Pinus ponderosa known as the ponderosa pine, bull pine, blackjack pine, or western yellow-pine, is a large pine tree species of variable habitat native to the western United States and Canada. It is the most distributed pine species in North America, it grows in various erect forms from British Columbia southward and eastward through 16 western U. S. states and has been introduced in temperate regions of Europe. It was first documented into modern science in 1826 in eastern Washington near present-day Spokane. On that occasion, David Douglas misidentified it as Pinus resinosa. In 1829, Douglas concluded that he had a new pine among his specimens and coined the name Pinus ponderosa for its heavy wood. In 1836, it was formally described by Charles Lawson, a Scottish nurseryman, it is the official state tree of Montana. Pinus ponderosa is a large coniferous pine tree; the bark helps to distinguish it from other species. Mature to over-mature individuals have yellow to orange-red bark in broad to broad plates with black crevices.
Younger trees have blackish-brown bark, referred to as "blackjacks" by early loggers. Ponderosa pine's five subspecies, as classified by some botanists, can be identified by their characteristically bright-green needles; the Pacific subspecies has the longest—7.8 in —and most flexible needles in plume-like fascicles of three. The Columbia ponderosa pine has long—4.7–8.1 in —and flexible needles in fascicles of three. The Rocky Mountains subspecies has shorter—3.6–5.7 in —and stout needles growing in scopulate fascicles of two or three. The southwestern subspecies has 4.4–7.8 in, stout needles in fascicles of three. The central High Plains subspecies is characterized by the fewest needles. Needles are widest and fewest for the species. Sources differ on the scent of P. ponderosa. Some state. Others state that it has no distinctive scent, while still others state that the bark smells like vanilla if sampled from a furrow of the bark. Sources agree that the Jeffrey pine is more scented than the ponderosa pine.
The National Register of Big Trees lists a Ponderosa Pine, 235 ft tall and 324 in in circumference. In January 2011, a Pacific ponderosa pine in the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest in Oregon was measured with a laser to be 268.35 ft high. The measurement was performed by Michael Taylor and Mario Vaden, a professional arborist from Oregon; the tree was climbed on October 13, 2011, by Ascending The Giants and directly measured with tape-line at 268.29 ft high. This is the second tallest known pine after the sugar pine; this species is grown as an ornamental plant in large gardens. During Operation Upshot–Knothole in 1953, a nuclear test was performed in which 145 ponderosa pines were cut down by the United States Forest Service and transported to Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, where they were planted into the ground and exposed to a nuclear blast to see what the blast wave would do to a forest; the trees were burned and blown over. Pinus ponderosa is a dominant tree in the ponderosa shrub forest.
Like most western pines, the ponderosa is associated with mountainous topography. However, it is found on banks of the Niobrara River in Nebraska. Scattered stands occur in the Willamette Valley of Oregon and in the Okanagan Valley and Puget Sound areas of Washington. Stands occur throughout low level valleys in British Columbia reaching as far north as the Thompson and Columbia watersheds. In its Northern limits, it is most common below 800m. Ponderosa covers 80 %, of the Black Hills of South Dakota, it is found on foothills and mid-height peaks of the northern and southern Rocky Mountains, in the Cascade Range, in the Sierra Nevada, in the maritime-influenced Coast Range. In Arizona, it predominates on the Mogollon Rim and is scattered on the Mogollon Plateau and on mid-height peaks in Arizona and New Mexico, it does not extend into Mexico. The fire cycle for ponderosa pine is 5 to 10 years, in which a natural ignition sparks a low-intensity fire. Pinus ponderosa needles are the only known food of the caterpillars of the gelechiid moth Chionodes retiniella.
