The Wilderness Society (Australia)
The Wilderness Society is an Australian, community-based, not-for-profit non-governmental environmental advocacy organisation. Its vision is to transform Australia into a society that protects and connects with the world that sustains us. It is an organisation with a philosophy of non-violence and consensus decision-making. While the Wilderness Society is an unaligned group, it actively engages the community to lobby politicians. The Wilderness Society comprises a number of separately incorporated organisations and has Campaign Centres located in all Australian capital cities, the Wilderness Society was formed initially as the Tasmanian Wilderness Society and was basically a name change from the South West Tasmania Action Committee. Included in these were campaigns against the Tasmanian Hydro-Electric Commission s plans to build dams in many locations around Tasmania. The HEC had appeared to exert an influence over politicians and the community, justifying this stance as being in the best interest of Tasmania, specially regarding the fate of Lake Pedder.
To the TWS and many Australians, the Gordon and Franklin Rivers were seen as part of the South West Wilderness, the group was originally established in 1976 from the members of the Lake Pedder Action Committee and the Southwest Tasmania Action Committee. Along with the United Tasmania Group, they had protested against the flooding of Lake Pedder. The group already had established interstate branches as the South West Tasmania Action Committee, all but four of the twenty-three people attending the inaugural meeting of the Tasmanian Wilderness Society in 1976 were members of the United Tasmania Group. Following the success of the campaign against the Franklin Dam, Gunns claimed $3.5 million from the Wilderness Society, but in March 2009, Gunns was ordered to pay the Wilderness Society $350,000 in damages and to cease the action. The political response in most states of Australia is that there are now wilderness inventories, the concert featured performances from The John Butler Trio, Clare Bowditch and Missy Higgins, and a speech by former leader of the Australian Greens and former TWS director, Dr Bob Brown.
In November 2013 the Wilderness Society unveiled their Game Changer proposal, Game Changer acknowledged the changed role of the Wilderness Societys to protect nature across the country. Game Changer saw the Wilderness Society expand their work to include proactive and inclusive ways of defending and protecting nature, traditionally fundraising was performed through The Wilderness Society Shops. He was Australias first parliamentarian to be elected on an environmental platform, Bob Brown was elected to represent Tasmania and the Greens in the Senate in the Federal parliament. In November 2009 a group of members of the committee of the society held an AGM which has proved controversial. Advance notice of the AGM was given in a low circulation newspaper, the Tasmanian Supreme Court disallowed the election at the AGM in a ruling on 22 April 2010. On 30 June 2010, the 2009 AGM was finally re-held in Adelaide, members attending in person and by phone voted overwhelmingly to remove the previous Management Committee and appoint a new one
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water, small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the term river as applied to geographic features. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location, examples are run in parts of the United States, burn in Scotland and northeast England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always, Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the study of rivers while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Extraterrestrial rivers of liquid hydrocarbons have recently found on Titan. Channels may indicate past rivers on other planets, specifically outflow channels on Mars and rivers are theorised to exist on planets, a river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, and ends at a mouth or mouths.
The water in a river is confined to a channel. In larger rivers there is a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel. This distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred, especially in areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become greatly developed by housing. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i. e. against the direction of flow. Likewise, the term describes the direction towards the mouth of the river. The term left bank refers to the bank in the direction of flow. The river channel typically contains a stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water. Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide and they occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are similar to braided rivers and are quite rare
Barron River (Queensland)
The Barron River is located on the Atherton Tablelands inland from Cairns in northern Queensland, Australia. Over time, some of the Mitchell Rivers former headwaters were diverted by natural forces into the Barron and these include the Clohesy River and other tributaries that used to flow northwest to the Gulf of Carpentaria. With the extra water now flowing over the 260-metre -high Barron Falls, much of the water that used to flow over the falls has now been diverted in upstream dams and used to generate electricity at the Barron Gorge Hydroelectric Power Station. The Barrons headwaters start in the Mount Hypipamee National Park near Mount Hypipamee at an elevation of 1,200 metres, the river flows north 65 kilometres across the Atherton Tablelands before finally turning east after Mareeba towards Kuranda. After passing under the Kuranda Range Highways bridge and through Kuranda proper, it descends down the 260-metre -high Barron Falls, the Dinner Falls are located along the upper Barron River.
