg is a neighbourhood in Kitchissippi Ward in Ottawa, Canada, located west of the Downtown core. It is a working-class, predominantly residential neighbourhood, with a commercial strip located along Wellington Street West, it is home to the Parkdale Farmer's Market, located along Parkdale Avenue, just north of Wellington. Its eastern border is the O-Train Trillium Line, just west of Preston Street, with Centretown West / Somerset Heights neighbourhood to the east. To the north it is bounded by the transitway, along Scott Street, with Mechanicsville beyond. To the south it is bounded by the Queensway and to the west by Holland Avenue or as far west as Island Park Drive. Using the community association's borders, the population of the neighbourhood is 7581. Hintonburg is mixed in its character; the land use is mixed, this is due to its predating land zoning rules. The area has a mix of recent additions. In its April 2007 issue, enRoute magazine named Hintonburg one of the top ten emerging neighbourhoods in Canada.
The same month, Ottawa Magazine said Hintonburg is "hot" and credits the QUAD arts district as the reason residents think we're "cool". In June 2007, the Financial Times noted that the'Burg is "thriving again"; the area to the north of Wellington is mixed, can be characterised as being in transition. Some industry still exists just south of Scott to the west of Parkdale; the north-east area is completely residential, of one-hundred-year-old wood'clapboard' homes, with a small village/enclave nature. Many of the homes are small, reflecting the late 1800s typical worker's homes; the area north of Wellington was once considered part of the "Mechanicsville" neighbourhood, not Hintonburg, but the expansion of the Transitway and Scott Street have cut off this section from the area to the north. The area to the south of Wellington is entirely residential of brick-veneer wood-frame construction dating to the 1910 to 1920s. There is little commercial activity south of Wellington, except for the Fairmont Confectionery / Sam's Café at the intersection of Fairmont and Gladstone Avenues, along the O-Train Trillium Line to the east, where the Canadian Bank Note Company operates a large facility and there are some industrial buildings along Breezehill.
To the west of Holland, the area is known as Elmdale. The basic pattern of land-use continues. To the south of Wellington residential. To the north residential, with smaller homes close to Scott reflecting the time when a railway ran nearby; the road known as Wellington ends here, continues west as Richmond Road, at one time leading to the village of Richmond. Commercial activity along this street is predominantly independent offices. Businesses on Wellington are characterised by a mixture of proprietor-operated retail and service shops. In the east, Wellington has not recovered from its being bypassed in the 1960s. Several vacant and/or underutilized properties exist. To the west, Wellington is busier, commercial activities are thriving due to the proximity of Tunney's Pasture and the Parkdale Market. Bars and restaurants have multiplied along the stretch from Parkdale to Holland; the businesses along Wellington have grouped themselves under the banner of "Wellington West" to promote their businesses.
Holland Avenue, a four-lane north-south avenue leading directly south of Tunney's Pasture, has developed a stretch of restaurants and commercial businesses to serve the government complex. At the corner of Holland and Wellington, the Irving Greenberg Theatre Centre was opened in 2007 for live theatre. Parkdale Avenue, a two-lane north-south avenue is a busy road; when the Queensway was built in the 1960s, Parkdale was chosen for an interchange rather than the four-lane Holland Avenue. This leads to daily traffic jams at "rush hour." At its north end, some vestiges of the industrial area along the Scott Street rail line exist and are being converted into artists' space. The popular warm-weather Parkdale Market, a farmers' market, just north of Wellington is the home of about 20 stalls, of local and imported produce and flowers. To the south of Wellington, it is residential on both sides. Hintonburg is home to the QUAD; the QUAD, an acronym that stands for Quartier des artistes / Arts District, blends cultural expression, community spirit and heritage character to create a special neighbourhood that embraces all arts disciplines, was established in 2003.
Several galleries have opened since 2006 in the vicinity of the Parkdale Market. In 2005, the Hintonburg community Association launched the ArtsPark annual event in the Parkdale Market featuring the works of Ottawa artists and musicians to highlight the community's growing role as an arts district in the city. Regular activities are put on at the Hintonburg Community Centre, including outdoor films in the summer. Hintonburg is the long-time home of the Orpheus Musical Theatre Society, located on Fairmont Avenue; the Society produces several musical productions every year. The productions are mounted at the Centrepointe Theatre in Nepean. In 2007 the Great Canadian Theatre Company relocated to Hintonburg, in a new theatre built at Holland and Wellington. GCTC produces original Canadian plays. Hintonburg features a few old churches. Including Saint-François d'Assise parish, it was established in 1890 by members of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, refugees from compulsory military service in France, with the construction of a church and monastery.
In 1902, the buildings were enclos