Blue stain fungus, Grosmannia clavigera, is introduced in sapwood of P. ponderosa from the galleries of all species in the genus Dendroctonus, which has caused much damage. Modern forestry research has identified five different taxa of P. ponderosa, with differing botanical characters and adaptations to different climatic conditions. Four of these have been termed "geographic races" in forestry literature; some botanists treated some races as distinct species. In modern botanical usage, they have been formally published. Pinus ponderosa subsp. Brachyptera Engelm. — southwestern ponderosa pine. Four corners transition zone including southern Colorado, southern Utah and central New Mexico and Arizona, westernmost Texas, a single disjunct population in the far northwestern Oklahoma panhandle; the Gila Wilderness conta
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of Canada, it flows northwest and south into the US state of Washington turns west to form most of the border between Washington and the state of Oregon before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. The river is 1,243 miles long, its largest tributary is the Snake River, its drainage basin is the size of France and extends into seven US states and a Canadian province. The fourth-largest river in the United States by volume, the Columbia has the greatest flow of any North American river entering the Pacific; the Columbia and its tributaries have been central to the region's culture and economy for thousands of years. They have been used for transportation since ancient times, linking the region's many cultural groups; the river system hosts many species of anadromous fish, which migrate between freshwater habitats and the saline waters of the Pacific Ocean. These fish—especially the salmon species—provided the core subsistence for native peoples.
In the late 18th century, a private American ship became the first non-indigenous vessel to enter the river. In the following decades, fur trading companies used the Columbia as a key transportation route. Overland explorers entered the Willamette Valley through the scenic but treacherous Columbia River Gorge, pioneers began to settle the valley in increasing numbers. Steamships along the river linked facilitated trade. Since the late 19th century and private sectors have developed the river. To aid ship and barge navigation, locks have been built along the lower Columbia and its tributaries, dredging has opened and enlarged shipping channels. Since the early 20th century, dams have been built across the river for power generation, navigation and flood control; the 14 hydroelectric dams on the Columbia's main stem and many more on its tributaries produce more than 44 percent of total US hydroelectric generation. Production of nuclear power has taken place at two sites along the river. Plutonium for nuclear weapons was produced for decades at the Hanford Site, now the most contaminated nuclear site in the US.
These developments have altered river environments in the watershed through industrial pollution and barriers to fish migration. The Columbia begins its 1,243-mile journey in the southern Rocky Mountain Trench in British Columbia. Columbia Lake – 2,690 feet above sea level – and the adjoining Columbia Wetlands form the river's headwaters; the trench is a broad and long glacial valley between the Canadian Rockies and the Columbia Mountains in BC. For its first 200 miles, the Columbia flows northwest along the trench through Windermere Lake and the town of Invermere, a region known in British Columbia as the Columbia Valley northwest to Golden and into Kinbasket Lake. Rounding the northern end of the Selkirk Mountains, the river turns south through a region known as the Big Bend Country, passing through Revelstoke Lake and the Arrow Lakes. Revelstoke, the Big Bend, the Columbia Valley combined are referred to in BC parlance as the Columbia Country. Below the Arrow Lakes, the Columbia passes the cities of Castlegar, located at the Columbia's confluence with the Kootenay River, Trail, two major population centers of the West Kootenay region.
The Pend Oreille River joins the Columbia about 2 miles north of the US–Canada border. The Columbia enters eastern Washington flowing south and turning to the west at the Spokane River confluence, it marks the southern and eastern borders of the Colville Indian Reservation and the western border of the Spokane Indian Reservation. The river turns south after the Okanogan River confluence southeasterly near the confluence with the Wenatchee River in central Washington; this C‑shaped segment of the river is known as the "Big Bend". During the Missoula Floods 10,000 to 15,000 years ago, much of the floodwater took a more direct route south, forming the ancient river bed known as the Grand Coulee. After the floods, the river found its present course, the Grand Coulee was left dry; the construction of the Grand Coulee Dam in the mid-20th century impounded the river, forming Lake Roosevelt, from which water was pumped into the dry coulee, forming the reservoir of Banks Lake. The river flows past The Gorge Amphitheatre, a prominent concert venue in the Northwest through Priest Rapids Dam, through the Hanford Nuclear Reservation.
