Lincoln Correctional Facility
Lincoln Correctional Facility is a minimum-security men's prison located at 31–33 West 110th Street in Manhattan, facing the north side of Central Park. Since 1991 it has been used as a work-release center for drug offenders. Before the prison opened in 1976, the building had been built in 1914 as a branch of the Young Women's Hebrew Association and used for housing immigrated Jewish women in need of assistance. In 1942 it was sold to the U. S. Army and used as a rest-and-relaxation center for local soldiers during World War II, after which it was occupied by the experimental New Lincoln School, the Northside Center for Child Development, which conducted research in psychology
A prison known as a correctional facility, gaol, detention center, remand center, or internment facility, is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until their trial. In simplest terms, a prison can be described as a building in which people are held as a punishment for a crime they have committed. Prisons can be used as a tool of political repression by authoritarian regimes, their perceived opponents may be imprisoned for political crimes without trial or other legal due process. In times of war, prisoners of war or detainees may be detained in military prisons or prisoner of war camps, large groups of civilians might be imprisoned in internment camps. In American English and jail are treated as having separate definitions; the term prison or penitentiary tends to describe institutions that incarcerate people for longer periods of time, such as many years, are operated by the state or federal governments.
The term jail tends to describe institutions for confining people for shorter periods of time and are operated by local governments. Outside of North America and jail have the same meaning. Common slang terms for a prison include: "the pokey", "the slammer", "the can", "the clink", "the joint", "the calaboose", "the hoosegow" and "the big house". Slang terms for imprisonment include: "behind bars", "in stir" and "up the river"; the use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written language, which enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society; the best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabi, written in Babylon around 1750 BC. The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code were exclusively centered on the concept of lex talionis, whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance by the victims themselves; this notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the ancient Sumerian codes, the Indian Manusmriti, the Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, the Israelite Mosaic Law.
Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato, began to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of using it as retribution. Imprisonment as a penalty was used for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead; the prison in Ancient Athens was known as the desmoterion. The Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than for detention. A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, quarries. One of the most notable Roman prisons was the Mamertine Prison, established around 640 B. C. by Ancus Marcius. The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions, contaminated with human waste. Forced labor on public works projects was a common form of punishment.
In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slavery in ergastula. During the Middle Ages in Europe, castles and the basements of public buildings were used as makeshift prisons; the possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional courts to city councils. Another common punishment was sentencing people to galley slavery, which involved chaining prisoners together in the bottoms of ships and forcing them to row on naval or merchant vessels. From the late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution and torture became more widespread both in Europe and in the United States. Under the Bloody Code, with few sentencing alternatives, imposition of the death penalty for petty crimes, such as theft, was proving unpopular with the public. Rulers began looking for means to punish and control their subjects in a way that did not cause people to associate them with spectacles of tyrannical and sadistic violence.
They developed systems of mass incarceration with hard labor, as a solution. The prison reform movement that arose at this time was influenced by two somewhat contradictory philosophies; the first was based in Enlightenment ideas of utilitarianism and rationalism, suggested that prisons should be used as a more effective substitute for public corporal punishments such as whipping, etc. This theory, referred to as deterrence, claims tha
Adirondack Correctional Facility
The Adirondack Correctional Facility is a medium-security prison in Ray Brook, New York in the Adirondack Mountains between Saranac Lake and Lake Placid. Adirondack Correctional Facility started as the Ray Brook Sanatorium, the first state-operated tuberculosis sanatorium, starting in 1904. Although medical developments made sanitoria obsolete starting in the mid-1950s, the State Sanatorium at Ray Brook continued to operate until the mid-1960s; the property was transferred from the Department of Health to the new Drug Addiction Control Commission, combining enforcement and treatment. However, it was judged a failure, closed within five years, it was succeeded by a camp program for adult inmates, "Camp Adirondack". Working with the Department of Environmental Conservation, "campmen", as inmates were known, were employed in logging, wildlife preservation, construction of campsites and snowmobile and cross-country ski trails, construction of a toboggan run at the Mount Pisgah ski area; the camp constructed the Ice Palace each winter for the Saranac Lake Winter Carnival.
