Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Their traditional territory spreads from Wollombi in the south, to the Lower Hunter River near Newcastle and Lake Macquarie in the north. In the traditional language, Awaba is the word for Lake Macquarie, meaning flat or plain surface, the Awabakal were bounded to the north–west by the Wonnarua, the Worimi to the north–east, and the Darkinjung peoples to the west and south. The Awabakal people, like most of the Aboriginal Australian tribes in Australia, awabagal is a common alternate name for the Awabakal people. Awaba is now the name of a town in the region. Tindale claims that the Ninyowa clan were from the Newcastle area, the Awabakal language was used by the Awabakal people and by the Wonnarua people. Oral historians and linguists are reviewing the language in order to develop a dictionary of the language of the Hunter River. The eaglehawk or wedge-tailed eagle has special significance for the Awabakal people, their celestial entity, looks like an Aboriginal man, but in flight resembles an eagle-hawk.
The Awabakal people played a significant part in shaping the environment of their region and they practised fire-stick farming extensively, which helped them to hunt and to navigate through dense prickly scrub along the coast. Tracks and paths were maintained, including a path from the shore to the top of a hill which became Watt Street in Newcastle, particularly for shellfish, was a significant part of the Awabakal peoples diet and culture pre-colonisation. Academic research by Webb indicates east coast Australia tribes were violent, the Awabakal Newcastle Aboriginal Cooperative Limited is a not-for-profit community controlled organisation operating in the Newcastle, Lake Macquarie and Hunter Region with 195 members. In 2014 financial year, Awabakal had income of $10. 7million, approximately half of the income is used on employee benefits expenses, being $5. 87million in 2014. Total assets for both 2013 and 2014 were ca, in 1976, the Awabakal Environmental Education Centre began operating.
It is a NSW Department of Education and Communities facility, the centre provides opportunities for teachers and students in the Hunter Region to learn about the environment and human interactions with the natural world. The Centre contains examples of habitats including perched lagoons, creek catchments and wet sclerophyll forest. Being located on Awabakal land, the centre provides the opportunity for students to learn about Aboriginal perspectives, knowledge. There is a significant Awabakal presence at the Wollotuka Institute at the University of Newcastle, Wollotuka is an Awabakal word meaning eating and meeting place. Attempts by the Awabakal Local Aboriginal Land Council to claim native title over land within Newcastle, biraban – a recognised headman of the Awaba clan who assisted the Rev Lancelot Threlkeld compile the first grammar of an Aboriginal language in Australia
Lake Boga, Victoria
Lake Boga is a town in Victoria, located next to the lake of the same name. It is situated within the Rural City of Swan Hill within the Mallee region of north-west Victoria, at the 2011 census, Lake Boga had a population of 719. The town is located 325 kilometres north west of Melbourne and 17 kilometres south east of the regional centre Swan Hill, the Wemba-Wemba Indigenous Australian people occupied the lake for thousands of years before the arrival of Major Sir Thomas Mitchell in June 1836. Two German Moravian missionaries, Reverend A. F. C, täger and Reverend F. W. Spieseke, established Lake Boga mission in 1851. The mission closed in 1856 due to lack of converts, disputes with authorities and hostilities from local landholders. The Moravian Church established a subsequent mission site near Lake Hindmarsh in 1859, the Post Office opened on 8 August 1887. During WW2, an air force base was located near the town. The town is located next to the lake of the same name, the surrounding area is used for agriculture including fruit and vegetable growing and grain production.
There is a wine grape industry in the area and one local winery. There is a PBY Catalina flying boat on display as Lake Boga was a Royal Australian Air Force flying boat maintenance facility during World War II, the town has an Australian rules football team competing in the Central Murray Football League. Regional water shortage caused by drought resulted in Lake Boga becoming completely dry, in March 2010, work began to refill the lake and by June the lake was full to the brim The lake has an approximate capacity of 37,794 megalitres
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
Victoria is a state in southeast Australia. Victoria is Australias most densely populated state and its second-most populous state overall, most of its population is concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australias second-largest city. Prior to British European settlement, the area now constituting Victoria was inhabited by a number of Aboriginal peoples. With Great Britain having claimed the entire Australian continent east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria was included in the wider colony of New South Wales. The first settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, and much of what is now Victoria was included in the Port Phillip District in 1836, Victoria was officially created as a separate colony in 1851, and achieved self-government in 1855. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate, at state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
Victoria is currently governed by the Labor Party, with Daniel Andrews the current Premier, the personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria, currently Linda Dessau. Local government is concentrated in 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, Victorias total gross state product is ranked second in Australia, although Victoria is ranked fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne is home to a number of museums, art galleries and theatres and is described as the sporting capital of Australia. The Melbourne Cricket Ground is the largest stadium in Australia, and the host of the 1956 Summer Olympics, Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, having been founded in 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, who had been on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851.
The first British settlement in the known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. In the year 1826 Colonel Stewart, Captain S. Wright and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. Victorias next settlement was at Portland, on the south west coast of what is now Victoria, edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, from settlement the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after the now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe. And in 1838 Geelong was officially declared a town, despite earlier white settlements dating back to 1826, days later, still in 1851 gold was discovered near Ballarat, and subsequently at Bendigo. Later discoveries occurred at sites across Victoria
The Riverina /rɪvəˈriːnə/ is an agricultural region of south-western New South Wales, Australia. The Riverina is distinguished from other Australian regions by the combination of plains, warm to hot climate. This combination has allowed the Riverina to develop one of the most productive. In the 20th century, the development of irrigation areas in the Murray and Murrumbidgee valleys has led to the introduction of crops such as rice. The Riverina has strong ties to Victoria, and the region was the source of much of the impetus behind the federation of Australian colonies. Major population and service centres in the Riverina include the cities of Wagga Wagga, Albury and Wagga Wagga are home to campuses of Charles Sturt University, the only local provider of higher education for the region. Wagga Wagga is home to two major Australian Defence Force establishments, the northern boundary beyond the Riverina is determined by the Lachlan River catchment area and is referred to as the Central West. Along the Murray to the south, the Riverina borders the state of Victoria, West of the confluence of the Murray and Murrumbidgee is the beginning of the more arid Far West region.
In general, the Riverina is a plain formed by deposition carried from the Great Dividing Range by streams between 30,000 and 15,000 years ago. The terrain includes rolling hills to the east but becomes flatter to the west with most of that plain reaching less than 200 metres above sea level, the western Riverina consists largely of featureless saltbush plain. The geology of the Riverina comprises several troughs and sedimentary basins, the western Riverina is presumed to be a continuation of the Ballarat and Bendigo geological zone while eastern sections are underlain by western portions of the Lachlan Fold Belt. Riverina soils are generally sandy along the channels, with more saline grey. As the Murrumbidgee passes downstream, the water and soil become more saline, the Riverina is drained by the large Murray-Darling Basin. Rivers and streams in the Riverina generally flow east to west, as well as the Murray and Lachlan, other streams include Billabong Creek and the Edward River, an anabranch of the Murray.
Much of the water carried by these streams is diverted, in 2001–2002, 52% of the Murray and Murrumbidgee water runoff was diverted, 77% of which was used for irrigation. The Bureau of Meteorology classify the Riverina in the Hot Dry Zone climatic zone, places in this zone can be very hot in the summer months while in the winter, nights can be considerably cold with cool to mild days. Mean daily maximum temperatures in the Riverina range from 31.0 °C in January and 12.4 °C in July in Wagga Wagga to 33.2 °C in January and 14.8 °C in July in Hillston. Rainfall levels in the Riverina are generally low with the annual rainfall over most of the region between 250–500 millimetres, rising to between 500–800 mm on the eastern fringe
Kerang is a rural town on the Loddon River in northern Victoria in Australia. It is the centre to an irrigation district based on livestock, lucerne. It is located 279 kilometres north-west of Melbourne on the Murray Valley Highway a few north of its intersection with the Loddon Valley Highway. At the 2011 census, Kerang had a population of 3,872, Kerang is believed to be an Aboriginal word for Cockatoo. The Wemba-Wemba Aborigines are thought to have been the areas first occupants, thomas Mitchell was the first European to visit the area, in 1836. Squatters began to settle in the area in 1845 and in 1848 Richard Beyes opened a house at a river crossing near the future townsite. This was followed by a saddlery and a church, in 1857 Woodford Patchell built a bridge upriver from the settlement which drew traffic from the earlier settlement. He built a store and hotel that became the center of what was to become Kerang, Patchell was the first farmer in the state to use irrigation and experimented with oats, maize, tobacco, beet and sugarcane.
The Post Office opened on 29 July 1858, an earlier Kerang office, quite distant, was renamed Wedderburn on the same day. Kerang was declared a shire in 1871, at the time the population was 109. The arrival of the railway from Bendigo in 1884 and the construction of a tramway to Koondrook in 1888 led to expansion, the spread of Patchells irrigation ideas improved local productivity and the town continued to expand. The Burke and Wills expedition passed through Kerang on their journey to cross Australia from Melbourne to the Gulf of Carpentaria, on Sunday,2 September 1860 the expedition camped at Booth & Holloways Tragowel Station to the south of Kerang. On Tuesday,4 September 1860 they passed through Kerang, crossed the Loddon and camped at Mr. Fentons Reedy Creek Run, kerangs symbol is a flying ibis. It is a recreational destination. Many of the wetlands have been recognised by inclusion in the North Victorian Wetlands Important Bird Area, Kerang is located at the junction of the Loddon Valley and Murray Valley Highways.
Air transport is provided by Kerang Airport, the town is on the Swan Hill railway line, served by V/Line trains from Kerang station to Melbourne, as well as coach services to Balranald. The Kerang-Koondrook Tramway once linked the town to Koondrook from 1889, being closed to passengers in 1976, on 5 June 2007, a semi-trailer collided with a passenger train at a level crossing,6 kilometres north of the town, killing 11 people. This was the worst train disaster in Victoria since 1969, the town has an Australian Rules football team competing in the Central Murray Football League
Australian National University
The Australian National University is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. Its main campus in Acton encompasses seven teaching and research colleges, founded in 1946, it is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. ANU enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students, the universitys endowment stood at A$1.13 billion in 2012. ANU is ranked 22nd in the world by the 2016/17 QS World University Rankings, ANU was named the worlds 7th most international university in a 2017 study by Times Higher Education. In the 2016 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, a ranking of university graduates employability. ANU is ranked 100th in the CWTS Leiden ranking, ANU counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers,30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of Government departments of Australia, calls for the establishment of a national university in Australia began as early as 1900.
After the location of the capital, was determined in 1908. A group of eminent Australian scholars returned from overseas to join the university, including Sir Howard Florey, Sir Mark Oliphant, Sir Keith Hancock, economist Sir Douglas Copland was appointed as ANUs first Vice-Chancellor and former Prime Minister Stanley Bruce served as the first Chancellor. ANU was originally organised into four centres—the Research Schools of Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Pacific Studies, the first residents’ hall, University House, was opened in 1954 for faculty members and postgraduate students. Mount Stromlo Observatory, established by the government in 1924. The first locations of the ANU Library, the Menzies and Chifley buildings, the Australian Forestry School, located in Canberra since 1927, was amalgamated by ANU in 1965. Canberra University College was the first institution of education in the national capital, having been established in 1929. Its founding was led by Sir Robert Garran, one of the drafters of the Australian Constitution, CUC was affiliated with the University of Melbourne and its degrees were granted by that university.