Within the reservation is Hanford Reach, the only US stretch of the river, free-flowing, unimpeded by dams and not a tidal estuary. The Snake River and Yakima River join the Columbia in the Tri‑Cities population center; the Columbia makes a sharp bend to the west at the Washington–Oregon border. The river defines that border for the final 309 miles of its journey; the Deschutes River joins the Columbia near The Dalles. Between The Dalles and Portland, the river cuts through the Cascade Range, forming the dramatic Columbia River Gorge. No other rivers except for the Klamath and Pit River breaches the Cascades—the other rivers that flow through the range originate in or near the mountains; the headwaters and upper course of the Pit River are on the Modoc Plateau. In contrast, the Columbia cuts through the range nearly a thousand miles from its source in the Rocky Mountains; the gorge is known
Wallowa County, Oregon
Wallowa County is a county in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,008, its county seat is Enterprise. According to Oregon Geographic Names, the origins of the county's name are uncertain, with the most explanation being it is derived from the Nez Perce term for a structure of stakes used in fishing. An alternative explanation is that Wallowa is derived from a Nez Perce word for "winding water"; the journals of Lewis and Clark Expedition record the name of the Wallowa River as Wil-le-wah. Wallowa County is part of the eight-county definition of Eastern Oregon. In 1871, the first white settlers came to the area, crossing the mountains in search of livestock feed in the Wallowa Valley; the county was established on February 1887, from the eastern portion of Union County. Boundary changes occurred with Union County in 1890, 1900, 1915. In 1877, the younger Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce, incensed at the government's attempt to deprive his people of the Wallowa Valley, refused to relocate to the reservation in north central Idaho.
Several regiments of U. S. Army troops were dispatched to force him onto the reservation. After several battles and a march of two thousand miles towards sanctuary in Canada, Chief Joseph was forced to surrender in eastern Montana, forty miles from the border with Canada, he and some of the survivors from his band were detained in Oklahoma, were relocated to Colville Reservation in northeast Washington. Half of the survivors moved to the Nez Perce Reservation in Idaho. Chief Joseph last visited Wallowa County in 1902, died two years later. Wallowa County was the scene of the worst incident of violence against Chinese in Oregon, when in May 1887 a gang of rustlers massacred 10-34 Chinese gold miners in Hells Canyon. Of the seven rustlers and schoolboys believed to have been responsible, only three were brought to trial in Enterprise, where a jury found them not guilty on September 1, 1888. A proposal to commemorate this event on official maps as Chinese Massacre Cove was approved in 2005 and encompasses a five-acre site.
In 1896, the Joseph town bank was robbed and there was a shootout in the streets. The town has had re-enactments of that event. Wallowa County Courthouse was built in 1909–1910, using locally quarried Bowlby stone, a type of volcanic tuff, it is a Romanesque Revival-style building with Queen Anne architectural elements in some exterior features. The courthouse was listed on National Register of Historic Places in 2000. Today, it still houses Wallowa County government offices and faces west toward South River Street and is surrounded by Courthouse Square which encompasses one city block 1.3 acres. The square is landscaped with oak, maple, linden and flowering crab apple trees. There are roses planted on the north and south sides of the courthouse; the square has several veteran memorials along with a 20-by-24-foot wood-framed gazebo in the northeast corner of the square. United States Supreme Court Associate Justice William O. Douglas was one famous summer visitor to Wallowa County, building a vacation cabin on Lostine River Road in 1939.
In December 2003, a developer announced a proposal to buy a 62-acre property near Wallowa Lake, build 11 homes on it. This property is adjacent to the property, home to the grave of Old Chief Joseph, father of the younger Chief Joseph; this proposal drew opposition from a local group, as well as from the Nez Perce and Umatilla tribes. Prior offers by the National Park Service and the Trust for Public Land to buy the land were rejected; the County commissioners gave conditional approval for the developers to complete a final plat of the land on February 13, 2004, but the attorney for the Nez Perce said the tribe would appeal the decision to the Oregon Land Use Board of Appeals. As of 2016, the controversy was still active. Wallowa is the northeasternmost county of Oregon. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,152 square miles, of which 3,146 square miles is land and 5.5 square miles is water. Wallowa Lake and the Wallowa Mountains attract tourists to this region.