The rivers catchment area includes the tributaries flowing into Lake Tinaroo including Kauri, Mazlin, McLean, Peterson. It absorbs most of the tributaries on the Atherton Tableland, including Emerald Creek, Granite Creek. This includes Thomatis Creek, which has only connected to the Barron since 1932 and has been responsible for diverting part of the flow from the river. Freshwater Creek joins the Barron River below the Gorge and drains Lake Morris, before entering the Coral Sea, the rivers delta splits into three distributaries, the main river channel, Thomatis/Richters Creek and Redden Creek. During times of flooding two other distributaries operate – Barr Creek and Half Moon Creek, the river is the sole source of sand for the beaches to the north of Cairns. Sand and gravel extraction from the bed has supplied growing demand in the Cairns area. In the 1970s and 80s extraction rates reached 90,000 cubic metres per year and this has resulted in considerable beach erosion to the north. The rivers original Aboriginal name is Bibhoora, the river gained its current name in 1875 when two police sub-inspectors and Douglas, named it after Thomas Henry Bowman Barron, chief clerk of police in Brisbane.
The European discovery of the river was by James Venture Mulligan in 1874, Barron River gives its name to the electoral district of Barron River, a division of the Queensland Legislative Assembly formed in 1971. The lower reaches of the Barron River have a history of flooding dating from early last century. Tinaroo Falls Dams has little effect on the mitigation of floods, both agricultural and residential areas can be affected. A network of rainfall and river height field stations was established in 1995 to provide a warning system for the Cairns City Council. Heavy rain associated with an early in 1939 caused substantial flooding on the Barron River
A waterfall is a place where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of drops in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls occur where meltwater drops over the edge of an iceberg or ice shelf. Waterfalls are commonly formed in the course of a river. At these times the channel is narrow and deep. When the river courses over resistant bedrock, erosion happens slowly, as the watercourse increases its velocity at the edge of the waterfall, it plucks material from the riverbed. Whirlpools created in the turbulence as well as sand and stones carried by the increase the erosion capacity. This causes the waterfall to carve deeper into the bed and to recede upstream, often over time, the waterfall will recede back to form a canyon or gorge downstream as it recedes upstream, and it will carve deeper into the ridge above it. The rate of retreat for a waterfall can be as high as one, the outcropping, more resistant cap rock will collapse under pressure to add blocks of rock to the base of the waterfall.
Waterfalls normally form in an area due to erosion. After a long period of being formed, the water falling off the ledge will retreat. Eventually, as the pit grows deeper, the waterfall collapses to be replaced by a steeply sloping stretch of river bed, a river sometimes flows over a large step in the rocks that may have been formed by a fault line. Waterfalls can occur along the edge of a trough, where a stream or river flowing into a glacier continues to flow into a valley after the glacier has receded or melted. The large waterfalls in Yosemite Valley are examples of this phenomenon, another reason hanging valleys may form is where two rivers join and one is flowing faster than the other. Waterfalls can be grouped into ten classes based on the average volume of water present on the fall using a logarithmic scale. Class 10 waterfalls include Niagara Falls, Paulo Afonso Falls and Khone Falls, young Wrote Waterfalls and process this work made waterfalls a much more serious topic for research for modern Geoscientists.
Ledge waterfall, Water descends vertically over a cliff, maintaining partial contact with the bedrock. Block/Sheet. Classical, Ledge waterfalls where fall height is equal to stream width. Curtain, Ledge waterfalls which descend over a larger than the width of falling water stream
Gulf of Carpentaria
The Gulf of Carpentaria is a large, shallow sea enclosed on three sides by northern Australia and bounded on the north by the Arafura Sea. The northern boundary is defined as a line from Slade Point, Queensland in the northeast, to Cape Arnhem. At its mouth, the Gulf is 590 km wide, the north-south length exceeds 700 km. It covers a area of about 300,000 km². The general depth is between 55 and 66 metres and does not exceed 82 metres, the tidal range in the Gulf of Carpentaria is between two and three metres. The Gulf and adjacent Sahul Shelf were dry land at the peak of the last ice age 18,000 years ago when sea level was around 120 m below its present position. At that time a large, shallow lake occupied the centre of what is now the Gulf, the Gulf hosts a submerged coral reef province that was only recognised in 2004. The first known European explorer to visit the region was the Dutch Willem Janszoon in his 1605–6 voyage and his fellow countryman, Jan Carstenszoon, visited in 1623 and named the gulf in honour of Pieter de Carpentier, at that time the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.
Abel Tasman explored the coast in 1644, the region was explored and charted by Matthew Flinders in 1802 and 1803. The land bordering the Gulf is generally flat and low-lying, to the west is Arnhem Land, the Top End of the Northern Territory, and Groote Eylandt, the largest island in the Gulf. To the east is the Cape York Peninsula and Torres Strait which joins the Gulf to the Coral Sea, the area to the south is known as the Gulf Country. The climate is hot and humid with two seasons per year, the dry season lasts from about April until November and is characterized by very dry southeast to east winds, generated by migratory winter high pressure systems to the south. The wet season lasts from December to March, most of the years rainfall is compressed into these months, and during this period, many low-lying areas are flooded. The Gulf is prone to tropical cyclones during the period between November and April, the gulf experiences an average of three cyclones each year that are thought to transport sediments in a clockwise direction along the Gulfs coast.
