Preston is a city and the administrative centre of Lancashire, England, on the north bank of the River Ribble. The City of Preston local government district obtained city status in 2002, becoming England's 50th city in the 50th year of Queen Elizabeth II's reign. Preston has a population of 114,300, the City of Preston district 132,000 and the Preston Built-up Area 313,322; the Preston Travel To Work Area, in 2011, had a population of 420,661 compared to 354,000 in the previous census. Preston and its surrounding area have provided evidence of ancient Roman activity in the form of a Roman road which led to a camp at Walton-le-Dale; the Angles established Preston. In the Middle Ages, Preston was a parish and township in the hundred of Amounderness and was granted a Guild Merchant charter in 1179, giving it the status of a market town. Textiles have been produced since the mid-13th century when locally produced wool was woven in people's houses. Flemish weavers who settled in the area in the 14th century helped develop the industry.
In the early-18th century, Edmund Calamy described Preston as "a pretty town with an abundance of gentry in it called Proud Preston". Sir Richard Arkwright, inventor of the spinning frame, was born in the town; the most rapid period of growth and development coincided with the industrialisation and expansion of textile manufacturing. Preston was a boomtown of the Industrial Revolution, becoming a densely populated engineering centre, with large industrial plants; the town's textile sector fell into terminal decline from the mid-20th century and Preston has subsequently faced similar challenges to other post-industrial northern towns, including deindustrialisation, economic deprivation and housing issues. Preston is the seat of Lancashire County Council, houses the main campus of the University of Central Lancashire and is home to Preston North End F. C. a founder member of the Football League and the first English football champions. Preston is recorded in the Domesday Book as "Prestune" in 1086.
Various other spellings occur in early documents: "Prestonam", "Prestone", "Prestona", "Presteton", "Prestun". The modern spelling occurs in 1094, 1176, 1196, 1212 and 1332; the town's name is derived from the Tun of the Presta. During the Roman period, Roman roads passed close to. For example, the road from Luguvalium to Mamucium crossed the River Ribble at Walton-le-Dale, 3⁄4 mile southeast of the centre of Preston, a Roman camp or station may have been here. At Withy Trees, 1 1⁄2 miles north of Preston, the road crossed another Roman road from Bremetennacum to the coast. An explanation of the origin of the name is that the Priest's Town refers to a priory set up by St Wilfrid near the Ribble's lowest ford; this idea is supported by the similarity of the Paschal lamb on Preston's crest with that on St Wilfrid's. When first mentioned in the 1086 Domesday Book, Preston was the most important town in Amounderness; when assessed for tax purposes in 1218 – 19 it was the wealthiest town in the whole county.
The right to hold a Guild Merchant was conferred by King Henry II upon the burgesses of Preston in a charter of 1179. It is the only guild still celebrated in the UK. Before 1328, celebrations were held at irregular intervals, but at the guild of that year it was decreed that subsequent guilds should be held every 20 years. After this, there were breaks in the pattern for various reasons, but an unbroken series were held from 1542 to 1922. A full 400-year sequence was frustrated by the cancellation of the 1942 guild due to World War II, but the cycle resumed in 1952; the expression' every Preston Guild', meaning'very infrequently', has passed into common use in Lancashire. Guild week is always started by the opening of the Guild Court, which since the 16th century has traditionally been on the first Monday after the feast of the Beheading of St. John the Baptist celebrated on 29 August; as well as concerts and other exhibitions, the main events are a series of processions through the city. Numerous street parties are held in the locality.