The lake is a natural glacial formation, held in on three sides by prominent moraines. The microclimate is somewhat different from the surrounding areas and provides a cool retreat during the summer. Other geographic features include: Grande Ronde River Joseph Canyon Hells Canyon Wallowa River Columbia County, Washington - northwest Garfield County, Washington - north Asotin County, Washington - northeast Nez Perce County, Idaho - northeast Idaho County, Idaho - east/Mountain Time Border Adams County, Idaho - southeast/Mountain Time Border Baker County Union County Umatilla County Nez Perce National Historical Park Umatilla National Forest Wallowa–Whitman National Forest Hells Canyon National Recreation Area As of the census of 2000, there were 7,226 people, 3,029 households, 2,083 families residing in the county; the population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 3,900 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.50% White, 0.03% Black or African American, 0.71% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.95% from other races, 1.54% from two or more races.
1.73% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 21.8% were of German, 15.7% American, 12.3% English and 11.8% Irish ancestry. There were 3,029 households out of which 28.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.70% were married couples living together, 6.90% had a female ho
The snowshoe hare called the varying hare, or snowshoe rabbit, is a species of hare found in North America. It has the name "snowshoe" because of the large size of its hind feet; the animal's feet prevent it from sinking into the snow when it walks. Its feet have fur on the soles to protect it from freezing temperatures. For camouflage, its fur turns white during rusty brown during the summer, its flanks are white year-round. The snowshoe hare is distinguishable by the black tufts of fur on the edge of its ears, its ears are shorter than those of most other hares. In summer, it feeds on plants such as grass and leaves, it can sometimes be seen feeding in small groups. This animal is active at night and does not hibernate; the snowshoe hare may have up to four litters in a year. Males compete for females, females may breed with several males. A major predator of the snowshoe hare is the Canadian lynx. Historical records of animals caught by fur hunters over hundreds of years show the lynx and hare numbers rising and falling in a cycle, which has made the hare known to biology students worldwide as a case study of the relationship between numbers of predators and their prey.
Snowshoe hares occur from Newfoundland to Alaska. Locations of subspecies are as follows: Lepus americanus americanus – Ontario, Saskatchewan, Alberta and North Dakota L. a. cascadensis – British Columbia and Washington L. a. columbiensis – British Columbia and Washington L. a. dalli – Mackenzie District, British Columbia, Yukon L. a. klamathensis – Oregon and California L. a. oregonus – Oregon L. a. pallidus – British Columbia L. a. phaeonotus – Ontario, Saskatchewan, Michigan and Minnesota L. a. pineus – British Columbia and Washington L. a. seclusus – Wyoming L. a. struthopus – Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Maine L. a. tahoensis – California, western Nevada L. a. virginianus – Ontario, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee L. a. washingtonii – British Columbia and Oregon Snowshoe hares are found in boreal forests and upper montane forests. In the Pacific Northwest, snowshoe hares occupy diverse habitats, including mature conifers, immature conifers, alder /salmonberry, Sitka spruce /salal, cedar swamps.
In western Oregon, snowshoe hares were present in brush patches of vine maple, willows and other shrubs. In Utah, snowshoe hares used Gambel oak in the northern portion of the Gambel oak range. In the Southwest, the southernmost populations of snowshoe hares occur in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico, in subalpine scrub: narrow bands of shrubby and prostrate conifers at and just below timberline that are composed of Engelmann spruce, bristlecone pine, limber pine, and/or common juniper. In Minnesota, snowshoe hares use jack pine uplands, tamarack bogs, black spruce bogs, sedge and scrub fens. In New England, snowshoe hares favor second-growth aspen -birch near conifers, but other forest types occupied by snowshoe hares include aspens, paper birch, northern hardwoods, red maple, balsam fir, red spruce -balsam fir, eastern hemlock, northern red oak, oak -pine, eastern white pine -northern red oak-red maple, eastern white pine. Snowshoe hares use shrub swamps dominated by buttonbush and silky dogwood.
Further details on plant communities used by snowshoe hares in different regions are in Bittner and Rongstad. Snowshoe hares are crepuscular to nocturnal, they are shy and secretive and spend most of the day in shallow depressions, called forms, scraped out under clumps of ferns, brush thickets, downed piles of timber. They use the large burrows of mountain beavers as forms. Diurnal activity level increases during the breeding season. Juveniles are more active and less cautious than adults. Snowshoe hares are active year-round; the breeding season for hares is stimulated by new vegetation and varies with latitude and yearly events. Breeding begins in late December to January and lasts until July or August. In northwestern Oregon, male peak breeding activity is at the minimum in November. In Ontario, the peak is in May and in Newfoundland, the peak is in June. Female estrus begins in March in Newfoundland and Maine, in early April in Michigan and Colorado. First litters of the year are born from mid-April to May.