With the selection of Lake Placid for the 1980 Winter Olympics the inmates worked on the Olympic trails at Mount Van Hoevenburg. The camp facilities were used for Olympic staff housing, which led to renovation of the water treatment plant, sewage system and food service areas. During the games, the inmates were relocated to other prison facilities in the state, were replaced by 900 State Police and 300 U. S. Customs Bureau personnel, National Guard and security forces of foreign governments who provided security for the Games. An area of 200 acres of the facility was used as the site for the Olympic Village; the newly improved facilities allowed a substantial increase in the prison population, which led to the erection of the first security fence around the perimeter of the complex. In 1981, Camp Adirondack was designated a medium-security facility and renamed the Adirondack Correctional Facility; as of 2010 Adirondack had a working capacity of 566. Sylvia Plath's college boyfriend, Dick Norton contracted tuberculosis while at Harvard University, was sent to Ray Brook for treatment.
Plath visited him in 1952, broke her leg while skiing on Mount Pisgah in nearby Saranac Lake. Andrea Barrett's 2007 novel The Air We Breathe is based on a fictionalized Ray Brook Sanatorium. History of the Adirondack Correctional Facility NY prison information New York Times, "New Mountain Hospital: Institution for treatment of Tuberculosis Almost Ready", October 18, 1903
Sing Sing Correctional Facility is a maximum security prison operated by the New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision in the village of Ossining, New York. It is located about 30 miles north of New York City on the east bank of the Hudson River. Sing Sing contains about 1,700 prisoners."Sing Sing" was derived from the "Sinck Sinck" Indian tribe from whom the land was purchased in 1685. In 1970, the name was changed to the "Ossining Correctional Facility," but it reverted to its original name in 1985. There are plans to convert the original 1825 cell block into a time-specific museum; the prison property is bisected by the Metro-North Railroad's four-track Hudson Line. Sing Sing was the fifth prison built by New York state; the first prison, Newgate Prison, was built in 1797 in Greenwich Village and a second one in 1816 called Auburn Prison. In 1824, the New York Legislature gave Elam Lynds, warden of Auburn Prison and a former Army captain, the task of constructing a new, more modern prison.
Lynds spent months researching possible locations for the prison, considering Staten Island, The Bronx, Silver Mine Farm, an area in the town of Mount Pleasant, located on the banks of the Hudson River. By May, Lynds had decided to build a prison on Mount Pleasant, near a small village in Westchester County named Sing Sing, whose name came from the Native American words "Sinck Sinck" which translates to "stone upon stone." The legislature appropriated $20,100 to purchase the 130-acre site, the project received the official stamp of approval. Lynds hand-selected 100 inmates from the Auburn prison for transfer and had them transported by barge via the Erie Canal and down the Hudson River to freighters. On their arrival on May 14, the site was "without a place to receive them or a wall to enclose them"; when it was opened in 1826, Sing Sing was considered a model prison, because it turned a profit for the state, by October 1828 it was completed. Lynds employed the Auburn system, it was the Prison Chaplain John Luckey around 1843, who held the Principal Keeper of Sing Sing, Elam Lynds, accountable to New York Governor William H. Seward and to President of the Board of Inspectors, John Edmonds, to have Lynds removed.
Chaplain Luckey proceeded to create a great religious library. His purpose was to teach correct moral principles, his religious library was challenged in 1844 when John Edmonds placed Eliza Farnham in charge of the women's ward at Sing Sing. 1844 was the year the New York Prison Association was inaugurated to monitor state prison administration. The NY Prison Association was made up of reformists interested in the rehabilitation and humane treatment of prisoners. Eliza Farnham was able to obtain the job on the recommendation of these reformists. Eliza Farnham overturned the silent practice in prison and introduced social engagement to shift concern more toward the future instead of dwelling on the criminal past, she included novels by Charles Dickens in Chaplain Luckey's religious library, novels the chaplain did not approve. This was the first documented expansion of the prison library to include emotional lessons from secular literature. Thomas Mott Osborne's tenure as warden of Sing Sing prison was dramatic.