In many other parts of Australia, there are dramatic climatic transitions over fairly short distances, in September and October the Morning Glory cloud appears in the Southern Gulf. The best vantage point to see this phenomenon is in the Burketown area shortly after dawn and it has been hypothesized that the Gulf experienced a major asteroid impact event in 536 A. D. The Gulf of Carpentaria is known to contain fringing reefs and isolated coral colonies, this has not always been the case. Their existence points to an earlier, late Quaternary phase of reef growth under cooler-climate
As its relatives, it enters freshwater, and there are records as far inland as Santarém and Lake Nicaragua. It reaches a length of up to 6.5 metres, recent evidence strongly suggests P. microdon is synonymous with P. pristis. Consequently, the IUCN removed P. perotteti from their list, considerable taxonomic confusion has surrounded this species. It is part of the Pristis pristis species complex, which includes P. microdon, P. microdon has sometimes been considered synonymous with P. perotteti, and uncertainty exists over what species the scientific name P. microdon really belong to. Additionally, the east Pacific population traditionally included in P. perotteti may represent a separate species, recent evidence strongly suggests the three are conspecific, as morphological and genetic differences are lacking. Three main clades based on NADH-2 genes were evident, but these do not match the distributions claimed for P. pristis, P. microdon, the large-tooth sawfish inhabits sandy or muddy bottoms of shallow coastal waters, river mouths and freshwater rivers and lakes.
Large adults can be found in fresh water and it feeds on benthic animals and small schooling species. The saw is used for grubbing and attacking prey as well as for defense, incidental commercial catch has likely been the most significant factor in the decline of sawfish populations in U. S. waters. Sawfish are extremely vulnerable to due to their entanglement in net gear, restricted habitat. Habitat degradation likely impacts the species given their inshore distribution, the largetooth sawfish is listed as a U. S. National Marine Fisheries Service Species of Concern. Species of Concern are those species about which the U. S. S, the WildEarth Guardians petitioned NMFS to list the largetooth sawfish under the ESA in April 2009. On July 29,2009 NMFS issued a positive 90-day finding that listing the species under the ESA may be warranted and this finding initiates a one-year status review process before an ESA listing might be proposed. Species Description of Pristis perotteti at www. shark-references. com
A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by not only suppress floods but provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture. Hydropower is often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity, a dam can be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams generally serve the purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, and before that, from Middle Dutch, the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, that is mentioned in 1120. The word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, so the word should be understood as dike from dug out earth. The names of more than 40 places from the Middle Dutch era such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam, early dam building took place in Mesopotamia and the Middle East.
Dams were used to control the level, for Mesopotamias weather affected the Tigris. The earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan,100 kilometres northeast of the capital Amman and this gravity dam featured an originally 9-metre-high and 1 m-wide stone wall, supported by a 50 m-wide earth rampart. The structure is dated to 3000 BC, the Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide. The structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a dam for flood control. During the Twelfth Dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III, two dams called Ha-Uar running east-west were built to retain water during the annual flood and release it to surrounding lands. The lake called Mer-wer or Lake Moeris covered 1,700 km2 and is today as Berkat Qaroun. One of the wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Repairs were carried out during various periods, most important around 750 BC and these extensive works were not actually finalized until 325 AD and allowed the irrigation of 25,000 acres.
By the mid-late 3rd century BC, an intricate water-management system within Dholavira in modern-day India was built, the system included 16 reservoirs and various channels for collecting water and storing it. Eflatun Pınar is a Hittite dam and spring temple near Konya and it is thought to be from the time of the Hittite empire between the 15th and 13th century BC
Far North Queensland
Far North Queensland, or Tropical North Queensland, is the northernmost part of the state of Queensland, Australia. Centered on the city of Cairns, the region north to the Torres Strait. The region has Australias only international border, with the independent nation of Papua New Guinea, the region is home to three World Heritage Sites, the Great Barrier Reef, the Wet Tropics of Queensland and Riversleigh Australias largest fossil mammal site. Far North Queensland lays claim to over 70 national parks, including Mount Bartle Frere with a peak of 1,622 metres it is the highest peak in both Northern Australia and Queensland. The Far North region is the region of Australia that is home to the two oldest continuous cultures on the planet, the Aboriginal Australians and the Torres Strait Islanders. Far North Queensland supports a significant agricultural sector, a number of significant mines and is home to Queenslands largest wind farm, various Government Departments and agencies have different definitions for the region.