In 1952 the emphasis was on the bright new world emerging after the war. The major event, held in the city's Avenham Park, had every school participating, hundreds of children, from toddlers to teenagers, demonstrated different aspects of physical education in the natural amphitheatre of the park. In 1972 participants at the Avenham Park celebrations were treated to a low level, low speed, flypast by Concorde; the 2012 guild formally opened on 2 September with a mayoral proclamation and the return of "friendship scrolls" that had travelled the world. Highlights in the programme for the 2012 celebration included two concerts in Avenham Park - one by Human League and another, a "Proms In The Park", featuring José Carreras, Katherine Jenkins and the Manchester Camerata. In the mid-12th century, Preston was in the hundred of Amounderness, in the deanery of Amounderness and the archdeaconry of Richmond; the name "Amounderness" is more ancient than the name of any other "Wapentake" or hundred in the County of Lancashire, the fort at Tulketh, strengthened by William the Conqueror, shows that the strategic importance of the area was appreci
Edinburgh Festival Fringe
The Edinburgh Festival Fringe is the world's largest arts festival, which in 2018 spanned 25 days and featured more than 55,000 performances of 3,548 different shows in 317 venues. Established in 1947 as an alternative to the Edinburgh International Festival, it takes place annually in Edinburgh, Scotland, in the month of August, it is an open access performing arts festival, meaning there is no selection committee, anyone may participate, with any type of performance. The official Fringe Programme categorises shows into sections for theatre, dance, physical theatre, cabaret, children's shows, opera, spoken word and events. Comedy is the largest section, making up over one-third of the programme and the one that in modern times has the highest public profile, due in part to the Edinburgh Comedy Awards; the Festival is supported by the Festival Fringe Society, which publishes the programme, sells tickets to all events from a central physical box office and website, offers year-round advice and support to performers.
The Society's permanent location is at the Fringe Shop on the Royal Mile, in August they manage Fringe Central, a separate collection of spaces in Appleton Tower and other University of Edinburgh buildings, dedicated to providing support for Fringe participants during their time at the festival. The Fringe board of directors is drawn from members of the Festival Fringe Society, who are Fringe participants themselves – performers or administrators. Elections are held once a year, in August, Board members serve a term of four years; the Board appoints the Fringe Chief Executive Shona McCarthy who assumed the role in March 2016. The Chief Executive operates under the chair Professor Sir Timothy O'Shea; the Fringe started life when eight theatre companies turned up uninvited to the inaugural Edinburgh International Festival in 1947. With the International Festival using the city's major venues, these companies took over smaller, alternative venues for their productions. Seven performed in Edinburgh, one undertook a version of the medieval morality play "Everyman" in Dunfermline Abbey, about 20 miles north, across the River Forth in Fife.
These groups aimed to take advantage of the large assembled theatre crowds to showcase their own alternative theatre. Although at the time it was not recognised as such, this was the first Edinburgh Festival Fringe; this meant that two defining features of the future Fringe were established at the beginning – the lack of official invitations to perform and the use of unconventional venues. These groups referred to themselves as the "Festival Adjuncts" and were referred to as the "semi-official" festival, it was not until the following year, 1948, that Robert Kemp, a Scottish playwright and journalist, is credited with coining the title "Fringe" when he wrote during the second Edinburgh International Festival: Round the fringe of official Festival drama, there seems to be more private enterprise than before... I am afraid some of us are not going to be at home during the evenings! The word "fringe" had in fact been used in a review of Everyman in 1947, when a critic remarked it was a shame the show was so far out "on the fringe of the Festival".
In 1950, it was still being referred to in similar terms, with a small'f': On the fringe of the official Festival there are many praiseworthy "extras," including presentations by the Scottish Community Drama Association and Edinburgh University Dramatic Society – Dundee Courier, 24 August 1950 The Fringe did not benefit from any official organisation until 1951, when students of the University of Edinburgh set up a drop-in centre in the YMCA, where cheap food and a bed for the night were made available to participating groups. Late night revues, which would become a feature of Fringes, began to appear in the early 50s; the first one was the New Drama Group's After The Show, a series of sketches taking place after Donald Pleasence's Ebb Tide, in 1952. Among the talent to appear in early Fringe revues were Ned Sherrin in 1955, Ken Loach and Dudley Moore with the Oxford Theatre Group in 1958. Due to many reviewers only being able to attend Fringe events late night after the official festival was finished, the Fringe came to be seen as being about revues.