Osborne arrived in 1914 with a reputation as a radical prison reformer. His report of a week-long incognito stay inside New York's Auburn Prison indicted traditional prison administration in merciless detail. Prisoners who had bribed officers and intimidated other inmates lost their privileges under Osborne's regime. One of them conspired with powerful political allies to destroy Osborne's reputation succeeding in getting him indicted for a variety of crimes and maladministration. After Osborne triumphed in court, his return to Sing Sing was a cause for wild celebration by the inmates. Another notable warden was Lewis Lawes, he was offered the position of warden in 1919, accepted in January 1920, remained for 20 years as Sing Sing's warden. While warden, Lawes brought about reforms and turned what was described as an "old hellhole" into a modern prison with sports teams, educational programs, new methods of discipline and more. Several new buildings were constructed during the years Lawes was warden.
Lawes died six years later. In 1943, the old cellblock was closed and the metal bars and doors were donated to the war effort. In 1989, the institution was accredited for the first time by the American Correctional Association, which established a set of national standards by which it judged every correctional facility. Today, Sing Sing houses more than 2,000 inmates, with about 1,000 people working there and 5,000 visitors per month; the original 1825 cellblock is no longer used and in 2002 plans were announced to turn this into a museum. In April 2011 there were talks of closing the prison in favor of real estate. In total, 614 men and women—including four inmates under federal death sentences—were executed by electric chair in the death row house with "Old Sparky," at Sing Sing until the abolition of the death penalty in 1972. High-profile executions include Julius and Ethel Rosenberg on June 19, 1953, for espionage for the Soviet Union on nuclear weapon research. Puff on August 12, 1954, for murder of an FBI agent.
The last person executed in New York state was Eddie Lee Mays, for murder, on August 15, 1963. In 1972, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Furman v. Georgia that the death penalty was unconstitutional if application was inconsistent and arbitrary; this led to a
Elmira Correctional Facility
Elmira Correctional Facility known as "The Hill", is a maximum security state prison located in Chemung County, New York, in the City of Elmira. It is operated by the New York State Department of Community Supervision; the supermax prison, Southport Correctional Facility, is located two miles away from Elmira. The facility was founded in 1876 as run as the Elmira Reformatory by its controversial superintendent Zebulon Brockway. Acting with rehabilitative aims, Brockway instilled strict discipline along the lines of military training. Although accused of brutality for his corporal punishment in 1893, Brockway was an acknowledged leader in his field. At his retirement in 1900 the Elmira System had been adopted by the states of Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Indiana and Minnesota. In 1970 the complex was renamed the Elmira Reception Center. Elmira retained a focus on younger offenders until some time in the 1990s; the facility was founded as Elmira Reformatory in 1876. It differed from many prisons of the day as it focused on reforming the convict using psychological methods rather than physical.
Prisoners were required to abide by the "holy trinity" of silence and labor. Sentences were indeterminate. Inmates were only released after a warden's determination that they'd "paid their debt to society". In contrast Elmira sought to rehabilitate. Brockway set up a system of incentives to encourage self-discipline. Among the programs begun at the reformatory included courses in ethics and religion, vocational training in various trades and extracurricular activities such as a prison band and various athletic leagues. Influenced by the methods of Walter Crofton's "Irish system" as well as Alexander Maconochie's experiments in Australian penal colonies, discipline was patterned after military academies. Inmates would be dressed in military style uniforms marching to the tune of a military band. Inmates were classified by three "grades", with newly arriving prisoners being placed at second grade for their first six months; those who became the most responsive and cooperative prisoners earned a first grade, with the opportunity to earn additional privileges or "marks", including earning a reduction of their sentences or being granted parole.
