Concord coaches are horse-drawn coaches used as stagecoaches, which employ a style of suspension and construction suited to North America's early 19th century roads. Leather thoroughbraces suspend passengers; the swaying is accepted by passengers for the shock absorbing action of the leather straps and for the way the special motion eases the coach over rough patches of roadway. The coaches were first developed and built by coachbuilder J Stephen Abbot and wheelwright Lewis Downing of Concord, New Hampshire, they were high-end, expensive vehicles, the cost was justifiable by long service life. The throughbrace suspension reduced stresses on improved passenger comfort. Abbot and Downing's Concord design replaced European designs which had short useful lives under punishing North American conditions, they were exported to South Africa. Railroads began replacing stagecoaches in the middle of the 19th century, but Concord coaches remained in commercial use into the 20th century and continue to be used in parades and for publicity purposes by Wells Fargo Bank.
Concord coaches could stand over 9 feet tall. Timber: white oak and basswood braced with iron bands. Iron fittings. Leather and canvas; the undercarriage supports. The two axles are tied together by a firm undercarriage braced by three straight perches and given a slim transom; each end of each transom holds an upright metal standard from. The back wheels have brake blocks acting on the iron tires; the driver controls them with a foot lever to his right at the side of his footboard. The body needs to make no contribution to the rigidity of the undercarriage and so is more constructed than was the custom for European vehicles; this lightness eases progress on the rough roads. There are three bench seats accommodating up to nine people though models to seat six and twelve passengers were available; the benches at the front and back of the body have limited headroom. Passengers on the center bench are given no backrest but steady themselves with a broad leather harness suspended across the coach by straps from the roof.
Another six passengers can travel in the open air on the body's roof. There is an external luggage compartment or boot at the back of the body and another boot for valuables below the driver's seat at the front. Windows are glazed, but in the 19th century the glass did not withstand hard overland mail trails of the western United States. A Concord Coach in Hadley Farm Museum, Massachusetts The leading horses are known as the lead horses; the wheel horses or wheelers are the back pair nearest the coach's wheels. The number of horses four or six, could be more. Two horses alone would soon tire, it is not possible to guide a Concord coach with European-style precision. The Concord body continuously shifts; the driver or coachman has to sit askew and brace himself with the aid of a steeply angled footboard. He cannot keep his reins in a steady contact with the horses' mouths, he has to bend his arms and elbows to compensate, his body always leans forward. He holds his left reins in his left hand and his right reins — separated by his middle finger — in his right hand and not all in one hand like a European could.
It is easy to slacken an individual rein but much more difficult to shorten it. His right hand has to control his whip used on the wheel horses. If obliged to make his right hand free he must lay all the right hand reins in his left hand unseparated; the horses were harnessed loosely by European standards because without proper roads the horses had to be allowed to avoid their particular obstacles. The Concord pole, though mounted to allow far more play, moved less; the result was the coach's direction was straighter than with a European coach, it did not respond to every irregularity in the road. Concord coaches were expensive. Abbot-Downing supplied a much simpler and less expensive vehicle which they named Overland wagon and Western passenger wagon; these are the vehicles which opened up the stage routes of the U. S. West. Abbot-Downing Historical Society Concord Coach #472; this is the 9 feet high 12 interior passenger version scroll down Smithsonian video about US coaching
Old Sacramento State Historic Park
Old Sacramento State Historic Park is located within the Old Sacramento Historic District of Sacramento, California. It is referred to as Old Sacramento, or Old Sac, since the 1960s has been restored and developed as a significant tourist attraction; the Old Sacramento Historic District is a U. S. National Historic Landmark District; the city of Sacramento grew up in the mid-nineteenth century as a development from Sutter's Fort. However, the Fort was some distance from the Sacramento River, the main means of transport to the coast of California, the area that would become the modern city developed along the waterfront. Before Sacramento's extensive levee system was in place, the area flooded quite regularly; because of this, the city's streets were raised a level. Most of the sidewalks and storefronts have been filled in. By the 1960s, the area had fallen into disrepute. A large effort was made to secure the area's future as an outdoor living history center similar to Colonial Williamsburg in Virginia.