The Tucannon River is a tributary of the Snake River in the U. S. state of Washington. It flows northwest from headwaters in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington to meet the Snake 4 miles upstream from Lyons Ferry Park and the mouth of the Palouse River; the Tucannon is about 62 miles long. Part of the upper river flows through the Wenaha–Tucannon Wilderness; the Tucannon basin of 502 square miles ranges in elevation from about 540 feet above sea level at the mouth on the Snake River to about 6,400 feet in the Umatilla National Forest of the Blue Mountains. River flows in the Tucannon basin depend on precipitation and groundwater. Studies in the early 1990s suggested that these flows would not be able to meet all of the claims and private, on the water resources of the lower river. In particular, farm irrigation projects were competing with fisheries for limited water; the Washington Department of Ecology named the Tucannon basin a Watershed Resource Inventory Area and in 1995 began hearings about how to allocate the water.
The lower Snake River was home to bands of the Palouse and other Sahaptin-speaking people, including Nez Perce, Walla Walla and Wanapum. The Blue Mountains formed the western part of a 17,000,000-acre region traditional to the aboriginal Nimi'ipuu people, renamed Nez Perce by Lewis and Clark when they arrived in the region in 1805; the horse was central to the lives of the Nez Perce. The Nez Perce Trail followed part of the Touchet and Tucannon rivers, extending east from Wallula and reaching the Touchet below Waitsburg. From there it followed the southern bank of the Touchet River to present day Dayton. Here it followed Patit Creek northeast. On October 12, 1805, after a difficult passage through Snake River rapids and Clark passed through a shorter rapids just east of the mouth of the Tucannon. Lewis wrote, "This we called called Kimooenim creek"; the expedition continued down the Snake in dugouts. On their return trip to St. Louis on May 2, 1806, Lewis and Clark followed the Nez Perce Trail, crossing over from Patit Creek about 2.5 miles east of present-day Dayton to meet the Tucannon.
Only 12 miles beyond their campsite they reached the stream. This creek rises in the southwest mountains, though only twelve yards wide discharges a considerable body of water into Lewis' river, a few miles above the narrows, its bed is pebbled... N its narrow bottoms are found some cottonwood and the underbrush which grows on the east branch of the Wollawollah. Lewis and Clark camped on the Pataha Creek, recorded as the first locality for some distance where they were able to find ample firewood; the fur industry was important in the region. The Tucannon River provided a profitable area for otter trapping, which were abundant. F. A. Shaver's 1906 book, An Illustrated History of Southeastern Washington, said that prior to 1834 the British Hudson's Bay Company personnel were "undisputed occupants since 1829." A party was led by John Work, who served as an agent of the HBC. Starting from Fort Nez Perce in September 1831, Work and a 56-person party followed the Nez Perce Trail to the Upper Snake River country.
In the late winter of 1834, Captain Benjamin Bonneville crossed the Tucannon on the Nez Perce Trail, surveying the Northwest on behalf of the United States government. A number of wagon roads were built through the area in the 1860s. Settlers drifted into the Tucannon River area in the 1860s, but in the early 1870s settlement increased. In 1848, during the Cayuse War Captain Lawrence Hall's Company fought an engagement with the Cayuse on the Tucannon River: Returning to Waiilatpu, the best mounted and equipped of the riflemen, Hall's company among them, were selected for an expedition against the Cayuse Indians, whose exact location was at this time unknown; the object was to bring the Indians to terms by some means, by fighting or otherwise, recapture the stock stolen from the whites. The expedition started about the 10th of March, 1848, after a search of ten days or so found the enemy encamped on Tucannon River, about four miles above its confluence with the Columbia; the enemy adopted the ruse of hoisting a white flag, asked for and had a talk with the troops, anti pretended not to belong to the hostile party.