Those inmates who were less responsive to rehabilitation or had behavioral problems were placed at third grade. However, under instituted indeterminate sentencing, tension was high among the general population as prisoners were informed how long the terms of their imprisonment lasted. Brockway's use of corporal punishment, the "Paddler Brockway" system that would result several prisoners' being transferred to mental asylums, caused some to question the reformatory system. Still, the Elmira system was influential in prison reform. Two central ideas emerged from the Elmira system: differentiating between juvenile and adult offenders, acknowledging the possibility of prisoner rehabilitation. Despite its mixed results, the Elmira Reformatory would influence the construction of 25 reformatories in twelve states over the next 25 years, reaching its height in 1910. Although the education programs introduced in Elmira were the first to serve inmates in a correctional facility, the majority of the teaching staff were unqualified and its complex grading system made progress difficult to maintain.
All well-behaved inmates were placed in first grade with a few in second grade and those under punishment in third grade. However, following Brockway's resignation, the reformatory reinstituted to standard custody and treatment methods and converted to the Elmira Correctional and Reception Center, an adult maximum security prison holding 1,800 inmates. In the late 1970s through late 1980s, Elmira and Corning Community College had a partnership whereby college professors volunteered to lecture within the prison, inmates were able to earn an associate degree. However, during the recession of 1990–1992 there was a public outcry over spending taxpayer money to educate felons while many middle-class families struggled to pay their children's college tuition; as a result, the program was cut. There were attempts to revive the program in years but by the time George Pataki, the former GOP governor, finished his budget cuts, the program was terminated Convicted murderers Timothy Vail and Timothy Morgan escaped on July 7, 2003, by digging through the roof of their cell.
Vail injured himself during the escape, the two were captured three days and placed in solitary confinement in different prisons. Their escape was featured in the National Geographic documentary Breakout. Zebulon Reed Brockway 1876 to 1900. Frank LaMar Christian 1917 to 1939. Ronald Miles Trevell Gerald Coleman AKA G-Dep - murder, sentenced to 15 to life Patrick Baxter - Serial killer. Colin Rideout- Convicted of brutally murdering his father, Craig Rideout, with his mother, Laura Rideout in Rochester, NY, he was convicted on two counts of tampering with evidence as he and his younger brother disposed their father's body in the woods and physical evidence. Colin was sentenced to 26 years to life imprisonment. Alexander Rideout - Brother of Colin Rideout, son of Laura Rideout. Acquitted of murdering his father, Craig Rideout, was convicted of two counts of tampering with evidence in connection to his father's murder, he is serving 4 years in prison. Dwight York - Nuwaubian cult leader. Before York's formation of his cult movement and eventual indictment by the federal government, he was arrested on June 25, 1964 and charged with statutory rape for having sex with a minor
Erie County, New York
Erie County is a populated county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 919,040; the county seat is Buffalo. The county's name comes from Lake Erie, it was named by European colonists for the regional Iroquoian language-speaking Erie tribe of Native Americans, who lived south and east of the lake before 1654. Since the late 20th century, Erie County has been considered part of the Buffalo–Niagara Falls metropolitan area; the county's southern part is known as the Southtowns. When counties were established by the English colonial government in the Province of New York in 1683, present-day Erie County was part of Indian territory occupied by Iroquoian-speaking peoples, it was administered as part of New York colony. Significant European-American settlement did not begin until after the United States had gained independence with the end of the American Revolutionary War in 1783, they forced the Iroquois to cede most of their lands. About 1800 the Holland Land Company, formed by Americans and Dutch associates, extinguished Indian claims by purchasing the land from New York, acquired the title to the territory of what are today the eight western-most counties of New York, surveyed their holdings, established towns, began selling lots to individuals.