The main population and administrative centre of the region is the city of Cairns, other key population centres include Cooktown, the Atherton Tableland, Weipa and the Torres Strait Islands. The region consists of many Aboriginal and farming groups, the north-eastern point of Highway 1 passes through the region in the city of Cairns and connects the southern running Bruce Highway to the western running Savannah Way. Highway 1 circumnavigates the continent at a length of approximately 14,500 kilometres and is second longest national highway in the world after the Pan-American Highway. Despite being Highway 1 not all sections of the Savannah Way are designated as a federally funded National Highway, significant industries include tourism, cattle grazing and mining of both sand and bauxite. Agricultural products generate between $600 and $700 million a year, sugar cane, tropical fruits including bananas, papaya and coffee are grown in Far North Queensland. The region is home to the worlds biggest silica mine at Cape Flattery, the mine was established in 1967 and was severely damaged by Cyclone Ita in 2014.
Rio Tinto Alcan operates a mine on the western coast of Cape York Peninsula near Weipa which contains one of the largest bauxite deposits in the world. The region supports a tourism industry and is considered a premier tourist destination in Australia. Nearly one third of visitors to the state come to the region. Major attractions around and in Cairns include The Reef Hotel Casino, Kuranda Scenic Railway, Barron Falls and localities attracting large numbers of tourists include Cape Tribulation, Port Douglas, Mission Beach and Cardwell. The Australian Bureau of Statistics estimates the population at 280,638 in 2014. The region contains 25. 6% of the states Indigenous population, or 28,909 people, Far North Queensland is the location of the first amber fossils to be found in Australia
A fish is any member of a group of animals that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish and cartilaginous, tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered obsolete or paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods, because in this manner the term fish is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification, the earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts, fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era, diversifying into a wide variety of forms.
Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor that protected them from predators, the first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods. Fish are abundant in most bodies of water and they can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams to the abyssal and even hadal depths of the deepest oceans. With 33,100 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any group of vertebrates. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide, especially as food and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean. They are caught by fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, fish do not represent a monophyletic group, and therefore the evolution of fish is not studied as a single event. Early fish from the record are represented by a group of small, jawless.
Jawless fish lineages are mostly extinct, an extant clade, the lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils, the diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like sea squirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways. The first ancestors of fish may have kept the form into adulthood. Fish are a group, that is, any clade containing all fish contains the tetrapods
A weir /ˈwɪər/ is a barrier across the horizontal width of the river that alters the flow characteristics of the water and usually results in a change in the vertical height of the river level. There are many designs of weir, but commonly water flows freely over the top of the weir crest before cascading down to a lower level, Weirs are commonly used to prevent flooding, measure discharge and help render rivers navigable. In some locations the terms dam and weir are synonymous, a dam is usually specifically designed to impound water behind a wall, whilst a weir is designed to alter the river flow characteristics. A common distinction between dams and weirs is that flows over the top of a weir or underneath it for at least some of its length. Accordingly the crest of a spillway on a large dam may therefore be referred to as a weir. Weirs can vary in size both horizontally and vertically, with the smallest being only a few inches in height whilst the largest may be hundreds of metres long, some common weir purposes are outlined below.
Weirs allow hydrologists and engineers a method of measuring the volumetric flow rate in small to medium-sized streams/rivers or in industrial discharge locations. Since the geometry of the top of the weir is known and all flows over the weir. However, this can only be achieved in locations where all water flows over the top of the weir crest, if these conditions are not met it can make flow measurement complicated, inaccurate or even impossible. The discharge calculation can be summarised as, Q = C L H n Where Q is flow rate of fluid C is the flow coefficent for the structure, Flow measurement weirs must be well maintained if they are to remain accurate. As weirs are a physical barrier they can impede the movement of fish and other animals up. This can have an effect of fish species that migrate as part of their breeding cycle. For example, weirs in the Great Lakes region have helped to prevent invasive Sea lamprey from colonising further upstream, mill ponds are created by a weir impounding water that flows over the structure.
The energy created by the change in height of the water can be used to power waterwheels and power mill, Weirs are commonly used to control the flow rates of rivers during periods of high discharge. Sluice gates can be altered to increase or decrease the volume of flowing downstream. Weirs of this purpose are commonly found upstream of towns and villages, by slowing the rate at which water moves downstream even slightly a disproportionate effect can be had on the likelihood of flooding. On larger rivers a weir can alter the characteristics of a river to the point that vessels are able to navigate areas previously inaccessible due to extreme currents or eddies. Many larger weirs will have built in that allow boats and river users to shoot the weir