Suffolk Coastal was a local government district in Suffolk, England. Its council is based in Melton, having moved from neighbouring Woodbridge in 2017. Other towns include Felixstowe, Leiston and Saxmundham; the district was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, as a merger of the municipal borough of Aldeburgh, along with Felixstowe, Leiston-cum-Sizewell and Woodbridge urban districts, Blyth Rural District and Deben Rural District. The population of the district was 124,298 at the 2011 Census. Suffolk Coastal district was merged with Waveney district on 1st April 2019 to form the new East Suffolk district. There are 118 civil towns in Suffolk Coastal. District Council website
Blythburgh is a village and civil parish in the Suffolk Coastal district of the English county of Suffolk. It lies on the River Blyth; the A12 road runs through the village, split either side of the road. At the 2011 census the population of the parish was 297; the parish includes the hamlets of Hinton. Blythburgh is best known for Holy Trinity, known as the Cathedral of the Marshes; the church has been flood-lit since the 1960s and is a landmark for travellers on the A12. The village is the site of Blythburgh Priory, founded by Augustine monks from St Osyth's Priory in Essex in the 12th century; the priory was suppressed in 1537 and ruins remain at the site. The village is in the area of the Suffolk Coast and Heaths Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty in the area known as the Suffolk Sandlings, it is close to the Suffolk heritage coast located close to an area marshland and mud-flats along the River Blyth which were flooded in 1940 as part of British anti-invasion preparations at the start of the Second World War.
North of the village is the site of the Battle of Bulcamp which occurred in 653 or 654 AD between the forces of Anna of East Anglia and Penda of Mercia. Anna, the King of East Anglia, was killed along with his son Jurmin. Both are believed to have been buried at the site of Blythburgh Priory. At the Domesday Survey in 1086 Blythburgh was a large village with 42 households, it was formed part of King William's holdings. It was taxed 3000 herring each year. Bulcamp and Hinton were both listed separately with eight households each. Both were held by Roger Bigot. Blythburgh Priory was founded by Augustine monks from St Osyth's Priory in Essex in the 12th century; the priory was suppressed in 1537 and ruins remain at the site. The site is a scheduled monument, it was excavated in 2008 by Channel Four's Time Team programme. The River Blyth had silted by the 18th century. By the 1750s merchants from Halesworth were keen to open the river for trade. An Act of Parliament was passed in 1757 and, after four locks were built, the river was open for vessels by 1761.
By the end of the 19th century silting of the river downstream from Blythburgh made trade difficult and the locks were closed in 1934. Bulcamp, on the northern edge of the parish, was the site of the Blything Union workhouse, it was built in 1765-66 and became a geriatric hospital. It has now been converted to residential use. Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. eldest brother of US President John F. Kennedy, was killed when his aircraft exploded around 1 mile south of the village during World War II. Kennedy and Lieutenant Wilford John Willy were piloting a BQ-8 "robot" aircraft for the U. S. Navy's first mission in Operation Aphrodite; the milestone alongside the A12 shows that the village is 30 miles north of Ipswich and 24 miles south of Great Yarmouth. Standing beside the road, the White Hart Inn owned by Southwold-based Adnams Brewery, dates from the 16th century and is known for its Dutch gable ends to the building and beamed interior. Henham Park, the home of the Rous family, is within the parish, it is the site of the annual Latitude Festival.
The majority of the land to the south of the village is owned by the Blois family from Cockfield Hall. The parish includes Bulcamp to Hinton to the south-east; the village is noteworthy for the large area of flooded marshes around the estuary of the River Blyth. The river flows from west of Halesworth to the North Sea between Southwold and Walberswick, although it reached the sea at Dunwich. Southwold is reached by the A1095 road with views over the river and the adjacent Hen Reedbeds bird reserve. Blythburgh railway station linked the village to Southwold on the Southwold Railway; the railway was a 3 ft narrow gauge line which operated between 1879 and 1929. The parish church is dedicated to the Holy Trinity. Known as the Cathedral of the Marshes, Blythburgh was one of the earliest Christian sites in East Anglia and a church is believed to have been located here in the 7th century; the current church is a Grade I Listed building dating from the 15th centuries. On 4 August 1577 a ghostly black dog known as Black Shuck is said to have appeared at the church.
Blythburgh is mentioned in the song “Black Shuck”, from rock band The Darkness, from their album Permission To Land. The song centers around a local folk tale; the following people have been associated with Blythburgh. William Alwyn - composer Group Captain Kenneth Hubbard - H-bomb testing Dr Martin Shaw - hymn music Major Wood - brother Peter leased Herm, in the Channel Islands Jack Pritchard - Isokon designs Peter Harold Wright - World War II VC winner Sir John Seymour Lucas RA - portrait painter Ernest Crofts RA - military artist William Benner - Southwold Railway artist Sir Cyril English - educationalist Simon Loftus OBE - brewer and vintner Ralph Fiennes - actor Hugh Roberts, Mary Montague, & Barry Naylor. Holy Trinity, Blythburgh: Cathedral of the Marshes. Jarrold Publishing, 1999. History Notes — Blythburgh Society Alan Mackley, Mary Montague.'Blythburgh. A Suffolk Village'. Blythburgh Church and Jarrold Publishing, 2003. Alan Mackley, ed; the Restoration of Blythburgh Church 1881-1906. The Dispute between the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings and the Blythburgh Church Restoration Committee.