The state was eager to have farms and businesses developed. At this time, all of western New York was included in Ontario County; as the population increased, the state legislature created Genesee County in 1802 out of part of Ontario County. In 1808, Niagara County was created out of Genesee County. In 1821, Erie County was created out of Niagara County, encompassing all the land between Tonawanda Creek and Cattaraugus Creek; the first towns formed in present-day Erie County were the Town of Willink. Clarence comprised the northern portion of Erie county, Willink the southern part. Clarence is still a distinct town, but Willink was subdivided into other towns; when Erie County was established in 1821, it consisted of the towns of Amherst, Boston, Collins, Eden, Hamburg, Holland and Wales. The county has a number of houses and other properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Erie County, New York. In 1861, the hamlet of Town Line, in the Town of Lancaster, voted 85 to 40 to secede from the Union and join the Confederate States of America.
It sent five soldiers for the Confederate Army, did not rejoin the Union until January 1946. The Town Line Fire Department supports the slogan "Last of the Rebels", due to their Confederate ties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,227 square miles, of which 1,043 square miles is land and 184 square miles is water. Erie County is in the western portion of upstate New York, bordering on the lake of the same name. Part of the industrial area that has included Buffalo, it is the most populous county in upstate New York outside of the New York City metropolitan area; the county lies on the international border between the United States and Canada, bordering the Province of Ontario. The northern border of the county is Tonawanda Creek. Part of the southern border is Cattaraugus Creek. Other major streams include Buffalo Creek, Cayuga Creek, Cazenovia Creek, Scajaquada Creek, Eighteen Mile Creek, Ellicott Creek; the county's northern half, including Buffalo and its suburbs, is flat and rises up from the lake.
The southern half, known as the Southtowns, is much hillier. It has the northwesternmost foothills of the Appalachian Mountains; the highest elevation in the county is a hill in the Town of Sardinia that tops out at around 1,940 feet above sea level. The lowest ground is about 560 feet, on Grand Island at the Niagara River; the Onondaga Escarpment runs through the northern part of Erie County. Niagara County - north Genesee County - northeast Wyoming County - southeast Cattaraugus County - south Chautauqua County - southwest Niagara Region, Canada - northwest Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site As of the census of 2010, there were 919,040 people residing in the county; the population density was 910 people per square mile. There were 415,868 housing units at an average density of 398 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 82.18% White, 13.00% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 1.46% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.42% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races.
3.27 % of the population were Latino of any race. 19.6% were of German, 17.2% Polish, 14.9% Italian, 11.7% Irish and 5.0% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 91.1 % spoke 3.0 % Spanish and 1.6 % Polish as their first language. There were 380,873 households out of which 29.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.50% were married couples living together, 13.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.10% were non-families. 30.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.30% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 91.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,567, the median income for a family was $49,490.
Males had a median income of $38,703 versu
Wallkill Correctional Facility
The Wallkill Correctional Facility is a medium security prison in New York state in the United States. The prison is located just north in the Town of Shawangunk; the prison opened in the form of a collegiate campus with no surrounding wall or fence. The architect was Alfred Hopkins, an east-coast estate architect with a sideline in prisons such as Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary in Pennsylvania. Connected three-story English Gothic buildings of gray stone "self-consciously embraced an idealistic notion of the rural idyll and an old-fashioned sense of place". Hopkins designed Woodbourne Correctional Facility and Coxsackie Correctional Facility for the state. Wallkill was once only used to house "Good Behavior/White Collar" inmates. Due to changing times, the inmate population has changed and first-time offenders now begin and end their sentences at Wallkill CF; the one-time "Prison without a Wall," is no more -- in the 21st century chain-link fencing and razor wire was constructed around the perimeter -- but it remains a free-movement facility.
The facility has a long-running optical laboratory to produce eyeglasses. Inmates may learn to serve retired racehorses through the Thoroughbred Retirement Foundation's Second Chances program. Wallkill's grounds contain the historic Walstein Childs House, circa 1763; the state's Shawangunk Correctional Facility is nearby. N. Y. prison information 2003 New York Times article about the horse-care program correctionhistory.org historical essay on Wallkill