The troops outnumbered, fought on the defensive, marching in retreat, formed in a hollow square, to resist the assaults made on all sides. The first night the captured stock was turned loose; the next morning the attack and retreat continued, the Indians, as the Touchet River crossing was approached, took possession of it, attempting thereby to cutoff the retreat of the troops effectually. Here nothing but the most determined charge and fighting drove off the Indians and enabled the whites to cross that river and thus escape threatened extermination. During the Coeur d'Alene War on August 7, 1858, Captain Erasmus D. Keyes with a detachment of dragoons was ordered to the Snake River to erect a fort at a crossing point near the Palouse River, he selected the mouth of Tucannon River to establish Fort Taylor (a supply depot which honored Captain Oliver H. P. Taylor—killed that same year while he served with Lt. Colonel Edward Steptoe against the Spokanes in April. On August 25 this point served as a crossing point for Colonel Georg
Blue Mountains (Pacific Northwest)
The Blue Mountains are a mountain range in the western United States, located in northeastern Oregon and stretching into southeastern Washington. The range has an area of 4,060 square miles, stretching east and southeast of Pendleton, Oregon, to the Snake River along the Oregon-Idaho border; the Blue Mountains cover seven counties in Washington. They are home to fungal mycelial mat, the Armillaria ostoyae; the Blue Mountains were so named due to thick smoke from the fires which engulf the area. The Blues are uplift mountains. Geologically, the range is a part of the larger rugged Columbia River Plateau, located in the dry area of Oregon and Washington east of the Cascade Range; the highest peak in the range is Rock Creek Butte in Baker County, Oregon at 9,106 feet, on Elkhorn Ridge. Other ranges in the Blue Mountains physiographic section include the Wallowa Mountains, the Elkhorn Mountains, the Strawberry Mountains; the river valleys and lower levels of the range were occupied by indigenous peoples for thousands of years.
Historic tribes of the region included the Walla Walla, Cayuse people and Umatilla, now acting together as the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, located in Umatilla County, Oregon. The southern portion of the Blue Mountains were inhabited by several different bands of the Northern Paiute, a Great Basin culture. Native American tribes migrated to the Blue Mountains for hunting and salmon runs; the Natives used to purposefully burn parts of the forest or allow campfires to burn over wide areas. In the mid-1800s, the Blue Mountains were a formidable obstacle to settlers traveling on the Oregon Trail and were the last mountain range American pioneers had to cross before either reaching southeast Washington near Walla Walla or passing down the Columbia River Gorge to the end of the Oregon Trail in the Willamette Valley near Oregon City; the range is traversed by Interstate 84, which crosses the crest of the range at a 4,193 feet summit, from south-southeast to north-northwest between La Grande and Pendleton.
The community of Baker City is located along the south-eastern flank of the range. U. S. Route 26 crosses the southern portion of the range, traversing the Blue Mountain Summit and reaching an elevation of 5,098 feet. Elk The Washington Blue Mountains, in 1989, regulated elk hunting with a spike-only general hunting season; this was in response to a decline in the elk population creating a heavy female biased population. By the mid 1990s the area became known for its mature males and trophy hunting. During winter months elk will prefer to use "moderately steep south slopes" rather than northern slopes because of the southern slopes being warmer and containing less snow. Throughout the Blue Mountains physiographic section, foresters have been, nearly a century, attempting to create a regulated, scientific forest, in a process referred to as restoration. Much of the range is included in the Malheur National Forest, Umatilla National Forest, Wallowa–Whitman National Forest. Several wilderness areas encompass remote parts of the range, including the North Fork Umatilla Wilderness, the North Fork John Day Wilderness, the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness, the Monument Rock Wilderness, all of which are in Oregon.
The Wenaha–Tucannon Wilderness sits astride the Oregon–Washington border. The range is drained by several rivers, including the Grande Ronde and Tucannon, tributaries of the Snake, as well as the forks of the John Day and Walla Walla rivers, tributaries of the Columbia; the southernmost portion of the Blue Mountains is drained by the Silvies River, in the endorheic Harney Basin. "Blue Mountains". Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names. 2004. Retrieved 2007-07-28