Academic leaders at CUC included historian Manning Clark, political scientist Finlay Crisp, in 1960, CUC was integrated into ANU as the School of General Studies, initially with faculties in arts, economics and science. Faculties in Oriental studies and engineering were introduced later, Bruce Hall, the first residential college for undergraduates, opened in 1961. The Canberra School of Music and the Canberra School of Art were amalgamated by ANU in 1992, ANU established its Medical School in 2002, after obtaining federal government approval in 2000. On 18 January 2003, the Canberra bushfires largely destroyed the Mount Stromlo Observatory, ANU astronomers now conduct research from the Siding Spring Observatory, which contains 10 telescopes including the Anglo-Australian Telescope
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
The headwaters of the Avoca River rise on the northern slopes of the Pyrenees Range and descend to flow into the ephemeral Kerang Lakes. The Avoca River drains a part of central Victoria. Although the Avoca River basin is part of the Murray-Darling basin, nowhere a large stream, it dwindles as it flows north, eventually terminating in the Kerang Lakes, a network of ephemeral swamps west of Kerang and about 20 kilometres south of the Murray River. The mean annual runnoff of 137 gigalitres per annum accounts for only 0. 67% of Victorias runoff, of all the Victorian rivers in the Murray-Darling basin, the Avoca River is the most variable. The average annual flow is 85 gigalitres, however recorded actual flows have varied from almost five times the figure in very wet years to 0. 5% of the average in drought years. It has a variable flow, ranging from long periods of low flow that are less than 50 megalitres per day to floods. In dry years, flow stops for many months, although it is the only river of significance in the area, the Avoca River has had no major water storages constructed on it, merely six weirs of only local significance.
Little use of the river is made for irrigation as during the peak periods of summer and autumn. During low flow periods the Avoca River water is too saline to water crops with. The river is crossed by the Pyrenees Highway at Avoca, and the Borung Highway, as the river is relatively long, indigenous peoples from various cultural groups lived near the river course. List of rivers of Victoria Wimmera-Avoca, archived from the original on 15 February 2014
Brill is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands. With offices in Leiden and Boston, Brill today publishes more than 200 journals and around 700 new books, in addition, Brill is a provider of primary source materials online and on microform for researchers in the humanities and social sciences. Brill publishes in the subject areas, The roots of Brill go back to May 17,1683. As was customary at the time, Luchtmans combined his business with publishing activities. These were primarily in the fields of studies, Oriental languages. Luchtmans established close ties with the University of Leiden, which was one of the major centers of study in these areas. In 1848, the business passed from the Luchtmans family to that of E. J. Brill, a former employee. In order to cover the financial obligations that he inherited, E. J. Brill decided to liquidate the entire Luchtmans book stock in a series of auctions that took place between 1848 and 1850. Brill continued to publish in the core areas of the company.
Thus, in 1882, the firm brought out a two-volume Leerboek der Stoomwerktuigkunde. In 1896, Brill became a limited company, when E. J. Brills successors, A. P. M. van Oordt and Frans de Stoppelaar. A series of directors followed, until in 1934, Theunis Folkers took over the reins and his directorship marked a period of unprecedented growth in the history of the company, due to a large extent to Folkers cooperation with the German occupying forces during World War II. In 1934, the company had a turnover of 132,000 guilders, by 1943, after the war, the Dutch denazification committee determined the presence of enemy money in Brills accounts. Folkerts was arrested in September,1946, and deprived of the right to hold a managerial post, the company itself, escaped the aftermath of the war relatively unscathed, after some negotiation its fines were fixed at 57,000 guilders. Brills path in the years was again marked by ups and downs. The late 1980s brought a crisis due to over-expansion as well as general changes in the publishing industry.
Thus, in 1987–88 the company underwent a restructuring, in the course of which it closed all its foreign offices, including the oldest ones in London. Brill, sold its business, which amounted to amputat its own limb