Several significant buildings were moved or reconstructed. Those that were beyond repair were demolished. Today, the Old Sacramento Historic District covers the area between the river frontage and Interstate 5, between I Street and the Capitol Mall; the State Historic Park comprises about a third of the total acreage of the district including half of the waterfront, a large grassy area and railroad features. All the buildings in this area date from the 19th century, the most notable dating back to the period after the disastrous fire of 1852, show a reasonable approximation of their original appearance, though they have required varying degrees of reconstruction to restore to them to that state. However, few if any still serve their original purpose, most of them now housing restaurants, gift shops, or other businesses catering to tourists. Old Sacramento State Historic Park attracts over 5 million visitors annually. Regular events include the Sacramento Music Festival, Gold Rush Days, New Year's Eve events, the St. Patrick's Day Parade, the World Music and Dance Festival and Mardi Gras.
While the architecture from this period is attributed to Victorian gold miners, characteristics of West End, such as multi-storied buildings, large arched doorways, full-height balcony windows and the use of decorative wrought-iron balconies, were most ubiquitous in parts of Spain and the Spanish colonies. This influence may be attributed to the fact that the period of Spanish Mexican, rule in California enjoyed immigration from all over the Atlantic, including Spain and the Canary Islands, the Spanish colonies; the architecture of Old Town Sacramento exhibits observable characteristics similar to that of San Juan, Tampico, Santa Cruz de Teneriffe, Madrid. While the architectural style of Old Sacramento, with its wrought iron balconies and evenly spaced full-height windows may remind one of Paris, Sacramento's oldest buildings predate the Haussmann Projects that renovated large areas of Paris in that style. Notable buildings include: B. F. Hastings Building, the National Historic Landmarked western terminal of the Pony Express and the first location of the California Supreme Court.
Lady Adams Building - oldest non-residential building in Old Sacramento and is California Historical Landmark No. 603. Sacramento Engine Company No. 3, the oldest remaining firehouse in Sacramento Old Sacramento Schoolhouse Museum Eagle Theatre - only survived from 1849 to 1850 but has been reconstructed Booth Buildings hens Booth's residence on Front Street, the first U. S. governor's mansion in California. Morse BuildingThe first two are individually designated National Historic Landmarks; the district contains many memorials to the founders of the city and of the California and transcontinental railroad and other transport systems, including the Theodore Judah monument and the Pony Express Statue. Old Sacramento is the site of the California State Railroad Museum, the California State Military Museum, the Sacramento History Museum, the Wells Fargo History Museum and the Old Sacramento Interpretive Center. Other attractions available for visitors include rides in horse-drawn carriages, historic trains from the former Central Pacific Railroad passenger station, cruises on historic riverboats.
A historic sternwheel riverboat, the Delta King, is moored in the river and serves as a hotel and theater. The Sacramento Valley Rail Station is just a short walk away; the Old Sacramento Historical Foundation manages several programs to highlight the history of the city, including historical reenactments by costumed docents, as well as tours of Old Sacramento's underground level. During October, there is a special Halloween themed ghost tour; every Labor Day weekend, Old Sacramento holds its annual Gold Rush Days. During this time, the paved streets are covered with several tons of dirt and automobile traffic is barred from the area. Old Sac's regular corps of costumed docents is supplemented by extra volunteers and professional reenactors to recreate life in Sacramento as it was in the mid to late 1800s. Old Sacramento State Historic Park - official site Old Sacramento Living History Program
Wells Fargo Plaza (Phoenix)
The Wells Fargo Plaza is a high-rise skyscraper located on 100 West Washington Street in Downtown Phoenix, United States. It opened as the First National Bank Plaza on October 25, 1971, was known as the First Interstate Bank Building, it is 372 feet tall. It is designed in the Brutalist style, an architectural style spawned from the International Style; the “raw concrete” element of Brutalist architecture allows for no exterior finish which exposes the rough concrete columns and beams. The tower sits on a base three stories high rises to its full height; the repetitive angular windows add another Brutalist element of blocky appearance and expression of structure. The Wells Fargo History Museum is on the first floor. Exhibits include an extensive collection of western-themed art depicting Wells Fargo's role in the mines of Arizona, a 19th-century stagecoach, telegraph equipment and minerals. Http://www.wellsfargohistory.com/museums/museums_ph.htm http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=wellsfargoplaza-phoenix-az-usa http://www.coppersquare.com
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2017, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and 45th-largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 422,331; the Twin Cities metropolitan area consists of Minneapolis, its neighbor Saint Paul, suburbs which altogether contain about 3.6 million people, is the third-largest economic center in the Midwest. Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital; the city is abundantly rich in water, with 13 lakes, the Mississippi River and waterfalls. It was once a hub for timber; the city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Seattle. In 2011, Minneapolis proper was home to the fifth-highest number of Fortune 500 headquarters in the United States; as an integral link to the global economy, Minneapolis is categorized as a global city.
Minneapolis has one of the largest LGBT populations in the U. S. proportional to its overall population. Noted for its strong music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. Reflecting the region's status as an epicenter of folk and alternative rock music, the city served as the launching pad for several of the 20th century's most influential musicians, including Bob Dylan and Prince. Minneapolis has become noted for its underground and independent hip-hop and rap scenes, producing artists such as Brother Ali and Dessa; the name Minneapolis is attributed to Charles Hoag, the city's first schoolmaster, who combined mni, a Dakota Sioux word for water, polis, the Greek word for city. Descendants of first peoples, Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents when French explorers arrived in 1680. For a time, amicable relations were based on fur trading. More European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Native Americans.
After the Revolutionary War, Great Britain granted the land east of the Mississippi to the United States. In the early 19th century, the United States acquired land to the west from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Fort Snelling, just south of present-day Minneapolis, was built in 1819 by the United States Army, it attracted traders and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, allowing people arriving from the East to settle there. Preoccupied with the Civil War, the United States government reneged on its promises of cash payments to the Dakota, resulting in hunger, the Dakota War of 1862, internment and hardship; the Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town in 1856, on the Mississippi's west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the year rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago, it joined with the east-bank city of St. Anthony in 1872. Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River and a source of power for its early industry.
Forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, mills for cotton, paper and planing wood. Due to the occupational hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s; the farmers of the Great Plains grew grain, shipped by rail to the city's 34 flour mills. Millers have used hydropower elsewhere since the 1st century B. C. but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were so remarkable the city has been described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has seen." A father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Washburn converted his business from gristmills to revolutionary technology, including "gradual reduction" processing by steel and porcelain roller mills capable of producing premium-quality pure white flour quickly.
Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from Hungary by William de la Barre. Charles A. Pillsbury and the C. A. Pillsbury Company across the river were a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to use the new methods; the hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable, Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best in the world. Not until did consumers discover the value in the bran that "... Minneapolis flour millers dumped" into the Mississippi. After 1883, a Minneapolis miller started a new industry when he began to sell bran byproduct as animal feed. Millers cultivated relationships with academic scientists at the University of Minnesota; those scientists backed them politically on many issues, such as in the early 20th century when health advocates in the nascent field of nutrition criticized the flour "bleaching" process. At peak production, a single mill at Washburn-Crosby made enough flour for 12 million loaves of bread each day.
Further, by 1895, through the efforts of silent partner William Hood Dunwoody, Washburn-Crosby exported four
Charlotte, North Carolina
Charlotte is the most populous city in the U. S. state of North Carolina. Located in the Piedmont, it is the county seat of Mecklenburg County. In 2017, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated the population was 859,035, making it the 17th-most populous city in the United States; the Charlotte metropolitan area's population ranks 22nd in the U. S. and had a 2016 population of 2,474,314. The Charlotte metropolitan area is part of a sixteen-county market region or combined statistical area with a 2016 census-estimated population of 2,632,249. Between 2004 and 2014, Charlotte was ranked as the country's fastest-growing metro area, with 888,000 new residents. Based on U. S. Census data from 2005 to 2015, it tops the 50 largest U. S. cities as the millennial hub. It is the second-largest city in the southeastern United States, just behind Florida, it is the third-fastest-growing major city in the United States. It is listed as a "gamma" global city by World Cities Research Network. Residents are referred to as "Charlotteans".
Charlotte is home to the corporate headquarters of Bank of America and the east coast operations of Wells Fargo, which along with other financial institutions has made it the second-largest banking center in the United States since 1995. Among Charlotte's many notable attractions, some of the most popular include the Carolina Panthers of the NFL, the Charlotte Hornets of the NBA, the Charlotte Checkers of the AHL, the Charlotte Independence of the USL, the Charlotte Hounds of Major League Lacrosse, two NASCAR Cup Series races and the NASCAR All-Star Race, the Wells Fargo Championship, the NASCAR Hall of Fame, the Charlotte Ballet, Children's Theatre of Charlotte, Carowinds amusement park, the U. S. National Whitewater Center. Charlotte has a humid subtropical climate, it is located several miles east of the Catawba River and southeast of Lake Norman, the largest man-made lake in North Carolina. Lake Wylie and Mountain Island Lake are two smaller man-made lakes located near the city; the Catawba Native Americans were the first known historic tribe to settle Mecklenburg County and were first recorded around 1567 in Spanish records.
By 1759 half the Catawba tribe had died from smallpox, endemic among Europeans, because the Catawba had no acquired immunity to the new disease. At the time of their largest population, Catawba people numbered 10,000, but by 1826 their total population had dropped to 110; the European-American city of Charlotte was developed first by a wave of migration of Scots-Irish Presbyterians, or Ulster-Scot settlers from Northern Ireland, who dominated the culture of the Southern Piedmont Region. They made up the principal founding European population in the backcountry. German immigrants settled the area before the American Revolutionary War, but in much smaller numbers, they still contributed to the early foundations of the region. Mecklenburg County was part of Bath County of New Hanover Precinct, which became New Hanover County in 1729; the western portion of New Hanover split into Bladen County in 1734, its western portion splitting into Anson County in 1750. Mecklenburg County formed from Anson County in 1762.
Further apportionment was made in 1792, after the American Revolutionary War, with Cabarrus County formed from Mecklenburg. In 1842, Union County formed from Mecklenburg's southeastern portion and a western portion of Anson County; these areas were all part of one of the original six judicial/military districts of North Carolina known as the Salisbury District. The area, now Charlotte was settled by people of European descent around 1755, when Thomas Spratt and his family settled near what is now the Elizabeth neighborhood. Thomas Polk, who married Thomas Spratt's daughter, built his house by the intersection of two Native American trading paths between the Yadkin and Catawba rivers. One path was part of the Great Wagon Road. Nicknamed the "Queen City", like its county a few years earlier, Charlotte was named in honor of German princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who had become the Queen Consort of Great Britain and Ireland in 1761, seven years before the town's incorporation. A second nickname derives from the American Revolutionary War, when British commander General Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis occupied the city but was driven out by hostile residents.
He wrote that Charlotte was "a hornet's nest of rebellion", leading to the nickname "The Hornet's Nest". Within decades of Polk's settling, the area grew to become "Charlotte Town", incorporating in 1768; the crossroads in the Piedmont became the heart of Uptown Charlotte. In 1770, surveyors marked the streets in a grid pattern for future development; the east–west trading path became Trade Street, the Great Wagon Road became Tryon Street, in honor of William Tryon, a royal governor of colonial North Carolina. The intersection of Trade and Tryon—commonly known today as "Trade & Tryon," or "The Square"—is more properly called "Independence Square". While surveying the boundary between the Carolinas in 1772, William Moultrie stopped in Charlotte Town, whose five or six houses were "very ordinary built of logs". Local leaders came together in 1775 and signed the Mecklenburg Resolves, more popularly known as the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. While not a true declaration of independence from British rule, it is among the first such declarations that led to the American Revolution.
May 20, the traditional date of the signing of the declaration, is celebrated annually in Charlotte as "MecDec", with musket and cannon fire by reenactors in Independence Square. North Carolina's state flag and state seal bea
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Wells Fargo Center (Minneapolis)
The Wells Fargo Center known as Norwest Center, is the third-tallest building in Minneapolis, after the IDS Center and the Capella Tower. Completed in 1988, it is 774 feet tall. For many years, this was believed to be one foot shorter than Capella, but that structure had a different height. Norwest Center was designed with a modernized art deco style by César Pelli, reflecting nearby structures such as the nearby CenturyLink Building and the Foshay Tower, several blocks away, it is considered by many to be a homage to the Comcast Building at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City. Wells Fargo Center sits on the site of the old Northwestern National Bank Building, destroyed in a fire in 1982; the original design called for a 45-story tower with a square footprint that would have been crowned the tallest building in Minneapolis. Northwestern National, renamed Norwest Corporation, maintained its headquarters here. Despite Norwest's adoption of the Wells Fargo identity after acquiring the latter and moving to San Francisco in 1998, significant regional operations are still maintained in this building.
Other major tenants include the law firm of Faegre Baker Daniels and the local office of accounting firm KPMG. It is brilliantly lit at night from sunset through midnight, with floodlamps pointing up from the setback rooftops to illuminate the sides of the building. Despite this, it is still much more energy efficient than the previous building and in 2000, it was recognized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as one of the 100 most energy efficient buildings in the USA. In 1989, the building was praised by the Urban Land Institute, who honored it with their Award for Excellence in Large Scale Office Development, it is located at 90 South 7th Street. Gaviidae Common, a neighboring shopping center, was designed by Pelli and built at the same time. A branch of the Wells Fargo History Museum is located in the skyway level; the museum's exhibits include telegraph equipment, gold nuggets and coins. The building is owned by Hines. List of tallest buildings in Minnesota Wells Fargo Center Emporis: Wells Fargo Center Glass and Steel and Stone: Architecture of the Wells Fargo Center