It was a few years. John Menzies compiled a list of shows under the title "Other Events" in their omnibus festival brochure, but it was printer C. J. Cousland, the first to publish a listings guide, in 1954; this was funded by participating companies and was entitled "Additional Entertainments", since the name "Fringe" was still not yet in regular usage. By that year, the Fringe was attracting around a dozen companies, a meeting was held to discuss creating "a small organisation to act as a brain for the Fringe", or what The Scotsman called an "official unofficial festival". A first attempt was made to provide a central booking service in 1955 by students from the university, although it lost money, blamed on those who had not taken part. Formal organisation progressed with the formation of the Festival Fringe Society; the push for such an organisation was led by director of Oxford Theatre Group. A constitution was drawn up, in which the policy of not vetting or censoring shows was set out, the Society produced the first guide to Fringe shows.
Nineteen companies participated in the Fringe in that year. By that time it provided a "complete... counter-festival programme". Not long after came the first complaints that the Fringe had become too big. Director Gerard Slevin claimed in 1961 that "it would be much better if only ten
The Molendinar Burn is a burn in Glasgow, Scotland. It was the site of the settlement that grew to become the kernel of Glasgow, where St Mungo founded his church in the 6th century, it was used to power the growing town's mills. Indeed, the word "molendinar" is defined as "relating to a mill or a person who works in or lives in a mill", its source is Frankfield Loch in Cardowan to the north-east of Glasgow. It was covered over in the 1870s; the point where it flowed into the Clyde caused silting, which allowed a ford to be made at the Saltmarket. This was dredged and bridges were constructed. Small parts of the burn are uncovered in the Molendinar Park and beside the old Great Eastern Hotel on Duke Street. Picture on Flickr 55.859653°N 4.234641°W / 55.859653.
The Celtic Football Club is a professional football club based in Glasgow, which plays in the Scottish Premiership. The club was founded in 1887 with the purpose of alleviating poverty in the immigrant Irish population in the East End of Glasgow, they played their first match in May 1888, a friendly match against Rangers which Celtic won 5–2. Celtic established themselves within Scottish football, winning six successive league titles during the first decade of the 20th century; the club enjoyed their greatest successes during the 1960s and 70s under Jock Stein when they won nine consecutive league titles and the 1967 European Cup. Celtic have won the Scottish league championship 49 times, most in 2017–18, their seventh consecutive championship, they have won the Scottish League Cup 18 times. The club's greatest season was 1966–67, when Celtic became the first British team to win the European Cup winning the Scottish league championship, the Scottish Cup, the League Cup and the Glasgow Cup. Celtic reached the 1970 European Cup Final and the 2003 UEFA Cup Final, losing in both.
Celtic have a long-standing fierce rivalry with Rangers, the clubs are known as the Old Firm, seen by some as the world's biggest football derby. The club's fanbase was estimated in 2003 as being around nine million worldwide, there are more than 160 Celtic supporters clubs in over 20 countries. An estimated 80,000 fans travelled to Seville for the 2003 UEFA Cup Final. Celtic Football Club was formally constituted at a meeting in St. Mary's church hall in East Rose Street, Glasgow, by Irish Marist Brother Walfrid on 6 November 1887, with the purpose of alleviating poverty in the East End of Glasgow by raising money for the charity Walfrid had instituted, the Poor Children's Dinner Table. Walfrid's move to establish the club as a means of fund-raising was inspired by the example of Hibernian, formed out of the immigrant Irish population a few years earlier in Edinburgh. Walfrid's own suggestion of the name Celtic was intended to reflect the club's Irish and Scottish roots and was adopted at the same meeting.
The club has The Bhoys. However, according to the Celtic press office, the newly established club was known to many as "the bold boys". A postcard from the early 20th century that pictured the team and read "The Bould Bhoys" is the first known example of the unique spelling; the extra h imitates the spelling system of Gaelic, wherein the letter b is accompanied by the letter h. On 28 May 1888, Celtic played their first official match against Rangers and won 5–2 in what was described as a "friendly encounter". Neil McCallum scored Celtic's first goal. Celtic's first kit consisted of a white shirt with a green collar, black shorts, emerald green socks; the original club crest was a simple green cross on a red oval background. In 1889 Celtic reached the final of the Scottish Cup, this was their first season in the competition, but lost 2–1 in the final. Celtic again reached the final of the Scottish Cup in 1892, but this time were victorious after defeating Queen's Park 5–1 in the final, the club's first major honour.
Several months the club moved to its new ground, Celtic Park, in the following season won the Scottish League Championship for the first time. In 1895, Celtic set the League record for the highest home score when they beat Dundee 11–0. In 1897, the club became a Private limited company and Willie Maley was appointed as the first'secretary-manager'. Between 1905 and 1910, Celtic won the Scottish League Championship six times in a row. In both 1907 and 1908 Celtic won the Scottish Cup, this was the first time a Scottish club had won the double. During World War I, Celtic won the league four times in a row, including 62 matches unbeaten between November 1915 and April 1917; the mid-1920s saw the emergence of Jimmy McGrory as one of the most prolific goalscorers in British football history. Over a sixteen-year playing career, he scored 550 goals in 547 games, a British goal-scoring record to this day. In January 1940, Willie Maley's retirement was announced, he was 71 years old and had served the club in varying roles for nearly 52 years as a player and as secretary-manager.
Jimmy McStay became manager of the club in February 1940. He spent over five years in this role, although due to the Second World War no official competitive league football took place during this time; the Scottish Football League and Scottish Cup were suspended and in their place regional league competitions were set up. Celtic did not do well during the war years, but did win the Victory in Europe Cup held in May 1945 as a one-off football tournament to celebrate Victory in Europe Day. Ex-player and captain Jimmy McGrory took over as manager in 1945. Under McGrory, Celtic defeated Arsenal, Manchester United and Hibernian to win the Coronation Cup, a one-off tournament held in May 1953 to commemorate the coronation of Elizabeth II, he led them to a League and Cup double in 1954. On 19 October 1957, Celtic defeated Rangers a record 7–1 in the final of the Scottish League Cup at Hampden Park in Glasgow, retaining the trophy they had won for the first time the previous year; the scoreline remains a record win in a British domestic cup final.
The years that followed, saw Celtic struggle and the club won no more trophies under McGrory. Former Celtic captain Jock Stein succeeded McGrory in 1965, he won the Scottish Cup with Celtic in his first few months at the club, led them to the League title the following season.1967 was Celtic's annus mirabilis. The club won every competition they entered: the Scot
Beer in Belgium
Beer in Belgium varies from pale lager to amber ales, lambic beers, Flemish red ales, sour brown ales, strong ales and stouts. In 2016, there were 224 active breweries in Belgium, including international companies, such as AB InBev, traditional breweries including Trappist monasteries. On average, Belgians drink 84 liters of beer each year, down from around 200 each year in 1900. Most beers are bought or served in bottles, rather than cans, every beer has its own branded, sometimes uniquely shaped, glass. In 2016, UNESCO inscribed Belgian beer culture on their list of the intangible cultural heritage of humanity. Brewing in Belgium dates back to at least the 12th century. Under the Catholic Church's permission, local French and Flemish abbeys brewed and distributed beer as a fund raising method; the low-alcohol beer of that time was preferred as a sanitary option to available drinking water. What are now traditional, artisanal brewing methods evolved, under abbey supervision, over the next seven centuries.
The Trappist monasteries that now brew beer in Belgium were occupied in the late 18th century by monks fleeing the French Revolution. However, the first Trappist brewery in Belgium did not start operation until 10 December 1836 fifty years after the Revolution; that beer was for the monks and is described as "dark and sweet." The first recorded sale of beer was on 1 June 1861. In the 16th and 17th centuries, a beer termed. Other kinds of beer brewed in Ghent were klein bier, dubbel bier, dubbele clauwaert and dusselaer. In Belgium, four types of fermentation methods are used for the brewing of beer, unique in the world. However, for good understanding of labels of Belgian beer and reference works about Belgian beer use different terms for the fermentation methods based on archaic or traditional jargon: Spontaneous fermentation with beers that are unique in Europe, "lambic" and the derived faro and kriek beers Warm fermentation is referred to as top or high fermentation for Trappist beers, white beers, most other special beers mixed fermentation for the type'old-brown' beers Cool fermentation is referred to as low fermentation for lager or pilsner Belgian beers have a range of colours, brewing methods, alcohol levels.
Beers brewed in Trappist monasteries are termed Trappist beers. For a beer to qualify for Trappist certification, the brewery must be in a monastery, the monks must play a role in its production and the policies and the profits from the sale must be used to support the monastery or social programs outside. Only twelve monasteries meet these qualifications, six of which are in Belgium, two in the Netherlands, one in Austria, one in the United States, one in Italy and one in England. Trappist beer is a controlled term of origin: it tells where the beers come from, it is not the name of a beer style. Beyond saying they are warm fermented, Trappist beers have little in common stylistically; the current Belgian Trappist producers are: Achel sells Achel 5 Blonde, Achel 5 Brune, Achel 8 Blonde, Achel 8 Brune, Extra Blonde, Extra Brune. Chimay sells Red Label, White Label and Blue Label, Chimay dorée Gold cap. Orval sells a "unique" dry-hopped 6.2% amber beer. Rochefort sells three dark beers, "6". "8" and "10".
Westmalle sells Dubbel and Tripel, Westvleteren sells Blue Cap and Yellow Cap. In addition to the above, a lower-strength beer is sometimes brewed for consumption by the brothers or sold on site; the designation "abbey beers" applied to any monastic or monastic-style beer. After introduction of an official Trappist beer designation by the International Trappist Association in 1997, it came to mean products similar in style or presentation to monastic beers. In other words, an Abbey beer may be: produced by a non-Trappist monastery—e.g. Benedictine; the requirements for registration under the logo include the monastery having control over certain aspects of the commercial operation, a proportion of profits going to the abbey or to its designated charities. Monastic orders other than the Trappists can be and are included in this arrangement; the "Abbey beer" logo and quality label is no longer used for beers given the name of a fictitious abbey, a vaguely monastic branding or a saint name without mentioning a specific monastery.
Some brewers may produce abbey-style beers such as dubbel or tripel, using such names but will refrain from using the term Abbey beer in their branding. What connoisseurs now recognize as Trappist breweries began operations in 1838. Several monasteries, maintained "working" breweries for 500+ years before the French regime disrupted religious life; some Abbey beers such as Affligem Abbey, whose name now appears on beers made by the Heineke
A keg is a small barrel. Traditionally, a wooden keg is made by a cooper and used to transport items such as nails, a variety of liquids. In recent times, a keg is constructed of stainless steel, it is used to store and serve beer. Other alcoholic or non-alcoholic drinks, carbonated or non-carbonated, may be housed in a keg as well. Carbonated drinks are kept under pressure in order to maintain carbon dioxide in solution, preventing the beverage from becoming flat. Beer kegs are made of stainless steel, or less of aluminium. A keg has a single opening on one end, called a "bung." A tube called. There is a self-closing valve, opened by the coupling fitting, attached when the keg is tapped. There is an opening at the top of the spear that allows gas to drive the beer out of the keg; the coupling fitting has one or two valves that control the flow of beer out of and gas into the keg. The keg must be in the upright position, that is, with the opening on top, for the beer to be dispensed. Kegs can be contrasted to casks, which have no spear.
Most major breweries now use internally speared kegs. A beer barrel was a standard size of 36 US gallons, as opposed to a wine barrel at 32 US gallons, or an oil barrel at 42 US gallons. Over the years barrel sizes have evolved and breweries throughout the world use different sized containers; when the content capacity of two kegs are equal—e.g. Metricized to 50 liters—the keg shape and keg tap system may differ greatly. Most U. S. brewers sell beer in 1⁄2 barrels of 15.5 gallons, 1⁄4 barrels of 7.75 gallons, 1⁄6 barrels of 5.17 gallons. Since keg sizes are not standardized, the keg cannot be used as a standard unit of measure for liquid volumes; this size standard varies from country to country and brewery to brewery with many countries using the metric system rather than U. S. gallons. A keg, or half-barrel is a 15.5 U. S. gallon vessel. A quarter-barrel has a volume of 7.75 U. S. gallons. A keg is a vessel smaller than a barrel. In the U. S. the terms half-barrel and quarter-barrel are derived from the U.
S. beer barrel defined as being equal to 31 U. S. gallons. A 15.5 U. S. gallon keg is equal to: 12.7 Imperial gallons 58.67 liters 103.25 Imperial pints 124 U. S. pints 496 U. S. gills 165 twelve fluid ounce drinks About 90 bombers About 6.88 24-unit cases of 12 fl oz cans About 5.5 30-racks of 12 fl oz cans 1,984 fluid ounces However, beer kegs can come in many sizes: In European countries the most common keg size is 50 liters. This includes the UK, which uses a non-metric standard keg of 11 imperial gallons, coincidentally equal to 50.007 litres. The German DIN 6647-1 and DIN 6647-2 have defined kegs in the sizes of 30 and 20 liters. A newer Euro regulation defines 50, 30, 25 and 20 liters where the keg shape is thicker but not as tall as the German keg specifications. In some areas it is common to refer to the size not in beers. In areas such as Germany, where the standard beer size is 0.5 liters, that means a 50-liter keg contains 100 beers. Accepted specifications for a standard keg are: There are two different types of tapping equipment that are available for kegs: party pumps and gas taps.
Party pumps utilize outside air. This causes the beer to oxidize. Kegs operating a party pump should be used within 18–24 hours so that the beer does not become unpalatable. Gas pumps may use CO2, although it is recommended to use a mixed gas so the beer does not get overcarbonated when being tapped for a long time. Gas pumps can preserve a keg up to 120 days with proper refrigeration; as with any pressurized container, a keg can cause injury at normal operating pressure, whether with compressed air or carbon dioxide: "The tapping system and pressure regulator both should be equipped with a pressure relief device. If you are not familiar with tapping equipment, consult your retailer..." In the US and Australia, kegs or beer coils are kept in a bucket of ice and/or water to keep the beer cool. European consumers, when not using a party pump use inline beer chillers to pour a beer in an ideal temperature for serving; those chillers also have their own air compressor for keg pressurization. A Cornelius keg was used by the soft drink industry, now used to store and dispense beer homebrewed.
Cornelius kegs were made by Cornelius, Inc. Since the arrival of newer technology such as bag-in-box packages soft drink bottlers have abandoned their Cornelius kegs making them available to hobbyists; the mini keg is a 5-liter keg produced for retail sales. Some brands come with a spout and pour from the bottom via gravity, while others may use a low cost pressurized tap. Mini kegs are not returned to the manufacturer for cleaning and refilling; the disposable kegs, being made of aluminum, may be recycled. In Canada, Molson brewery dubbed the mini keg "Bubba"; this name has now been genericized to apply to all 5-liter mini kegs in Canada. This might cause confusion, as a company called Bubba Keg is established in the U. S. and appears to not be associated with Molson. Today, mini kegs are available in liquor stores worldwide, with Heineken and Bitburger all adopting the des
Beck's Brewery known as Brauerei Beck & Co. is a brewery in the northern German city of Bremen. In 2001, Interbrew agreed to buy Brauerei Beck for 1.8 billion euros. US manufacture of Beck's Brew has been based in St. Louis, since early 2012 but some customers have rebelled against the US market version. Since 2008, it has been owned by the Interbrew subsidiary of Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV; the Beck's Art Label Campaign has offered artists the opportunity to provide designs to replace the brand's label. It started in London in 1987 with George; the artists created an art label, because Beck's sponsored their retrospective at the Hayward Gallery. The labels of the 2000 limited edition Beck's bottles were matching their exhibition poster. Other participants of the Art Label Campaign are members of the loose group "Young British Artists" and nominees or winners of the Turner Prize. Damien Hirst for example, designed a label for Beck's in 1995. In 2000, Tracey Emin created a label, which shows herself.
Rachel Whiteread designed a label in 1993, presenting her artwork "house", financed by Beck's. The Art Label Campaign has been parodied by Matthew Higgs, a member of the British art collective "Bank". In the Bank exhibition "The Charge of the Light Brigade" in 1995, he brewed a beer, called "Kunstlerbrau". In 2012, Beck's started giving young and independent musicians the opportunity to design a label for the Beck's bottle. Beck's summer 2009 limited-edition labels were designed by the musical groups Ladyhawke. Beer portal Companies portal Germany portal Official international site Heinrich Brugsch 1876 trip to the city of Philadelphia: Beck's Bier wins top prize Vintage Beck's Beer Advertisement from 1921