Boydell, 2017. Blythburgh Village — Suffolk County Council The Poaching Priors of Blythburgh — Blythburgh Society, 2002, Alan Mackley
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
Southwold is a small town and civil parish on the English North Sea coast in the East Suffolk district of Suffolk. It lies at the mouth of the River Blyth within the Suffolk Coast and Heaths Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the town is about 11 miles south of Lowestoft, 29 miles north-east of Ipswich and 97 miles north-east of London, within the parliamentary constituency of Suffolk Coastal. The "All Usual Residents" 2011 Census figure gives a total of 1,098 persons for the town; the 2012 Housing Report by the Southwold and Reydon Society concluded that 49 per cent of the dwellings in the town are used as second homes and let to holiday-makers. Southwold was mentioned in Domesday Book as a fishing port, after the "capricious River Blyth withdrew from Dunwich in 1328, bringing trade to Southwold in the 15th century", it received its town charter from Henry VII in 1489. Over the following centuries, however, a shingle bar built up across the harbour mouth, preventing the town from becoming a major Early Modern port: "The shingle at Southwold Harbour, the mouth of the Blyth, is shifting," William Whittaker observed in 1887.
Southwold was the home of a number of Puritan emigrants to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the 1630s, notably a party of 18 assembled under Rev. Young, which travelled in the Mary Ann in 1637. Richard Ibrook, born in Southwold and a former bailiff of the town, emigrated to Hingham, along with Rev. Peter Hobart, son of Edmund Hobart of Hingham, Norfolk. Rev. Hobart had been an assistant vicar of St Edmund's Church, after graduating from Magdalene College, Cambridge. Hobart married in daughter of his fellow Puritan Richard Ibrook; the migrants to Hingham were led by Robert Peck, vicar of St Andrew's Church in Hingham and a native of Beccles. A fire in 1659 devastated most of the town and damaged St Edmund's Church, whose original structure dated from the 12th century; the fire created a number of open spaces within the town. Today this "series of varied and delightful village greens" and the restriction of expansion by the surrounding marshes, have preserved the town's genteel appearance. On the green just above the beach, descriptively named Gun Hill, the six 18-pounder cannon commemorate the Battle of Sole Bay, fought in 1672 between English and French fleets on one side and the Dutch on the other.
The battle was bloody but indecisive and many bodies were washed ashore. Southwold Museum has a collection of mementos of the event, it has been said that these cannon were captured from the Scots at Culloden and given to the town by the Duke of Cumberland, who had landed at Southwold in October 1745 having been recalled from Europe to deal with the Jacobite threat, but they are much larger than those used by Charles Edward Stuart's army in that campaign. During World War I, it was thought that these cannon were one reason why this part of the coast was bombarded by the German Fleet as a "fortified coast". In World War II the cannon were prudently removed, reputedly buried for safety, returned to their former position after hostilities. On 15 May 1943 low-flying German fighter-bombers killed eleven people. Up to 1 April 2019, Southwold was part of the Southwold and Reydon electoral ward, in the Waveney District Council area; the population of this ward, taken at the 2011 census, was 3,680. Although the town lost its independent Municipal Borough status in the Local Government reforms of 1974 and consequent incorporation in Waveney District, it continues to have an elected, non-partisan Town Council and Mayor.
With the 1 April 2019 amalgamation of the Waveney and Suffolk Coastal district councils to form a new East Suffolk "super council", Southwold is now in an expanded ward with Reydon and Walberswick. Where once the Southwold and Reydon ward, under Waveney District, elected two councillors, the new Southwold ward will be represented at East Suffolk district by one councillor only. Although once home to a number of different industries, Southwold's economy nowadays is based on services, hotels, holiday accommodation and tourism. With the surrounding areas given over to agriculture, the town is an important commercial centre for the area, with a number of independent shops, cafés and restaurants. However, there has been a marked trend in recent years for retailing chains, including food and beverages and stationery shops, to take over independent retail premises. Adnams Brewery is located in Southwold, is the town's largest single employer. Although the fishing fleet and the industry is much diminished, Southwold Harbour remains one of the main fishing ports on the Suffolk coastline.
