Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector, light and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen. The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage, culture, and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian, Cambric and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh
Promotion and relegation
In sports leagues, promotion and relegation is a process where teams are transferred between two divisions based on their performance for the completed season. In some leagues, playoffs or qualifying rounds are used to determine rankings. This process can continue through several levels of divisions, with teams being exchanged between levels 1 and 2, levels 2 and 3, levels 3 and 4, the number of teams exchanged between the divisions is almost always identical. Such variations will almost inevitably cause an effect through the lower divisions. Even in the absence of such circumstances, the pyramid-like nature of most European football league systems can still create knock-on effects at the regional level. The system is said to be the characteristic of the European form of professional sports league organization. Promotion and relegation have the effect of allowing the maintenance of a hierarchy of leagues and divisions and they also maintain the importance of games played by many low-ranked teams near the end of the season, which may be at risk of relegation. In contrast, a low-ranked US or Canadian teams final games serve little purpose, although not intrinsic to the system, problems can occur due to the differing monetary payouts and revenue-generating potential that different divisions provide to their clubs. For example, financial hardship has sometimes occurred in leagues where clubs do not reduce their wage bill once relegated, some leagues offer parachute payments to its relegated teams for the following year. The payouts are higher than the money received by some non-relegated teams and are designed to soften the financial hit that clubs take whilst dropping out of the Premier League. However, in many cases these parachute payments just serve to inflate the costs of competing for promotion among the lower division clubs as newly relegated teams retain a financial advantage. If these are not satisfied, a team may be promoted in their place. While the primary purpose of the system is to maintain competitive balance. On several occasions, the Italian Football Federation has relegated clubs found to have involved in match-fixing. This occurred most recently in 2006, when the initial champions Juventus were relegated to Serie B. An exception is the proposed UEFA Nations League, which will feature promotion and relegation across four levels, in tennis, the Davis Cup has promotion and relegation where each group uses a knockout tournament format in which first-round losers play off to avoid relegation. In the United States, Canada, and Australia, teams are not promoted or relegated. The USL set up two leagues, now known as the United Soccer League and the Premier Development League, although the system is now in place, it is not compulsory and is rarely used
South Wales is the region of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the north and west. The most densely populated region in the southwest of the United Kingdom, the Brecon Beacons national park covers about a third of South Wales, containing Pen y Fan, the highest mountain south of Snowdonia. Areas to the north of the Brecon Beacons and Black Mountains are generally considered part of Mid Wales, the expression south Wales is not officially defined, and its meaning has changed over time. Between the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284 and the Laws in Wales Act 1535 and this was divided into a Principality of South Wales and a Principality of North Wales. The southern principality was made up of the counties of Ceredigion and Carmarthenshire, the legal responsibility for this area lay in the hands of the Justiciar of South Wales based at Carmarthen. Other parts of southern Wales were in the hands of various Marcher Lords, the Laws in Wales Acts 1542 created the Court of Great Sessions in Wales based on four legal circuits. The Brecon circuit served the counties of Brecknockshire, Radnorshire and Glamorgan while the Carmarthen circuit served Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire, Monmouthshire was attached to the Oxford circuit for judicial purposes. These seven southern counties were thus differentiated from the six counties of north Wales, the Court of the Great Sessions came to an end in 1830, but the counties survived until the Local Government Act 1972 which came into operation in 1974. The creation of the county of Powys merged one northern county with two southern ones, there are thus different concepts of south Wales. Glamorgan and Monmouthshire are generally accepted by all as being in south Wales, but the status of Breconshire or Carmarthenshire, for instance, is more debatable. In the western extent, from Swansea westwards, local people might feel that they live in both south Wales and west Wales, areas to the north of the Brecon Beacons and Black Mountains are generally considered to be in Mid Wales. A further point of uncertainty is whether the first element of the name should be capitalized, as the name is a geographical expression rather than a specific area with well-defined borders, style guides such as those of the BBC and The Guardian use the form south Wales. The most densely populated region in the southwest of the United Kingdom, the Brecon Beacons national park covers about a third of South Wales, containing Pen y Fan, the highest mountain south of Snowdonia. This natural beauty changed to an extent during the early Industrial Revolution when the Glamorgan and Monmouthshire valley areas were exploited for coal. By the 1830s, hundreds of tons of coal were being transported by barge to ports in Cardiff, lord Bute then charged fees per ton of coal that was transported out using his railways. Whilst some of the left, many settled and established in the South Wales Valleys between Swansea and Abergavenny as English-speaking communities with a unique identity. Industrial workers were housed in cottages and terraced houses close to the mines and foundries in which they worked. The large influx over the years caused overcrowding which led to outbreaks of Cholera, and on the social and cultural side and this number is now very low, following the UK miners strike, and the last traditional deep-shaft mine, Tower Colliery, closed in January 2008
Cardiff Metropolitan University
Cardiff Metropolitan University, formerly University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, is a university situated in Cardiff, Wales. It operates from two campuses, Llandaff on Western Avenue and Cyncoed campus on Cyncoed Road, the university has over 12,000 students. The university offers courses in a variety of disciplines. Study is available at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, full-time and part-time,1865 – The School of Art opened in the Old Free Library Building, St Marys Street. 1900- School of Art moved to the Technical Buildings in Dumfries Place,1940 – Cardiff College of Food Technology and Commerce opened at Crwys Road. 1949 – The School of Art moved to The Friary,1950 – Cardiff Training College opened at Heath Park. 1954 – Llandaff Technical College opened at Western Avenue, home to health sciences, design,1962 – Cardiff Training College moved to Cyncoed, now home to the Schools of Education and Sport. 1965 – The College of Art moved to a new Campus in Howard Gardens,1966 – Cardiff College of Food Technology and Commerce moved to a new Colchester Avenue Campus, home to management, business, leisure, hospitality, tourism and food students. 1976 – The four colleges merged to form South Glamorgan Institute of Higher Education,1990 – Name changed to Cardiff Institute of Higher Education in preparation for Incorporation. 1992 – The Institute joined the University of Wales as an autonomous body,1993 – Teaching Degree Awarding Powers granted by the Privy Council. The Institute was given the power to award its own degrees in August but placed the powers in abeyance,1996 – Granted University College status within the University of Wales and named the University of Wales Institute, Cardiff. 1999 – National Indoor Athletic Centre opened at the Cyncoed Campus,2003 – Became a Constituent Institution of the University of Wales. Professor Tony Chapman becomes Senior Vice-Chancellor and Chief Executive of the University of Wales 2005 – Enters into, a vote of no confidence is passed by the staff in the Vice Chancellor Professor Tony Chapman. 2006 – London School of Commerce became an Associate College,2008 – Awarded for a record fifth time by the Cabinet Office the Charter Mark and also recognised by the Quality Assurance Agency for the high quality of academic procedures. 2009 – Launch of the UWIC Foundation to advance the highest quality of teaching, the opening of the Food Industry Centre at Llandaff with a multi purpose Campus Centre to be unveiled at Cyncoed in the Autumn. 2010 – In October the new building for the Cardiff School of Management opened in Llandaff with the closure of the Colchester Avenue campus, also at Llandaff, the refurbished campus centre and the new i-zone reception areas were opened. 2011 – In June the new Learning Centre on the Llandaff campus was officially opened, starts and then ends merger talks with Swansea Metropolitan and Trinity St David Universities. In November UWIC formally ended its association with the University of Wales and was renamed Cardiff Metropolitan University, under its previous name, the university had its degrees awarded by the University of Wales
Barry Town United F.C.
Barry Town United Football Club is an association football team based in Barry. They are known for representing Wales in Europe as winners of the Welsh Premier League and Welsh Cup during the 1990s and early 2000s, the team, which has contained more than 50 full internationals, is now run by supporters. They play at their home of Jenner Park, Barry. Barry Town Uniteds history dates back to 1892 when a football team named Barry. During the early years, this side endured many upheavals, playing on five different grounds under various identities, including Barry Unionist Athletic, Barry United Athletic and Barry District. Players who featured during these years included Ted Vizard and Billy Jennings, in November 1912, a meeting at The Windsor public house in Holton Road saw townsfolk choose to pursue membership of the thriving Southern League as Barry AFC. The club would secure land owned by the Jenner family and the people of the came together to build Jenner Park. On 6 September 1913, Barry played their first ever fixture, the game attracted 4,000 spectators, including 1,000 travelling supporters. Fittingly, the new team would register a surprise, albeit merited, victory, with Barrys Ralph Isherwood scoring the very first goal at Jenner Park just three minutes in. His second, midway through the half, sealed a 2–1 victory, a fine start for the Barry side on, coincidentally. The ensuing two seasons would see Stoke City, Brentford, Coventry City and others visit the new ground, however, the Great War would soon interrupt any competitive proceedings, with Barry captain Major James Wightman one of the many casualties of The Battle of the Somme. The 1920–21 season ranks as one of the finest in Barrys history, the achievement was all the more impressive when considering the small Barry squad played over 100 matches in all competitions during the course of the season. Competing simultaneously in both the Welsh and Western League, the Barry board gave priority to Southern League fixtures, Barry retained membership of the Southern League for more than 60 years – their highest finish being fourth in the 1930s. Among the notable players of the era were Johnny Gardner, Dai Ward, meanwhile, Barry-born sportsman Ernie Carless combined his footballing exploits with a successful cricketing career with Glamorgan. At the end of the 1920s, a crowd of 6,000 at Upton Park saw Barry beat Dagenham 1–0 to progress to the FA Cup 2nd Round and it proved to be their most successful run in the competition. Barry would reach the 1st Round again in 1934–35, losing 1–0 to Northampton Town at Jenner Park, Football again took a backseat in 1939, with the eruption of World War II. In the 1949–50 season, Jenner Park became one of the first grounds in the country to introduce floodlights, with Newport County, Swansea City, two seasons later, an all-Welsh showdown in the FA Cup 1st Round saw Barry beaten by Newport, 4–0. Nevertheless, the town’s most celebrated footballing achievement was right around the corner, in May 1955, following a 1–1 draw at the Racecourse in Wrexham, Barry beat Chester City 4–3 at Ninian Park to lift the Welsh Cup for the first time
The Welsh Cup is a knock-out football competition contested annually by teams in the Welsh football league system. The Football Association of Wales is the body of this competition. The winning team qualifies to play in the following seasons UEFA Europa League, until 1995, Welsh clubs playing in the Welsh or English leagues were invited to play in the Welsh Cup. On occasion some English clubs, mostly those from border areas such as Shrewsbury, Hereford, however, in the event of an English club winning the Welsh Cup, they were not allowed to progress to the European Cup Winners Cup. Instead, the best placed Welsh club in the Welsh Cup competition would take the European place, from 1996 to 2011, only clubs playing in the Welsh football league system were allowed to enter the Welsh Cup. This rule excluded the six Welsh clubs who played in the English football league system, Cardiff City, Colwyn Bay, Merthyr Tydfil Town, Newport County, Swansea City and Wrexham. On 20 April 2011, the Football Association of Wales invited these six clubs to rejoin the Welsh Cup for the 2011–12 season, between the 1961–62 and 1984–85 seasons, the final was played as a two-leg match, originally on a points basis rather than aggregate score. In the 1985–86 season, it reverted to a game, to be decided by extra time. The last English winner of the Welsh Cup was Hereford United in 1990, for a list of Welsh Cup finals including venue and attendance information see List of Welsh Cup finals
Welsh Football League
The Welsh Football League is a club football league in Wales. Division One of the Welsh Football League is at Level 2 of the Welsh football league system, the Welsh Football Leagues history stretches back to 1904 when the competition was first formed and Aberdare were crowned first champions of a seven-team First Division. Abergavenny were champions of Division 2 and Trelewis the winners of Division 3 and its current title was adopted in 1912 when it changed from the Glamorgan League. Prior to that it was known as the Rhymney Valley League, during the early days of the Rhymney Valley and Glamorgan Leagues there was also the South Wales League but this competition had no connection with the origins of the Welsh Football League. The Cymru Alliance and feeder leagues to the Cymru Alliance are its equivalent in North Wales and it also has its own knock-out competition, the Nathaniel Car Sales Welsh Football League Cup. Cardiff City Reserves has the record of trophies won with 7 titles, in April 1904 the Merthyr Express newspaper reported that a new football league would be formed in addition to the South Wales League which had been in existence since 1891. Interest in the new league was high and the formation of three divisions attracted no fewer than 25 clubs, including Corinthians from Cardiff. Seven clubs formed the new top division and Aberdare were crowned as the inaugural champions, the league is made up of three divisions each having 16 clubs. There is promotion and relegation between the divisions, with the top three teams in each division being promoted to the one above and the three being relegated to the one below. The winner of the First Division may be promoted to the national Welsh Premier League and this number totalled four in 2011, despite only two teams being promoted, in order for the three divisions to number 16 clubs. This division has changed its name on numerous occasions,22 Clubs won Top Division of the Welsh League in South Wales
Ammanford A. F. C. is a football club from Ammanford, Carmarthenshire in Wales. They are members of the Welsh Football League and currently play in the Welsh Football League Division Three and they are now based at the Recreation Ground in Ammanford. The club is affiliated to the Football Association of Wales, West Wales Football Association, Welsh Football League, Football was played in the Ammanford and Betws parish in the 1920s by Ammanford Thursdays. In the 1930s Ammanford Corinthians played on Betws Park, Betws Blackbirds football team was founded circa 1946, later joining the Carmarthenshire League. The club were lected to the Welsh league and in 1952 reached the final of the West Wales Amateur Cup, in the 1958/9 season they won promotion to the first division. In 1960 the club changed their name to Ammanford Town, to avoid confusion with similarly named teams and they merged with Ammanford Athletic A. F. C. in 1992, changing their name to Ammanford A. F. C. The club reached the round of the Welsh Cup in 1991
Garden Village A.F.C.
Garden Village Association Football Club is a football club, based in Swansea, south west Wales and currently playing in the Welsh Football League Division Two. The club is affiliated to the Football Association of Wales, West Wales Football Association, Welsh Football League, garden Village A. F. C. was founded in 1922 and started playing football at Swansea League level before joining the Carmarthenshire Football League midway through the 20th century. The Second Division proved to be a tougher test for Village. After a number of seasons in Division Two, where the club never finished outside of the top 8 positions and we remained in top division for two seasons but, unfortunately, a poor season in 2010/11 saw us relegated back into Division Two. In the summer of 2013 the club made a decision to appoint a management team from outside of the club, steve Price was appointed manager and with his newly formed team gained promotion at their first attempt finishing a creditable third. Working together with our junior section this will now give our younger players a ladder to work their way into senior football from junior levels, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Monmouth Town F.C.
Monmouth Town Football Club is a Welsh football club based in the historic town of Monmouth. The team currently play in the Welsh Football League Division One, the Monmouthshire Beacon reports on 7 October 1876 that Monmouth Town FC will commence its season on 12 October. There is evidence to suggest that an ’association club’ was playing in all white at Dixton Road in the town in the year 1906, the Monmouth Beacon of 14 December recalls this and adds a comment about a period when football had been extinct in Monmouth. Indeed, research shows that Monmouth were joint champions of the Monmouth, nearly 20 years later, in 1958, the Town lifted the Monmouthshire Amateur cup beating Cefn Fforest 3–0 at Pontllanfraith. The following season saw victories in both the Monmouthshire senior and Monmouth Amateur cups, towns only appearance in the FA Cup was a 2nd preliminary round defeat away at Llanelli on 6 October 1945. More recently the Town were relegated to the tier of the Gwent County just three years ago. The returning Andrew Smith took up the reins and gained promotion in his first season in charge finishing runners up to Rogerstone, at the beginning of 2005–06 season the club adopted ‘the Kingfishers’ nickname and logo in homage to a peculiar legend outlined later. The season ended with fourteen match winning run as Town clinched the Gwent County Division Two title ahead of Newport Civil Service, 2006–07 almost saw a repeat but were Town were pipped by Civil for the title. However, The Kingfishers were offered the chance to take the step into the Welsh league for the first time in their history and their first ever season in Division One ended with a seventh-place finish after topping the table as late as March. The Kingfishers were also finalists in the Gwent Senior Cup for the first time since 1940, a sixth-place finish was offset by winning the Gwent Senior cup for the first time since 1940 in a stunning 8–0 win against Panteg. During the four rounds Town scored 22 goals with just 2 against, the club is a member of Gwent County F. A. On 8 August 2011, Monmouth Town F. C. entered into an agreement to be purchased by internet venture fivepoundfootballclub. com, in September 2011 the Club established itself as a Community Interest Company, the first of its kind in Wales. The clubs rally cry is Kingfishers All The Way, the main colours for Monmouth Town F. C. are yellow and blue, which have been used throughout their recent history. The Monmouth Town F. C. crest is a yellow crest with a blue circle. The top of the circle has the name of the club in English, prominently positioned in the middle is a picture of the Kingfisher and the numbers 19 and 30 on either side of the bird. The name of the club in Welsh, Clwb Pêl-Droed Trefynwy, until then Monmouth had been a magnet for ornithologists from all over the country to see Britain’s most beautiful bird in all its glory. It was in the days before the Magic Marker so it could not be proven that the ball had been lost in a game at the Town’s sportsground, and so. one loose shot saved the entire Kingfisher population of the Wye and Monnow rivers. Monmouth Town F. C. has spent over eight decades playing at Chippenham Sports Ground, the current grandstand was originally sited at the Monmouth Racecourse on Vauxhall Fields and relocated in around 1920
Llanelli Town A.F.C.
Llanelli Town Association Football Club is a Welsh football club that plays in the Welsh Football League Division 2. The original club was wound up on 22 April 2013 at the High Court in London following a petition presented by HM Revenue and they were reformed later that year as Llanelli Town AFC and now play in the Welsh Football League Division Two. The team is based at Stebonheath Park from 1920, having previously playing at the Halfway athletics ground, formed in 1896, the clubs first honour was the Welsh League division one title claimed in 1913–14 with further wins coming in 1929–30 and 1932–33. Llanelli made several attempts to join The Football League, in 1922,1923,1929,1930,1931,1932,1933,1947,1950 and 1951, despite making an effort to turn professional, the club was not elected. The closest they came was in 1933, where the club received 20 votes compared to 26 for Newport County and 45 for Swindon Town who were re-elected to the Football League Third Division South. Llanelli was a member of the Welsh Premier League in 1992. Promotion back to the top division was achieved in 1998–99, in 2005 a wealthy business man and his consortium, The Jesco group bought the club. Since then, the clubs fortunes have transformed remarkably on the pitch and they have played in Europe for 7 consecutive seasons, they won the Welsh premier league and Loosemores challenge cup in 2008 and won the Welsh Cup in 2011. 2012–13 was difficult financially with three petitions to wind the club up presented by HM Revenue and Customs, the club was wound up on 22 April 2013 at the High Court in London following a petition presented by HM Revenue and Customs. However, the town of Llanelli will still be represented in Welsh football through the club of Llanelli Town in the Welsh Third Division in season 2013-14. Llanelli Town were crowned Division 3 champions for the 2014-2015 and will now compete in the Welsh Second Division, the club entered into the Swansea and District League and played their home matches firstly at Tunnel Road and thence to Penyfan Fields. In season 1911–12 after seven years of consolidation Llanelli AFC became League champions and were losing finalists in the League Cup. A further move was necessary to entertain the professional game and Halfway Park some two miles from the centre was chosen as the new venue. Their first season 1912–13 was a success finishing in 6th position of the Southern League. They were also invited to participate in the FA Cup for the first time and it was also during this season that the club achieved its best win to date beating Treharris 17–0 at home in a League game. In the 1919–20 season the reformed clubs formats of pre-war years when the 1st team squad contested in both leagues and the reserve side participated in the Swansea Senior League. By 1922 it was obvious that to further their ambitions of achieving Football League status a new stadium near the centre would have to be sought. A piece of ground in the Stebonheath area of the town was purchased and plans were afoot to move the club lock stock and this was achieved just in time for the 1922–23 season, when Bridgend Town were the first visitors