In 2012, additional facilities for the fleet were constructed there, as part of the repair and reinstatement of the Harbour's North Wall. Southwold Primary School, adjacent to St. Edmund's Church caters for children aged 2 to 11 years; as a member of the Yox Valley Partnership of Schools, it works in partnership with Yoxford and Peasenhall Primary School in Yoxford and Middleton Primary School, near Dunwich. Until it closed in 1990, the nearest secondary school for Southwold children was Reydon High School. Thereafter, most pupils were bused to either the Sir John Leman High School in Beccles or to Bungay High School; these schools have been joined by Beccles Free School, opened in 2012 and catering for pupils aged 11–16. Following a decision by Suffolk County Council on changes to free school transport, the default 11–16 secondary school for Southwold and Reydon stude
Domesday Book is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states: Then, at the midwinter, was the king in Gloucester with his council.... After this had the king a large meeting, deep consultation with his council, about this land. Sent he his men over all England into each shire, it was written in Medieval Latin, was abbreviated, included some vernacular native terms without Latin equivalents. The survey's main purpose was to determine what taxes had been owed during the reign of King Edward the Confessor, which allowed William to reassert the rights of the Crown and assess where power lay after a wholesale redistribution of land following the Norman conquest; the assessors' reckoning of a man's holdings and their values, as recorded in Domesday Book, was dispositive and without appeal. The name "Domesday Book" came into use in the 12th century; as Richard FitzNeal wrote in the Dialogus de Scaccario: for as the sentence of that strict and terrible last account cannot be evaded by any skilful subterfuge, so when this book is appealed to... its sentence cannot be quashed or set aside with impunity.
That is why we have called the book "the Book of Judgement"... because its decisions, like those of the Last Judgement, are unalterable. The manuscript is held at The National Archives at London. In 2011, the Open Domesday site made the manuscript available online; the book is an invaluable primary source for historical economists. No survey approaching the scope and extent of Domesday Book was attempted again in Britain until the 1873 Return of Owners of Land which presented the first complete, post-Domesday picture of the distribution of landed property in the British Isles. Domesday Book encompasses two independent works; these were "Little Domesday", "Great Domesday" No surveys were made of the City of London, Winchester, or some other towns due to their tax-exempt status. Most of Cumberland and Westmorland are missing. County Durham is missing; the omission of the other counties and towns is not explained, although in particular Cumberland and Westmorland had yet to be conquered. "Little Domesday" – so named because its format is physically smaller than its companion's – is the more detailed survey, down to numbers of livestock.
It may have represented the first attempt, resulting in a decision to avoid such level of detail in "Great Domesday". Both volumes are organised into a series of chapters listing the fees, held by a named tenant-in-chief of the king, namely religious institutions, Norman warrior magnates and a few Saxon thegns who had made peace with the Norman regime; some of the largest such magnates held several hundred fees, in a few cases in more than one county. For example, the chapter of the Domesday Book Devonshire section concerning Baldwin the Sheriff lists 176 holdings held in-chief by him. Only a few of the holdings of the large magnates were held in demesne, most having been subinfeudated to knights military followers of the tenant-in-chief which latter thus became their overlord; the fees listed within the chapter concerning a particular tenant-in-chief were ordered, but not in a systematic or rigorous fashion, by the Hundred Court under the jurisdiction of which they were situated, not by geographic location.
As a review of taxes owed, it was unpopular. Each county's list opened with the king's demesne lands, it should be borne in mind that under the feudal system the king was the only true "owner" of land in England, under his allodial title. He was thus the ultimate overlord and the greatest magnate could do no more than "hold" land from him as a tenant under one of the various contracts of feudal land tenure. Holdings of Bishops followed of the abbeys and religious houses of lay tenants-in-chief and lastly the king's serjeants, Saxon thegns who had survived the Conquest, all in hierarchical order. In some counties, one or more principal towns formed the subject of a separate section: in some the clamores were treated separately; this principle applies more to the larger volume: in the smaller one, the system is more confused, the execution less perfect. Domesday names a total of 13,418 places. Apart from the wholly rural portions, which constitute its bulk, Domesday contains entries of interest concerning most of t
River Blyth, Suffolk
The River Blyth is a river in east Suffolk, England. Its source is near Laxfield and it reaches a tidal estuary between Southwold and Walberswick on the North Sea coast; the course of the river passes through agricultural land between Laxfield and Halesworth, flowing through the estate of Heveningham Hall and the village of Walpole before being crossed by the A144 road and the East Suffolk Line to the south of Halesworth. East of Halesworth the river is canalised in places and has a clear flood plain with land being used as grazing marsh. At Blythburgh it is crossed by the A12 trunk road before entering the estuarine section of the river; the estuary mouth is still an active fishing harbour. The estuary is central to the plot of Peter Greenaway's film Drowning by Numbers, being the scene of the final drowning; the river can be crossed by pedestrians by a public footbridge called the Bailey Bridge about a mile upstream from the sea or by the Walberswick rowing boat ferry. The Blyth Navigation canal was opened in 1761 running 7 miles from Halesworth to the Blyth estuary, leading to the canalisation of the river east of Halesworth.
It was insolvent by 1884 due to attempts to reclaim saltings at Blythburgh, which resulted in the estuary silting up and due to the opening of the Southwold Railway in 1879. The navigation was used sporadically until 1911, was not formally abandoned until 1934; the river gives its name to the settlements of Blyford, indicating a important ford over the river, Blythburgh. The river's name itself comes from an Old English word blithe meaning "gentle or pleasant"
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate